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Article

Karol Berger

(b Genoa, c1600; d after 1640). Italian theorist. A Franciscan, he was chaplain and musician to Cardinal Franz von Dietrichstein, Prince-Bishop of Olomouc and governor of Moravia. Before 1629 he probably taught music at the seminary at St Oslowan and from 1629 at the newly established Loretan seminary at Nikolsburg (now Mikulov), the cardinal’s principal residence. He returned to Italy in 1632. His treatise Regulae contrapuncti excerptae ex operibus Zerlini et aliorum ad breviorem tyronum instructionem accommodate (St Oslowan, 1629/R), which in spite of its Latin title and dedicatory letter is written in Italian, was conceived as a textbook of counterpoint for his seminarians. It is an entirely unoriginal and conservative compendium of the most elementary rules concerning the use of consonances and dissonances, derived, according to the title, ‘from the works of Zarlino and others’.

ČSHS EitnerQ E. Bohn: Die musikalischen Handschriften des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts in der Stadtbibliothek zu Breslau...

Article

Colleen Reardon

(b c1580; d Siena, Jan 1642). Italian composer and theorist.

Agazzari’s parents were evidently of Sienese origin, and he himself settled in Siena as a boy and received his training there, perhaps from Francesco Bianciardi. He was organist at Siena Cathedral from 1597 to 1602, when he left to direct the music at the Collegio Germanico, Rome (1602–3). In 1604 he attended the celebrations marking the centenary of Siena’s Accademia degli Intronati. By 1606 he was maestro di cappella at the Seminario Romano, but returned to Siena in 1607 after being blacklisted by the Cappella Sistina. In the following years he was organist at Siena Cathedral on three different occasions: in 1609, 1611–17, and 1629–33; he also served for two short periods as music director at S Maria di Provenzano, Siena, 1617–19 and 1620–?1622. Not until February 1641 was he appointed maestro di cappella...

Article

Karl-Ernst Bergunder

revised by Peter Wollny

(b Grossfurra, Thuringia, Oct 25, 1643; d Gotha, Feb 20, 1676). German composer and writer. After initially going to school in his native town he was sent in 1656 to Eisenach for three years. There he attended the town school, the staff of which included Theodor Schuchardt, a highly respected teacher of music and Latin. From 1659 to 1662 Agricola studied for his school-leaving examination at the Gymnasium of Gotha; the headmaster there was Andreas Reyher, who was the co-author of the Gothaer Schulmethodus, an educational work which set an example for the teaching of music too. In 1662–3 Agricola studied philosophy at Leipzig University and from 1663 to 1668 theology and philosophy at Wittenberg, where he was awarded a master's degree by the faculty of philosophy. His four recorded scholarly essays dating from this period are lost. He had begun to learn the fundamentals of music during his school years, and he may also have been a pupil of the Kantor of the Thomaskirche, Leipzig, Sebastian Knüpfer. He continued his musical training at Wittenberg, completing the study of composition under the guidance of Italian musicians resident there. Returning to his native Thuringia he was able to turn his musical abilities to good use in the Kapelle of the Schwarzburg-Sondershausen court until in ...

Article

George J. Buelow

(b Mühlhausen, bap. June 12, 1651; d Mühlhausen, Dec 2, 1706). German composer, theorist, organist and poet, son of Johann Rudolf Ahle. He no doubt received his musical education from his father, whom he succeeded at the age of 23 as organist of St Blasius, Mühlhausen. Like his father he held the post until his death, and he was succeeded by the young Bach. Again like his father, he was elected to the town council. He was described on the title-page of his Sapphisches Ehrenlied (1680) as a bachelor of law, but it is not known where he studied. His education may well have included training in literary composition, for he distinguished himself as a poet and was made poet laureate by the Emperor Leopold I in 1680. His music, some of which is lost, is almost totally unknown. Much of it is scattered through his series of anecdotal novels, named after the Muses, which themselves deserve closer study. He clearly followed his father in his interest in writing songs, both sacred and secular, and his style in them seems to be even more popular and folklike. He also composed music for the church and for occasions such as weddings, anniversaries, celebrations of political events and ceremonies honouring distinguished visitors to Mühlhausen. Among his theoretical writings is his enlarged and copiously annotated edition of his father's singing manual. Here, as in his own treatises, among which the four ...

Article

H. Wiley Hitchcock

revised by Nicholas Temperley

(b Swanton Morley, Norfolk, bap. Jan 15, 1571; d Amsterdam, ?1622–3). English minister and psalmodist. He attended Cambridge University from 1586 to 1591, leaving without a degree. He was expatriated as a ‘Brownist’ in 1593 and settled in Amsterdam, where he became ‘teacher’ of the Ancient Separatist Church in 1596; in 1610 he founded an Independent church, becoming minister of it himself. He took the Calvinist position on predestination. He was the author of a number of controversial religious tracts, annotations, and translations of scripture. Many consider him one of the finest Hebrew scholars of his day. His Book of Psalmes: Englished both in Prose and Metre, with Annotations (Amsterdam, 1612, 4/1644; music ed. in ISAMm, xv, Brooklyn, NY, 1981) contains all 150 psalms in a new metrical version, together with prose translations and annotations. 48 are provided with monophonic tunes (six melodies are used twice and one three times). 21 of the 40 tunes are drawn from the Continental Reformed tradition, and 16 are from English sources (including three of the newer, short variety such as ...

Article

Monique Escudier

(b Krempe, Jan 27, 1602; d Brunsbüttel, May 29, 1672). German theologian, historian, poet and music theorist. After studying in Krempe and Hamburg he completed his studies at Leipzig University in 1624 and in the same year became Poet Laureate. Meanwhile in 1621 he had become tutor to the children of a wealthy Leipzig bookseller, Henning Gross. Disappointed at not being made a professor at the university, he became a pastor and from 1630 practised his vocation at Brunsbüttel; he was also assessor to the consistory at nearby Meldorf. He was in contact with the Dutch humanists Johannes Meursius and Daniel Heinsius. He devoted only one work to music, De veterum musica (Schleusingen, 1636). Its point of view is that of a moralist and erudite humanist, and it contains many references to Greek and Latin texts; it is divided into 29 short chapters. After studying the relationship of music to other sciences, Alard presented some rudiments of Greek theory. There follow ten chapters on the effects of music: when well employed it exorcises evil, demons and madness and inspires virtue and piety. Alard then denounced the corrupt music of his time and censured the intrusion of virtuosity and ornaments into religious music. He devoted the last chapter to the mythological or legendary inventors of musical instruments. In an appendix he included the Greek text of a treatise of ...

Article

Ennio Stipčević

[Giorgio ]

(b Split, 1603; d after 1619). Croatian theorist. He was a descendant of the Alberti-Matulić family, and his father Matija was an eminent Croatian writer. He studied music for a short time in Venice with Romano Michaeli and Martio Valinea, who, according to the title-page of Alberti's treatise, was ‘gentilhuomo d'Urbino, musico straordinario in San Marco’. Alberti was only 15 years old when he wrote his treatise, the Diologo per imparare con brevità à cantar canto figurato (Venice, 1619). It was published not long after he had completed his studies, and comprises 40 pages of basic hints on music for beginners keen to learn so that they could ‘con tanta liberta & sicurezza solfegiando … li magrigali’. It is the earliest Croatian treatise to have been printed as a book in its own right, and is a valuable source of the performing practice of early Baroque monody in Dalmatia....

Article

Robert Shay

(b Westminster, London, Jan 1648; d Oxford, Dec 14, 1710). English scholar, composer and music collector. He matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford (after early training in mathematics at Westminster School), in 1662, receiving the BA, MA and DD degrees in 1666, 1669 and 1682 respectively. He took holy orders and was assigned the rectorate at Wem, Shropshire, but chose to remain at Christ Church, becoming a canon in 1681 and dean (a unique position in Oxford as head of both college and cathedral) in 1689, also serving as vice-chancellor of the University of Oxford, 1692–5. He was a leader of the Oxford resistance to James II's Catholic advances, and under William III he became one of the chief defenders of High Church practices, publicly opposing both the comprehension of non-Anglicans and revisions to the prayer book. He was an industrious and practically minded scholar, producing books on logic, heraldry and architecture, designing a number of Oxford buildings, serving as draftsman and engraver for the Oxford Almanacks, and producing a sizable body of compositions for the English cathedral service. His account of Greek music survives in manuscript (...

Article

[Lione, Leo, Leon]

(b Chios, 1588; d Rome, Jan 19, 1669). Italian theologian and scholar of Greek origin. He went to Italy as a child and studied philosophy, theology, and classics in Rome at the Greek Catholic Collegio di S Atanasio from 1599 to 1610. After a period in Chios he studied medicine in Rome until 1616. Thereafter he was employed in the Vatican Library and was responsible for moving the Biblioteca Palatina from Heidelberg to Rome in 1622–3. In 1661 he succeeded Luca Holstenio as chief curator of the Vatican Library. He wrote extensively on a wide range of subjects including theology, Byzantine studies, classical antiquity, and Italian letters. He was a member of the Accademia degli Incogniti, which played an important role in early Venetian opera. He is significant for the history of music by virtue of his Drammaturgia … divisa in sette indici (Rome, 1666), a compendious and surprisingly accurate list of dramatic works of all kinds, including opera librettos, published in Italy; it also lists many unpublished works. A second, vastly enlarged and updated edition by Giovanni Cendoni, Apostolo Zeno, Giovanni degli Apostoli, and others unnamed (Venice, ...

Article

Ingo Schultz

revised by Howard Hotson

(b Ballersbach, nr Herborn, March 1588; d Gyulafehérvár [Weissenburg, Transylvania; [now Alba Julia, Romania], Nov 9, 1638). German theologian, encyclopedist and music theorist. From 1608 he taught at the Calvinist academy, Herborn, where J.A. Komenský was among his pupils. Following the disruptions of the Thirty Years War, he transferred to Gyulafehérvár in Transylvania in 1629–30. His liberal strand of Calvinist thought is reflected in his theological understanding of music: he tolerated secular music (both polyphonic and instrumental) alongside strictly regulated church music as long as it was committed to the spiritual purpose of all music. Classifying music among the mathematical disciplines, he treated it briefly in a series of mathematical textbooks and most extensively in his masterwork, the largest, most comprehensive and systematic encyclopedia assembled to that time (1630). Like that of most of the 37 disciplines handled in the work, his treatment of music is derivative, and its chief importance lies in its comprehensiveness, systematic presentation, wide distribution and easy accessibility within the encyclopedia as a whole. Like Erycius Puteanus and David Mostart, he favoured seven-syllable solmization series (...

Article

Craig H. Russell

revised by Monica Hall

[Carles y Amat, Joan]

(b Monistrol de Montserrat, c1572; d Monistrol de Montserrat, Feb 10, 1642). Catalan theorist, guitarist and physician. Biographical information about Amat is drawn mainly from research carried out in 1918 by José Vilar (Revista Ilustrada Jorba, 1925, and Pujol, 1950). Although baptismal records are missing, Vilar placed Amat’s birth at around 1572, and this date is confirmed by a letter included in some editions of Amat’s treatise, which states that Amat was 67 in 1639. Amat himself said that he was born in Monistrol, naming his parents as Joan Carles and Joanna Amat. Amat received the doctorate in medicine at the University of Valencia, probably in 1595, and may have spent some time in Lérida. In 1600 he married Mónica Ubach Casanovas; they had no children. He was made municipal physician at Monistrol in 1618, performed a similar function at the nearby monastery of Montserrat, and occupied several other municipal offices. At the time of his death he had just started a period as mayor....

Article

Lini Hübsch-Pfleger

[Spangenberg, Wolfhart]

(b Mansfeld, probably before 1570; d Buchenbach, nr Freiburg, before Oct 1636). German theologian and writer. The first two names of his pseudonym are equivalents of Wolfhart Spangenberg, his original name, and Andropediacus derives from the name of his birthplace. He was the son of Cyriac and grandson of Johann Spangenberg. His father having been obliged to leave his position as court preacher at Mansfeld in 1574 because he supported Matthias Flaccius's substantialist view of Original Sin, he spent his earliest years at, among other places, Strasbourg, from 1578, and Schlitz, near Fulda, from 1581 and came under his father's influence in theological and artistic matters. He matriculated at Tübingen University on 5 April 1586 and took the bachelor's degree in 1588 and master's degree in 1591. He too was an adherent of Flaccianism, which hindered his career as a theologian. In 1595 he followed his father to Strasbourg, where he gained citizenship and earned his living as a proofreader. In ...

Article

Josef-Horst Lederer

(b Cremona; d 1630). Italian theorist. He was a Franciscan tertiary and studied composition with Claudio Merulo. According to Lucchini, he was maestro di cappella at the Florentine court in 1622, but this cannot have been so, as Marco da Gagliano held the post at that time. In his treatise La Regola del contraponto, e della musical compositione (Milan, 1622) he was primarily concerned with strict counterpoint, basing his theory on mathematically established intervals from the speculative theory of harmony. In this way he appears as one of the closer adherents of Zarlino, together with Girolamo Diruta, Cerone, Artusi and Zacconi, but he defended the seconda pratica as the outcome of the prima pratica. He discussed – with continual references to Merulo – intervals, keys, imitation and composition in two and more parts, including double counterpoint. As practical illustrations the treatise presents two of Angleria’s own ricercares, and some canons and a ricercare by his friend G.P. Cima....

Article

(b Seville; fl 1628–33). Spanish writer. He was a member of the Trinitarian order in Seville. Between 1628 and 1633 he wrote several pseudo-historical works on local and religious topics as well as one pertaining to music: El psalterio de David: exortación, y virtudes de la música, y canto, para todo género de gentes, en particular para los eclesiásticos, y obligación que tienen de cantar, o rezar las divinas alabanzas con toda atención, y devoción (Jerez de la Frontera, 1632). This is a curious mixture of legend and history. The first part traces music from classical and biblical times up to and including the medieval period, the second treats of its various uses, not only religious but also military, social, educational and recreational. Arellano mingled ancient fable with contemporary anecdote and drew fanciful analogies between the realms of music and religion. His book is of particular interest as a compendium of the kind of material used in the traditional ‘praise of music’ (...

Article

Eleanor Selfridge-Field

(b Rimini, c1600; d Rimini, c1678). Italian composer and author. He was a priest and maestro di cappella of Rimini Cathedral. From 1649 he was librarian of the Biblioteca Gambalunghiana, Rimini. He wrote literary and historical works; all his music dates from his early years. He had some connection with the pseudonymous composer Accademico Bizzarro Capriccioso, to each of whose opp.1 and 2 (1620–21) he contributed a madrigal, one for two voices, the other for three. As a composer he is known mainly for three volumes of sacred music written mostly in a simple style suited to the needs of a provincial maestro di cappella: 14 eight-voice psalms with organ continuo, op.1, a book of four- and five-voice concertato masses, op.2 (incomplete), and four masses and two motets with organ continuo, op.3 (all Venice, 1623). The description ‘a tre voci variate’ of op.3 refers to an unusual arrangement of partbooks – one each for the highest, middle and lowest voices....

Article

Josef-Horst Lederer

(fl 1657). Italian theorist and ?composer. His treatise Regole di musica, divise in cinque trattati (Rome, 1657) indicates that in 1657 he was Predicatore in the Minori Osservanti – an order of strict Franciscans – in the province of Terra Lavoro. In some reference works he is mentioned as a composer of lute music, but there are no known compositions. The Regole di musica deals not only with music but with a range of other subjects as well, including astronomy and astrology. However, Avella’s theories and views failed to impress his contemporaries and fellow theorists: G.F. Beccatelli, for instance, in his Annotazioni (MS, I-Bc ) on the Regole, rightly accused Avella of ignorance of musical history in attributing the Guidonian Hand not only to Boethius but also to Plato and Aristotle, and in making Guido of Arezzo a contemporary of Pope Gregory I.

J.-H. Lederer: Lorenzo Penna und seine Kontrapunkttheorie...

Article

Randall H. Tollefsen

[Bannius, Joannes Albertus]

(b Haarlem, 1597 or 1598; d Haarlem, July 27, 1644). Dutch theorist and composer. He came from a patrician family, entered the priesthood in Haarlem and became a canon in 1628. As a musician he was entirely self-educated. He studied theoretical works from Pythagoras to Zarlino and, dissatisfied, turned to his prominent contemporaries – among them Constantijn Huygens, Mersenne, G.B. Doni and Descartes – for assistance. Although much is made of a song-writing competition between Ban and Antoine Boësset staged by Mersenne in 1640, in which it was a foregone conclusion that Boësset should win, Ban was unaffected by his loss (see Walker). In many of his letters he declared that music must be practised under strict and demonstrable rules and not left to individual arbitrary taste: it must not mask the natural delivery of a text but rather reinforce it. In this light his praise of, and familiarity with, contemporary Italian music is not remarkable; but it is typical of his ‘monodic approach’ that, although aware of the usefulness of modulation, he recognized neither the musical value nor the expressive power of dissonance....

Article

William S. May and Frans Wiering

[Tomaso]

(b Bologna, Sept 3, 1568; d Bologna, 1634). Italian composer, organist,theorist and writer. He was one of the most versatile figures in the Italian music of his day and is of particular interest as a theorist.

Banchieri entered the Olivetan order of Benedictine monks in 1587, officially becoming a novice and receiving the name Adriano in 1589; he completed his solemn vows in 1590. He was a pupil of Gioseffo Guami, under whom he certainly developed much of his skill as an organist and composer. During his first years as a monk he worked at various houses of his order: in 1592 he was at the monastery of SS Bartolomeo e Ponziano, Lucca, in 1593 at S Benedetto, Siena; in 1594 he returned to the vicinity of Bologna to the monastery of S Michele in Bosco, where in 1596 he assumed the duties of organist. From 1600 to 1604...

Article

[Caspar Bartholin Secundus ]

(b Copenhagen, Sept 10, 1655; d ?Copenhagen, June 11, 1738). Danish anatomist, doctor of medicine, and polymath. Scion of a famous family of doctors and natural philosophers, he began medical studies with his father in 1671 and three years later was appointed professor of philosophy by King Christian IV. He then travelled for several years, and working in Paris with the anatomist Joseph Guichard Duverney, he first described ‘Bartholin’s glands’ in a cow. Returning to Copenhagen, he took up medical practice and taught medicine and anatomy. In 1678 his father conferred on him the doctorate in medicine. Among his writings on various scientific subjects, in De tibiis veterum, et earum antiquo usu libri tres (Amsterdam, 1677, 1679) he discussed the wind instruments of antiquity. Like many of his publications this one was based mostly on previous authors’ work rather than first-hand research, but it was influential, for example being cited uncritically by Filippo Bonanni (...

Article

(b Ferrara, Feb 12, 1608; d Rome, Jan 13, 1685). Italian scholar. He was a Jesuit and spent much of his later life in Rome (for a summary of his life and works see DBI). One of his publications is an extensive work on acoustics, Del suono, de’ tremori armonici e dell’udito...