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Article

John Bergsagel

(Schack Olufsen)

(b Brande, Jutland, April 9, 1893; d Copenhagen, Feb 17, 1949). Danish musicologist. After studying at the Royal Danish Conservatory of Music (1910–13), where he graduated as an organist, he was organist and choirmaster at the Luther Church (1914–24) and head of the music division of the Copenhagen Royal Library (1916–21). As a student he attended Hammerich's lectures in music history at Copenhagen University (there was no degree course in music history until 1915) and in 1917 he became the first MA in musicology in Denmark, graduating with a dissertation on the transition from Catholic to Protestant liturgy in Denmark in the 16th and 17th centuries. During his years at the Royal Library he began to study its large collection of Latin liturgical fragments on the basis of which he tried to reconstruct the Danish medieval liturgy and to provide a demonstration of Peter Wagner’s theory of the two traditions, Roman and Germanic, of Gregorian chant. He submitted this as a doctoral dissertation to the university in ...

Article

José López-Calo

(b Évora, Dec 27, 1917). Portuguese musicologist. He studied music at the Évora Seminary and in Rome at the Pontificio Istituto di Musica Sacra, where he obtained the licentiate in 1951. From 1940 he taught music and conducted the choir at the Évora Seminary; he also taught at the Centro de Estudios Gregorianos, Lisbon, where in 1966 he succeeded Mario Sampayo as conductor of the Polyphonia, a choir devoted to the interpretation of early music (particularly Portuguese). In 1974 he resigned from both posts. He was made canon of the Évora Cathedral Chapter, where he was active as mestre da capela, in 1957 and was granted the honorary doctorate by the University of Évora in 1988. He has contributed to the encyclopedia Verbo and to various national journals, and has taken part in many conferences, both national and international. His publications may be divided into three fields: transcriptions of Portuguese polyphonic music, catalogues of Portuguese musical archives, and diverse writings on the history of Portuguese music, particularly in the cathedrals. His transcriptions are always extremely accurate and faithful to the originals and, at the same time, practical for choral use. His catalogues, though seldom including musical incipits, are complete, detailed and clear, and form the greatest list of musical sources in Portugal....

Article

Jack Westrup

[Anglés, Higinio]

(b Maspujols, nr Tarragona, Jan 1, 1888; d Rome, Dec 8, 1969). Catalan priest and musicologist. From 1900 to 1912 he studied theology at the Seminario de Tarragona and was ordained in 1912. In 1913 he settled in Barcelona, where he studied harmony with José Cogul, harmony, counterpoint, fugue and organ with Vicente de Gibert, composition and folksong with José Barberá, and musicology with Felipe Pedrell. In 1917 he was appointed director of the music section of the Biblioteca de Catalunya in Barcelona. From 1923 to 1924 he studied with Willibald Gurlitt in Freiburg and with Friedrich Ludwig in Göttingen. In 1927 he was appointed professor at the Barcelona Conservatory, and in 1933 at the university. As a result of the Spanish Civil War he lived in Munich (1936–39). In 1941 he became a member of the Institut d’Estudis Catalans in Barcelona and in 1943 the first director of the Instituto Español de Musicología. At the same time he was elected a member of the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando in Madrid. In ...

Article

Teresa M. Gialdroni

(b Novara, Dec 5, 1940). Italian musicologist and liturgist. He studied the violin with Ricciardi (1948–59) and musicology, first in Cologne with Gustav Fellerer, Heinrich Hüschen and Marius Schneider, and later in Erlangen with Bruno Stäblein (1959–63). He obtained the doctorate in 1964 from Cologne University with a dissertation on Offertories in the Ambrosian liturgy. He was a Benedictine monk until 1996 and was Abbot at the Noci Abbey, Bari. He has taught theology in seminaries in Genoa (1976–7) and Novara (1979–80), history of liturgy and codicology at the Institute of Pastoral Liturgy in Padua (1973–81) and Gregorian chant and liturgical codicology at the Pontifical Institute of Sacred Music in Rome (1982–95), where he also became dean in 1988. He teaches the history of liturgy at the School of Musical Palaeography and Philology, University of Pavia, and liturgical codicology at the University of Cassino. His main fields of research are Gregorian chant, palaeography and musical semiology, liturgy and codicology....

Article

Katy Romanou

(b Athens, Greece, May 5, 1969). Greek musicologist specialising in Byzantine music, university professor, cantor, and choir conductor. Chaldaeakes studied theology at the University of Athens. Due to his musical talent and vast knowledge of church music, he was employed in 1992 in the newly established music department of the same university, to assist professor Gregorios Stathis, the first teacher of Byzantine music in the department. In 1998 he earned the PhD in musicology there, and in 1999 he was elected a faculty member of the music department.

He is a diligent and ingenious researcher, with over 150 publications in Greek and other languages on Byzantine and post-Byzantine music and musicians. His scientific competence is well represented in the voluminous collection of Stathis’ writings that he edited in 2001. Aiming at closer communication between Greek and Western musicologists, he has collaborated with musicologists in the USA, England, Austria, Denmark, and Russia. As of ...

Article

Watkins Shaw

(b Paddington, London, Nov 11, 1870; d Windsor, Dec 21, 1951). English editor, scholar and cathedral musician. He showed marked musical gifts at an early age and when he was only seven Joachim offered to take him as a pupil. However, he received a conventional education at Winchester College and Oriel College, Oxford. At Oxford he read theology though he found time to develop his musical interests and remained for a fourth year working towards a music degree. On leaving Oxford he studied for the church and was ordained in 1894. He served for a short time as assistant curate in Wandsworth, London (1894–7), during which he took the Oxford BMus (1896). After three years as minor canon and precentor of Bristol Cathedral from 1897, he moved in 1900 to St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, as a minor canon, in which capacity he remained for the rest of his life. In the years between the death of Walter Parratt and the appointment of Walford Davies (...

Article

Edith Gerson-Kiwi

revised by Israel J. Katz

(b Filzburg, nr Libau [now Liepāja, Latvia], June 11, 1882; d Johannesburg, Aug 15, 1938). Jewish cantor and musicologist of Russian birth. Raised in a traditional German Jewish environment, he trained as a cantor in Libau; he also studied briefly at Königsberg (now Kaliningrad) where he met Eduard Birnbaum. Later he studied at the Stern Conservatory in Berlin and at the conservatory and university in Leipzig; his claim to have studied at both institutions with Kretzschmar (history), Zöllner (composition) and Jadassohn (harmony) remains unsubstantiated. He served as cantor at the Adat Jeshurun congregation, Leipzig (1902). From 1903 to 1905 he was a cantor at Regensburg and then after a year in Johannesburg he was persuaded by the president of the Zionist movement, David Wolffsohn, to emigrate to Jerusalem, where he lived from 1906 to 1921. These were decisive years for Idelsohn's research into the diverse musical traditions of the Sephardi and ‘Oriental’ Jewish communities and Muslim and Christian sects. Although his plans in ...

Article

Lucy Durán

revised by Gregory F. Barz

(b London, June 4, 1889; d St Albans, April 12, 1980). English ethnomusicologist, missionary and theologian. He studied theology at Oxford (BA 1921, MA 1928) and took an education diploma in London. From 1923 he worked as a missionary in Africa, for over 20 years (1929–50) as principal of St Mark’s College, Mapanza, Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia). On returning to England in 1952 he was appointed a lecturer in African music at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, a post he held until his retirement in 1966. He was awarded the Oxford DLitt in 1961. His main areas of study were African music and the xylophone; he also edited collections of hymns for schools in Africa. The dominant (and most controversial) theme of Jones’s research was his contention that the similarities between the African and Indonesian xylophone indicate cultural diffusion between Indonesia and Africa. He pointed out significant similarities between scales, tunings, construction, musical forms and other stylistic features; and on the basis of this and other evidence he proposed the theory that at some time in the early Christian era parts of Africa were colonized by peoples of Indonesia. He has been criticized for the selection and analysis of his evidence, as well as for his view (in opposition to historical evidence) that the xylophone was introduced to Africa from Indonesia. His final work (...

Article

Nicoletta Demetriou

(b Lefkonoiko, May 5, 1904; d Nicosia, May 10, 2004). Cypriot church cantor, Byzantine music scholar, and folk song collector and singer. He studied Byzantine music with Stylianos Hourmouzios in Nicosia (1921–4). He continued his studies in Byzantine music with Ioannis Sakellarides and Spyros Kapsaskis at the National Conservatoire of Athens, where he also studied Western music (1933–4). In 1935 he was appointed chief cantor (protopsaltis) at Agios Ioannis, the archiepiscopal cathedral in Nicosia, where he remained until the end of his life. In 1934 he became the first person to make commercial recordings of Cypriot folk songs. The ten songs he recorded were issued by HMV in Athens. In 1951 he published Kypriaki Laïki Mousa (Cypriot Popular Muse), the largest collection of Cypriot folk songs up to that time, which contained 83 transcriptions in both Byzantine and staff notation.

As a Byzantine music scholar he published 13 books, which covered different aspects of liturgical chanting. He was also the founder of a Byzantine music school in Nicosia (...

Article

Eleanor Selfridge-Field

(b Turrida di Sedegliano, Sept 19, 1945; d Udine, Sept 17, 1997). Italian priest, conductor and musicologist. After a career as a schoolteacher in Codroipo (1970–73) and Udine (1973–80), he gained degrees in theology at the Lateran Pontifical University, Rome (1981) and musicology at Padua University (1986) under Bonfacio Giacomo Baroffio and Giulio Cattin. He then served as maestro di cappella at Udine Cathedral (1980–92) and began teaching choral conducting at Jacopo Tomadini Conservatory, Udine, in 1981. His interests spanned a wide range of sacred and secular repertories, in particular liturgical music in his native province of Friuli, elements of which he attempted to trace back to early Judeo-Christian practices in 1st-century Alexandria. Cognizant of continuing archaeological research on its 4th-century cathedral, he posited Aquileia and its divergent (i.e., non-Roman) musico-liturgical and iconographical practices with a significant role in the preservation of remnants of more ancient (possibly pre-Christian Essene) practices. Among these divergences was the celebration of Pentecost as the paramount feast of the Christian year. Some evidence for his views came from surviving music by Mainerio and transcripts of 16th- and 17th-century witchcraft trials....

Article

Katy Romanou

[ConstantinosConstantine](Alexandros)

(b Constantinople [Istanbul], May 19, 1866 or 1874; d Athens, July 9, 1949). Greek musicologist, music teacher, cantor, and composer. He was crucial in organizing a systematic teaching of Byzantine music in Greece and in establishing a uniform repertory and mode of interpretation in all church rites. After studying philology and theology in Constantinople and serving there as a cantor and a music teacher, he moved to Athens in 1904 to organize a course of Byzantine music in the Conservatory of Athens, an institution fully adapted to German and French music education. Through his articles (mainly in the music periodicals Phorminx (1901–10) and his own Nea [New] Phorminx (1921–2)), his lectures, and the performances he gave with his students, he was successful in changing prevailing ideas and practices, spreading the concept of the importance of preserving the ‘original’ sources.

The influence of equal temperament over Byzantine music performance was another concern of his. He organized concerts with the string professors of the Conservatory instructing them to use unorthodox tunings. In collaboration with the mathematician Stavros Vrachamis he designed, for teaching purposes, a keyboard of 42 keys in each octave, capable of producing all scales of the Byzantine echoi. An organ and a few harmoniums were constructed in 1924 in G.F. Steinmeyer’s factory in Oettingen in Germany; they were funded by his student Eva Palmer-Sikelianos, the American wife of the poet Angelos Sikelianos. Psachos gave the instruments her name (...

Article

Julian Herbage

[Alexander] (Thomas Parke)

(b Southsea, June 3, 1892; d Midhurst, Jan 18, 1982). English writer on music. He was educated at Bradfield College and the RAM (1910–13), where he studied chiefly the organ, harmony and composition, and was organist and choirmaster at Frensham parish church and briefly at Farnham. During World War I he served in India, Egypt and Palestine. In 1919 he was appointed music lecturer to London County Council evening institutes. In 1920 he joined the Gramophone Company's educational staff, first as a lecturer and later as its head. In 1930 he entered the Collegio Beda, Rome; he was ordained priest in 1934 and held an appointment at Westminster Cathedral. Though he returned to professional life in 1938 his experiences of Catholic church music, particularly Gregorian plainchant, led him to write a number of books on the subject. In 1940 he joined the Gramophone Department of the BBC, and after the war was appointed chief producer of music talks on the Home and Third Programmes. He developed a highly individual manner as a broadcaster and gave many illustrated talks, which he continued even after his retirement from the BBC in ...

Article

(b Shoah, Ethiopia, 1949). Ethiopian singer, church musician, and liturgical scholar, naturalized American. Seyoum began studying music at the age of eight and attended various religious schools in his homeland. As he grew older, he began to learn new types of performance, including the Bethlehem style of singing, Christian chant, and sacred dance. At 17 years of age, he was already named a quanygeta, or “leader of the right hand side,” an important position among Ethiopian church musicians (also called dabrata). He quickly rose from deacon to marigeta, the leader of the musicians. He spent ten years in Greece learning more about liturgical practices and then came to the United States in 1982. Seyoum settled in Alexandria, Virgina, and joined the Debre Selam Kidist Mariam Church in Washington, DC. He became a leader there, and his remarkable musical skills have led to the preservation of many traditional elements of the Ethiopian Christian tradition in America. To codify and disseminate these practices, Seyoum released a six-CD set of liturgical materials. He has memorized the entirety of the Ethiopian Psalter (Dawit) and has intimate knowledge of other sacred books, such as the Ethiopian Hymnary. Seyoum is an expert of instrumental church practices, including those that are tied to the extremely complicated notational system from Ethiopia that includes more than 600 symbols. He is also the only living master of the prayer staff and its movements (an art called ...