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Article

Abing  

Jonathan P.J. Stock

[Hua Yanjun]

(b Wuxi, Jiangsu province, Aug 20, 1893 or Nov 3, 1898; d Dec 4, 1950). Chinese folk musician. The illegitimate or adopted son of Daoist priest and musician Hua Qinghe in the city of Wuxi, Hua Yanjun also became a Daoist musician, performing in ritual instrumental ensembles and mastering several instruments, including pipa four-string lute and erhu two-string fiddle.

With Hua Qinghe’s death in the mid-1920s, Hua Yanjun inherited a small amount of property. However, visits to local brothels resulted in his contraction of gonorrhoea, leading eventually to blindness. At about this time, Hua appears to have become an opium smoker. Unable now to take part in Daoist ensembles, Hua, under the name Abing, became a street musician, specializing in extemporized songs based on local news. He also performed pipa, erhu and the three-string lute sanxian. Abing has typically been described as the archetypal Chinese folk musician; following political and social trends in China, he has been portrayed at various times in articles, books, film and an eight-part TV series as working-class revolutionary, romantically inspired composer and Daoist musical craftsman....

Article

John Bergsagel

(Schack Olufsen)

(b Brande, Jutland, April 9, 1893; d Copenhagen, Feb 17, 1949). Danish musicologist. After studying at the Royal Danish Conservatory of Music (1910–13), where he graduated as an organist, he was organist and choirmaster at the Luther Church (1914–24) and head of the music division of the Copenhagen Royal Library (1916–21). As a student he attended Hammerich's lectures in music history at Copenhagen University (there was no degree course in music history until 1915) and in 1917 he became the first MA in musicology in Denmark, graduating with a dissertation on the transition from Catholic to Protestant liturgy in Denmark in the 16th and 17th centuries. During his years at the Royal Library he began to study its large collection of Latin liturgical fragments on the basis of which he tried to reconstruct the Danish medieval liturgy and to provide a demonstration of Peter Wagner’s theory of the two traditions, Roman and Germanic, of Gregorian chant. He submitted this as a doctoral dissertation to the university in ...

Article

Klemens Schnorr

(Johannes Clemens)

(b Sommersell [now Nieheim], Westphalia, April 17, 1904; d Berlin, Dec 21, 1997). German composer and organist. After studying with Wilhelm Schnippering at the Lehrerseminar (Büren), he studied church music in Münster with Werner Göhr and Fritz Volbach (1924–5). In 1925 he went to Berlin where he pursued further study with Alfred Sittard and Max Seiffert at the Akademie für Kirchen- und Schulmusik and attended Wilhelm Middelschulte’s organ masterclasses. He also studied Gregorian chant at the Benedictine abbeys of Gerleve and Beuron. In 1928 he became a lecturer at the Berlin Akademie, where in 1936 he was promoted to professor. After the war he was appointed to the post of ordinarius for Catholic church music at the Berlin Hochschule für Musik, where, for a time, he was also deputy director. He served as the organist at St Hedwig’s cathedral in Berlin from 1934 until its destruction in ...

Article

Stanley Webb

revised by Paul Hale

(Galpin)

(b Edenbridge, Dec 29, 1861; d Salisbury, Sept 11, 1947). English organist. One of the most able cathedral organists of his day, Alcock had the unique distinction of having played in Westminster Abbey at the coronation of three English kings: Edward VII, George V and George VI. After studying under Sullivan and Stainer, he was successively organist at the Chapel Royal, assistant to Sir Frederick Bridge at the Abbey, and then organist of Salisbury Cathedral for 30 years (from 1917 until his death). Much in demand as a recitalist, he was one of the famous ABC trio (Alcock, Thalben-Ball and G.D. Cunningham) who jointly opened the BBC Concert Hall organ in 1932. Two years later he oversaw the rebuilding, with minimal alteration, of the Salisbury ‘Father Willis’ organ at a time when many Willis organs were being completely revoiced. H.C. Colles wrote of ‘his finished technique, cleanness of phrasing and impeccable taste’; he made numerous recordings, many of which were reissued in the 1990s. He had considerable influence as a teacher at the RCM and composed a number of organ and choral works, now rarely performed. He was knighted in ...

Article

José López-Calo

(b Évora, Dec 27, 1917). Portuguese musicologist. He studied music at the Évora Seminary and in Rome at the Pontificio Istituto di Musica Sacra, where he obtained the licentiate in 1951. From 1940 he taught music and conducted the choir at the Évora Seminary; he also taught at the Centro de Estudios Gregorianos, Lisbon, where in 1966 he succeeded Mario Sampayo as conductor of the Polyphonia, a choir devoted to the interpretation of early music (particularly Portuguese). In 1974 he resigned from both posts. He was made canon of the Évora Cathedral Chapter, where he was active as mestre da capela, in 1957 and was granted the honorary doctorate by the University of Évora in 1988. He has contributed to the encyclopedia Verbo and to various national journals, and has taken part in many conferences, both national and international. His publications may be divided into three fields: transcriptions of Portuguese polyphonic music, catalogues of Portuguese musical archives, and diverse writings on the history of Portuguese music, particularly in the cathedrals. His transcriptions are always extremely accurate and faithful to the originals and, at the same time, practical for choral use. His catalogues, though seldom including musical incipits, are complete, detailed and clear, and form the greatest list of musical sources in Portugal....

Article

Guy Bourligueux

(b Astigarraga, Guipúzcoa, 1893; d Seville, Dec 7, 1970). Spanish composer and organist. He studied with Donostia and others in San Sebastián, with Otaño at the Comillas Seminary, and in Paris with Eugène Cools. In 1919 he was appointed maestro de capilla at Orense Cathedral and then organist at Seville Cathedral, where he became ...

Article

Peter Andreas Kjeldsberg

revised by Martin Anderson

(b Fredrikstad, April 29, 1872; d Oslo, Dec 24, 1932). Norwegian composer, conductor and organist. He studied with Peter Lindeman (organ) and Iver Holter (harmony, counterpoint and composition) at the Christiania Music and Organ School (1888–92), and was then a pupil of Reinecke (composition) and Ruthard (piano) at the Leipzig Conservatory (1892–4). Appointments as organist followed in Drammen (1895–1907) and Oslo (1907–32), where he served at the cathedral from 1916; his First Symphony was completed during a course of study in Berlin in 1897. He was one of those responsible for the foundation of the Norsk Komponistforening, of which he was president from 1921 to 1923. As a member of the Koralbokkomiteen (1922–6) he harmonized most of the melodies in the chorale book of the Norwegian Church, and he edited preludes to all of the chorales. He was active as a choir-conductor, leading the Håndverksangforening (...

Article

Jack Westrup

[Anglés, Higinio]

(b Maspujols, nr Tarragona, Jan 1, 1888; d Rome, Dec 8, 1969). Catalan priest and musicologist. From 1900 to 1912 he studied theology at the Seminario de Tarragona and was ordained in 1912. In 1913 he settled in Barcelona, where he studied harmony with José Cogul, harmony, counterpoint, fugue and organ with Vicente de Gibert, composition and folksong with José Barberá, and musicology with Felipe Pedrell. In 1917 he was appointed director of the music section of the Biblioteca de Catalunya in Barcelona. From 1923 to 1924 he studied with Willibald Gurlitt in Freiburg and with Friedrich Ludwig in Göttingen. In 1927 he was appointed professor at the Barcelona Conservatory, and in 1933 at the university. As a result of the Spanish Civil War he lived in Munich (1936–39). In 1941 he became a member of the Institut d’Estudis Catalans in Barcelona and in 1943 the first director of the Instituto Español de Musicología. At the same time he was elected a member of the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando in Madrid. In ...

Article

Bernard Rose

(Henry Wait)

(b Peterborough, June 15, 1898; d ? Olney, Bucks, June 26, 1994). English organist, conductor, composer and educationist. He was trained by Haydn Keeton, organist of Peterborough Cathedral, where he was assistant organist, 1915–16. He then studied at the Royal College of Music and Keble College, Oxford. He became successively assistant organist of Manchester Cathedral (1921–2) and organist of St Peter's, Eaton Square, London (1922–8); during the later period he studied at the RCM with Holst and Vaughan Williams. He took the Oxford DMus in 1929. From 1928 to 1933 he was organist of Exeter Cathedral. In 1933 he was appointed organist of Christ Church, Oxford, and remained there until he was appointed principal of the Royal Academy of Music in 1955, a post from which he retired in 1968. He was knighted in 1958. While organist of Exeter Cathedral he was also director of music to the University College of the Southwest and this experience stood him in good stead at Oxford, where he achieved success as a tutor and lecturer and – in succession to Hugh Allen – as conductor of the Bach Choir and the Orchestral Society....

Article

Teresa M. Gialdroni

(b Novara, Dec 5, 1940). Italian musicologist and liturgist. He studied the violin with Ricciardi (1948–59) and musicology, first in Cologne with Gustav Fellerer, Heinrich Hüschen and Marius Schneider, and later in Erlangen with Bruno Stäblein (1959–63). He obtained the doctorate in 1964 from Cologne University with a dissertation on Offertories in the Ambrosian liturgy. He was a Benedictine monk until 1996 and was Abbot at the Noci Abbey, Bari. He has taught theology in seminaries in Genoa (1976–7) and Novara (1979–80), history of liturgy and codicology at the Institute of Pastoral Liturgy in Padua (1973–81) and Gregorian chant and liturgical codicology at the Pontifical Institute of Sacred Music in Rome (1982–95), where he also became dean in 1988. He teaches the history of liturgy at the School of Musical Palaeography and Philology, University of Pavia, and liturgical codicology at the University of Cassino. His main fields of research are Gregorian chant, palaeography and musical semiology, liturgy and codicology....

Article

Vernon Gotwals

(b Westcliff, Essex, March 29, 1906; d Boston, March 10, 1977). American organist of English birth. He studied at the RAM in London. After touring the USA in 1929 as the soloist in an ensemble, he took up residence there in 1930 and became an American citizen in 1937, initially holding church and teaching positions before embracing a career as a recitalist, broadcaster and recording artist that did much to popularize the concert organ and organ music as well as the artist. From 1942 to 1958 he broadcast weekly solo programmes over a nationwide radio network. Originating in the Germanic (now Busch-Reisinger) Museum at Harvard University, these recitals on an Aeolian-Skinner ‘classic style’ organ brought the sound of organ mixtures, mutations and Baroque reeds, as well as the music itself, to many listeners for the first time. Biggs was meanwhile an indefatigable public performer. A product of both activities was the extensive series of recordings, made in the USA and in many European cities, including the ‘Historic Organs of England’, the ‘Mozart Organ Tour’ and the award-winning ‘The Glory of Gabrieli’, the Handel organ concertos (recorded at Great Packington), various Bach projects, and others with instrumental ensembles. Biggs published editions of early music and performed new works (by Hanson, Piston, Quincy Porter, Sowerby and others, with particular emphasis on those for organ and orchestra). His career was marked, then, by interest in organ music of all eras and in many kinds of organs most suitable to its interpretation, and by unfailing energy in performance. He played with most major American orchestras, and in ...

Article

William F. Coscarelli

(Joyce)

(b Wichita, KS, May 1941). American concert organist. At age five she started piano lessons and at age eleven, after hearing Alexander Schreiner play the Mormon Tabernacle organ, she began organ studies. Bish studied organ with Dorothy Addy, Era Wilder Peniston, Mildred Andrews, and Marie-Claire Alain, studied harpsichord with Gustav Leonhardt, and attended classes with Nadia Boulanger. In 1982 she began her own television series The Joy of Music, which continues to reach a vast worldwide audience every week. She also served as organist at the Coral Ridge Presbyterian Church in Fort Lauderdale, Florida for 20 years.

Bish has won several performance competitions and has been the recipient of prestigious awards. In 1963, while a student at the University of Oklahoma, she won the Mu Phi Epsilon student performance competition and later went on to be a national Mu Phi composition winner. In 1989 she was awarded the National Citation by the National Federation of Music Clubs of America. In ...

Article

Malcolm Turner

(b Wigan, Sept 15, 1890; d Aylesbury, May 24, 1979). English organist and educationist. He was a pupil of and assistant organist to Bairstow at Leeds (1907–12), and took the BMus (1908) and DMus (1914) degrees at Durham University, becoming a Fellow of the Royal College of Organists in 1909. His first important post, suborganist at Manchester Cathedral (1912–15), was interrupted by war service, after which he was organist at St Michael’s College, Tenbury (1919), and organist and choirmaster of Exeter Cathedral (1919–27). On Nicholson’s retirement from Westminster Abbey in 1928, Bullock succeeded him as organist and Master of the Choristers. In this post he was obliged to provide the music for several royal functions; for the coronation of King George VI (1937) he wrote the fanfares and conducted the choir and orchestra, in acknowledgment of which he was created CVO. He also provided all but one of the fanfares for the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II (...

Article

Vernon Gotwals

revised by Judi Caldwell

(b Bloomfield, NJ, March 2, 1865; d New York, Dec 8, 1936). American organist. A pupil of Samuel P. Warren, he became organist of First Presbyterian Church in Newark, New Jersey, in 1882. Later (c1890) he studied in Paris with Alexandre Guilmant, and in 1892 he became organist of Old First Presbyterian Church in New York. In 1899 he founded the Guilmant Organ School, apparently the first institution of its kind in the USA. As a teacher Carl advocated, in place of the older, rhythmically slack tradition, the “clean-cut playing of Guilmant.” As a recitalist throughout the USA and abroad and as a teacher of organists, Carl introduced an expanded repertory, a more brilliant technique, and a broader view of church music. The Guilmant Organ School trained hundreds of professional church musicians, many of whom became well known. Although not himself a composer, Carl edited at least ten volumes of organ music between ...

Article

Katy Romanou

(b Athens, Greece, May 5, 1969). Greek musicologist specialising in Byzantine music, university professor, cantor, and choir conductor. Chaldaeakes studied theology at the University of Athens. Due to his musical talent and vast knowledge of church music, he was employed in 1992 in the newly established music department of the same university, to assist professor Gregorios Stathis, the first teacher of Byzantine music in the department. In 1998 he earned the PhD in musicology there, and in 1999 he was elected a faculty member of the music department.

He is a diligent and ingenious researcher, with over 150 publications in Greek and other languages on Byzantine and post-Byzantine music and musicians. His scientific competence is well represented in the voluminous collection of Stathis’ writings that he edited in 2001. Aiming at closer communication between Greek and Western musicologists, he has collaborated with musicologists in the USA, England, Austria, Denmark, and Russia. As of ...

Article

Vernon Gotwals

(b Kankakee, IL, May 3, 1885; d Ann Arbor, MI, Feb 19, 1947). American organist. In Chicago he studied with Clarence Dickinson and was organist and music director of Hyde Park Presbyterian Church (1906–9). He studied abroad with Karl Straube in Leipzig (1909–10) and with Alexandre Guilmant in Paris (1910–11) and then returned to Chicago to become organist of Kenwood Church (1911–18). After a lengthy illness, probably tuberculosis, he served for two years (1920–21) as municipal organist in Denver. From 1924 until his death he was university organist and professor at the University of Michigan.

Christian toured extensively as a solo recitalist and a performer with leading American orchestras. At Michigan he taught many pupils who were later prominent. He gave frequent recitals on the large Skinner organ in Hill Auditorium in Ann Arbor and also arranged performances by visiting recitalists who enriched the musical scene and widened his students’ horizons. A reviewer in ...

Article

Vernon Gotwals

revised by Judi Caldwell

(b New Orleans, LA, March 15, 1912; d New Jersey, Sept 30, 1978). American organist. She began to study piano at the age of five and organ at ten, and at fourteen she became an organist at the Church of the Immaculate Conception in her native city. Her first public organ recital was at Christ Church there in 1933. Her early training was with William C. Webb. She studied in the summers of 1935 and 1936 and during the academic year 1937–8 with Palmer Christian at the University of Michigan and then in New York with Charles Courboin and in Paris with Marcel Dupré. She made her New York début in Calvary Church in 1938. In 1939 she became the first woman to give an organ recital in Cadet Chapel at West Point, where she later made a recording. In addition to making extensive concert tours, she taught at Oberlin Conservatory, at Westminster Choir College in Princeton, New Jersey, and in New York at Mannes College, the Dalcroze School, and the School of Sacred Music at Union Theological Seminary; she also taught at Hartwick College in Oneonta, New York. From ...

Article

Joseph Vella Bondin

(b Żejtun, April 1, 1876; d Lija, June 15, 1942). Maltese composer and church musician. Of the prominent Maltese composers, he was the only one who did not study abroad, his teachers being his musician father Orazio (1826–99) and, between 1892 and 1902, Paolino Vassallo. From childhood he was determined to make his living as a maestro di cappella, although his youthful musical experiences were mainly within the village philharmonic band founded by his father. His first related official employment came on 18 December 1899 with his appointment as organist of the parish church in Żejtun. The promulgation, on 22 November 1903, of Pope Pius X’s Motu proprio on liturgical music offered him the possibility to disseminate his own conforming compositions, firstly during the 1904 Passion Week rites in Żejtun. The initial non-observance of the new ecclesiastical directives by the traditional Bugeja and Nani cappelle earned him commissions from a spreading circle of prominent churches and, to be able to fulfil them, he founded his own ...

Article

Mel R. Wilhoit

(b Preston, CT, Feb 3, 1832; d South Orange, NJ, Dec 24, 1915). American composer and compiler of Sunday school and gospel hymnbooks. He was also a successful manufacturer of woodworking machinery as well as an inventor, receiving over 70 patents. He was well trained in music, and conducted the Norwich (CT) Harmonic Society from 1852 to 1854. In c1862 Doane began to compose melodies for Sunday school hymns, producing over 1000 tunes to texts by Fanny Crosby, and as many more to other authors’ texts. He also collaborated with Robert Lowry in compiling many popular Sunday school collections such as Silver Spray (1867), Songs of Devotion (1868), Pure Gold (1871), and Brightest and Best (1875). He was musical editor for The Baptist Hymnal (1883) and composed popular Christmas (“Santa Claus”) cantatas. His best-known tunes include those of the hymns “Jesus, keep me near the cross” (...

Article

William D. Gudger

revised by Klaus Kirchberg

(b Prieborn, nr Breslau [now Wrocław], Jan 31, 1891; d Goslar, April 25, 1971). German church musician and composer. He studied theology at the universities of Leipzig and Breslau, where he also took up music under Paul Hieschler and Hermann Lilge. In Berlin he then studied with Arthur Egidi; he also studied the harpsichord with Landowska and the organ with Schweitzer. In the early 1920s he was active in concerts devoted to the revival of old music. Drischner’s main position, from 1924 until the end of World War II, was at St Nicholas in Brieg (now Brzeg), where he was organist and Kantor. The Engler organ there was restored under his direction from 1926 to 1928. After the war he lived in Erfurt, Herrenberg and finally settled in Goslar in 1955. His published compositions are mainly sacred choral and organ music. The organ music in particular is based on older models, especially in the use of chorales. Much of the published sacred vocal music is intentionally simple; often the accompaniment may be played on the harmonium or piano in place of the organ....