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Article

Viorel Cosma and Owen Wright

[Demetrius]

(b Silişteni-Fălciu, Moldavia, Oct 26, 1673; dDmitrievka, Russia, Aug 21, 1723). Prince of Moldavia (1683, 1710–11), Romanian scholar, encyclopedist, composer, folklorist and theorist. He started his musical studies under Jeremia Cacavelas in Iaşi and continued them in Istanbul with Kemani Ahmed and Angeli. In the Ottoman capital he compiled a treatise on the theory of Turkish music which used an innovative system of musical notation based on the Arabic alphabet. At the end of this treatise, Edvar-i musiki (‘Textbook of music’), he added notations of some 350 instrumental pieces in the peşrev and semai forms, a few of them his own compositions. These notations provide an important comprehensive record of the late 17th-century Ottoman instrumental repertory.

Back in his country, as Prince of Moldavia (1710–11), he continued his ethnographic and folk music studies, recorded in Descriptio Moldaviae (1716). Appointed councillor to the Tsar of Russia, Peter I, Cantemir settled in Moscow. But he continued his musical activities, compiling (in Romanian) ...

Article

Lionel Sawkins

( fl 1740–60). French collector, possibly also a professional music copyist . His name is gold-stamped on the covers of 21 volumes containing full scores of 41 of Lalande's grands motets and smaller sacred works (vols.i–xx in F-V , Ms mus 216–35 and vol.xxi in Pn , Rés Vmb ms 16) and on two volumes of printed music in a private collection (see D. Herlin, Collection Musicale François Lang: Catalogue, Paris, 1993). The printed volumes are copies of cantatas by L.-N. Clérambault, published in 1714–26 and the Premier livre de sonates of J.-M. Leclair, the elder, published in 1723. If Cauvin was also the copyist as well as the owner of the Lalande volumes (which are watermarked 1742), his career extended as late as 1757, when the same hand is seen in the copy of Rameau's Les surprises de l'Amour ( F-Pn , Vm2 386), and in nine other volumes of the Decroix collection of Rameau's works. This hand is also seen in manuscripts (in ...

Article

Owain Edwards

(bap. London, July 18, 1680; d London, March 7, 1748). English violinist, composer and collector. His earliest compositions were songs and incidental music for the Lincoln’s Inn Fields Theatre, where he also played. In 1705 he was engaged to play in the orchestra at the new Queen’s Theatre in the Haymarket, where the following year the semi-opera The British Enchanters, or No Magick like Love, with music mostly by Corbett, had 11 performances. He was greatly admired as a solo performer, often being billed as the chief attraction at the benefit concerts of colleagues in London. He also appeared further afield: he played at Nottingham during race week (1707 and 1709) and at York during Assize week (1709). An instinctive showman, Corbett emphasized the unusual in his concerts and in his own compositions; the viola d’amore, archlute and mandolin made appearances at his benefit concerts (...

Article

Geoffrey Norris

(fl c1760–90). Russian folksong collector. All that is known of him is that his name, perhaps a pseudonym, is associated with one of the most valuable 18th-century folklore collections. There is evidence that he began fieldwork in one of the south-western regions of Siberia during the 1760s, for in 1768 P.A. Demidov, a wealthy writer who possibly commissioned the collection, sent one of the song texts, ‘obtained from the Siberian people’, to the historian G.F. Miller; however, the manuscript of 70 songs (now in RUS-SPsc ) was probably not completed until the 1780s. For many years Demidov owned the collection, but in 1802 or 1803 it was passed to F.P. Klyucharyov, director of the Moscow postal service, who in 1804 arranged for the publication of 26 of the song texts without music; a second edition (1818), containing 61 songs with music, was prepared on the instructions of N.P. Rumyantsev, who had acquired the manuscript in ...

Article

Watkins Shaw

revised by Robert Ford

(b Canterbury, bap. March 27, 1709; d Canterbury, Jan 5, 1798). English composer and music collector. A son of John Flackton, bricklayer and cathedral contractor, he was a chorister at Canterbury Cathedral under William Raylton from 1716 to 1725. During this time he was also apprenticed to Edward Burgess, bookseller, stationer and cathedral lay clerk. In the Kentish Post (December 1727) he announced his return from London and his setting up as a bookseller. He was joined in this business between 1747 and about 1767 by his brother John, a singer and horn player, in which latter connection John is said to be pictured in the painting reproduced as pl. xlix of Karl Geiringer’s Instruments in the History of Western Music (London, 1943, 3/1978); William Flackton’s song The Chace has a prominent horn part in its instrumental accompaniment. Between 1735 and 1752 Flackton was organist of St Mary of Charity, Faversham, where he presented an anthem of his composition at the installation of a new organ in ...

Article

Nicholas Temperley

(b London, Dec 26, 1716; d Cambridge, July 30, 1771). English music collector, poet and amateur musician. He was educated at Eton and Peterhouse, Cambridge. After touring Italy with Horace Walpole during the period 1739–41, he divided his time between London, Stoke Poges (where his mother had retired) and Cambridge, where he was first a fellow of Peterhouse and then of Pembroke College. As well as being one of the greatest poets of his time, Gray had a fine connoisseur’s taste in painting, architecture, natural history, and music. While in Italy he began to assemble a remarkable library of Italian music, largely consisting of operatic arias in score. He was especially fond of Pergolesi, but also admired older composers including Palestrina; he had no great love of Handel. He was an accomplished harpsichord player and kept Viscount Fitzwilliam’s instrument in his rooms at Peterhouse; later, perhaps under the influence of his friend ...

Article

Jamie C. Kassler

(d Glasgow, c1771). ?Scottish writer on the theory of music. From 1765 to 1770 he was associated with the University of Glasgow, for the chapel of which he compiled A Collection of Church-Music (Glasgow, 1766). In the same year he published by subscription the first part of a two-part treatise, the two parts together appearing as An Essay Towards a Rational System of Music (Glasgow, 1770, 2/1807). Although Holden summarised current knowledge about sound, including harmonic theory, sound perception, the co-vibration of partials and difference tones, he derived his principles for the practice of music from the ‘natural’ propensities of the human mind, consciousness and common sense. His Essay is thus the first systematic treatise on music founded upon Scottish commonsense philosophy.

J.C. Kassler: British Writings on Music, 1760–1830, 1 (diss., Columbia U., 1971), 107–89 J.C. Kassler: The Science of Music in Britain 1714–1830...

Article

Nicholas Temperley

(bap. Aldersgate, London, Feb 26, 1724; d London, April 15, 1764). English amateur musician. ‘In his younger days he was a great beau’, said Hawkins, who is the chief source of information about Immyns. ‘He had been guilty of some indiscretions, which proved an effectual bar to success in his profession, and reduced him to the necessity of becoming a clerk to an attorney in the city’. He cultivated music assiduously, playing the flute, viola da gamba and harpsichord, and had a ‘cracked counter-tenor voice’. As a member of the Academy of Ancient Music, and as a student and copyist to Pepusch, he became familiar with much old music, which he preferred to that of his own day. In 1741 he founded the Madrigal Society, which began as a small group of mechanics and tradesmen experienced in psalmody, meeting at a tavern in Fleet Street. Immyns was ‘both their president and instructor’, and in preparation for the meetings he copied out some 200 madrigals and canons: his MS survives at the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. The music was confined to madrigals and other old music, by such composers as Ruffo, Lassus, Marenzio, Vecchi and Gesualdo; the English madrigalists were also explored. Immyns copied seven Palestrina motets for the society's use. From these modest beginnings sprang what is now the oldest musical association in existence....

Article

Kerala J. Snyder

revised by Geoffrey Webber

(b Magdeburg, bap. March 17, 1664; d Wolfenbüttel, June 6, 1735). German music collector, singer and composer. The son of a brewer, he began his musical education with the Magdeburg Kantor Johann Scheffler, spent two years (1678–80) at the Thomasschule in Leipzig under Johann Schelle and continued his studies at the Johanneum in Hamburg. There he began his professional career as alto and later tenor soloist in the city's Kantorei, interrupted by a year at the university in Leipzig (1683–4). From 1686 to 1689 he worked as a tenor at the court in Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel; during this time he lived with the Kapellmeister Johann Theile, receiving lessons in composition from him and in singing from the two Italian castratos in residence at the court. He himself became Kapellmeister in 1689 to Duke Christian Albrecht of Schleswig-Holstein and moved to Gottorf Castle with his new bride, Magdalena Darnedden, daughter of a Brunswick brewer....

Article

(dGuatemala, 1765). Guatemalan composer, teacher and collector. He was appointed maestro de capilla of Guatemala City Cathedral on 7 March 1738, and served there until his death. His 28 extant compositions, which survive only in the Archivo Histórico Arquidiocesano ‘Francisco de Paula García Peláez’, Guatemala City, are mainly Spanish villancicos which reveal his interest in local colour and ethnic texts. There are also a few compositions in Latin, including a double-choir motet, Parce mihi, Domine. Most works are for two or four voices, some for as many as seven; all have instrumental accompaniment.

Quiros was also active as a teacher and collector of music. His pupils included his nephew Rafael Antonio Castellanos, who succeeded him as maestro de capilla in Guatemala. His interest in Italian music was encouraged by the Italian-born maestro de capilla of Mexico City, Ignacio Jerusalem, and he acquired works by several Italian composers of the period, including Galuppi, Leo, Pergolesi, Porpora and Vinci. He also collected music by contemporary Spanish composers such as Sebastián Durón, José Nebra and José de Torres y Martínez Bravo, and by composers from elsewhere in the New World, for example Manuel de Zumaya. Through his efforts, copies were made of 16th-century polyphonic music by Iberian composers such as Gaspar Fernandes and Pedro Bermúdez, and also of works by Palestrina and Victoria. The music collected and copied remains in the Archivo Histórico Arquidiocesano....

Article

Frank Kidson

revised by David Johnson

(b? Edinburgh, c1684; d ?London, after 1752). Scottish singer and folksong collector . His father was Daniel Thomson, one of the king's trumpeters for Scotland. He sang solos as a boy at a Musical Society concert in Edinburgh on St Cecilia's Day 1695. By 1722 he had settled in London, where he gave a benefit concert in February that year, including (according to Burney) a Scottish folksong as an encore.

Thomson published Orpheus Caledonius, a Collection of the Best Scotch Songs set to Musick (London, 1725), a lavishly produced volume dedicated to the Princess of Wales, with a subscription list of 300 notable people. It contains 50 Scottish folksongs, most of them taken from Allan Ramsay's Tea-table Miscellany (Edinburgh, 1723); the melodic ornaments and the figured bass accompaniments are Thomson's own. Hawkins described Thomson as ‘a tradesman’ and the collection as ‘injudicious and very incorrect’; it is true that some of the song texts are in crude, oral versions and that the figured basses have grammatical mistakes. In ...

Article

(b c1730; d London, 1794). English collector and editor. He was secretary of the Noblemen’s and Gentlemen’s Catch Club from its foundation in 1761 until his death. On inheriting the estate of Edmund Horne, a Captain of Marines, he changed his name to Warren-Horne.

He spent much of his life acquiring, copying and publishing music, both for the Catch Club and for his own benefit. He was responsible for the most complete collection of glees, canons, catches and madrigals published in the 18th century, which became known as ‘Warren’s Collection’ and was a standard source of such music for many years. In addition to hundreds of contemporary pieces it contained a number of older works. The Apollonian Harmony, probably also compiled by Warren, contained many 16th-century madrigals. His most ambitious effort, however, was a large anthology of Renaissance choral music in six volumes. 100 copies were projected in ...