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Article

George J. Buelow

revised by Quentin Faulkner

(b Bindersleben, nr Erfurt, Jan 14, 1699; d Erfurt, July 5, 1762). German organist and scholar. His father, David, was a teacher and organist, and his mother was Dorothea Elisabetha, born Meuerin, from Tondorf. Adlung’s vivid record of his own life is found in the ‘Vorrede’, part ii of Musica mechanica organoedi (1768). His earliest musical training came from his father who, in 1711, sent his son to Erfurt to the St Andreas lower school. In 1713 he matriculated at the Erfurt Gymnasium, while living in the home of Christian Reichardt who taught him the organ and expanded his general musical knowledge. In 1723 he went to the university at Jena, where he pursued a wide range of subjects including philosophy, philology and theology. At the same time he studied the organ with Johann Nikolaus Bach. A friendship developed with Johann Gottfried Walther in Weimar, which enabled Adlung to borrow theoretical works on music. This enthusiasm for music theory led him to write several books on the subject while in Jena, most of which were later lost in a fire that destroyed his home in ...

Article

Sven Hansell

revised by Emilia Zanetti

(b ?Milan, c1692; d Milan, 1776). Italian theorist and composer. He was living in Holland in the mid-1730s but then moved to London, where he stayed for more than two decades and wrote his treatise L’Arte armonica: or, A Treatise on the Composition of Musick (1760). It was published in an anonymous English translation, which the Monthly Review found lacking in purity and elegance of style but intelligible and valuable for advanced students of music. In many respects it is an up-to-date and sophisticated presentation of theory, for instance in its use of Corelli’s op.5 no.1 to illustrate the transformation of chord progressions into melodies and counterpoint. About 1770 Antoniotto returned to Milan, where he gave Giovenale Sacchi his scheme for creating dissonances by sustaining chords until all the notes of the scale sound together. Fétis, the most important source of information on Antoniotto, reported that he died in Milan in ...

Article

Robert Stevenson

(b Lisbon, March 31, 1682; d Lisbon, Aug 9, 1772). Portuguese bibliographer. He matriculated in 1708 as a student of canon law at Coimbra University and on 2 July 1724 he was ordained a priest. On 4 November 1728 he became abad of the church of S Adrião at Cever in the diocese of Lamego. His life work was a four-volume bibliography of Portuguese authors, Bibliotheca lusitana, historica, critica, e cronologica (Lisbon, 1741–59/R), which is especially valuable to the music historian because he included 127 composers and theorists. Insofar as he could find them, he listed not only their published works but also their manuscripts, noting in which library they were located. Since he had access to the royal music library before its destruction in the Lisbon earthquake of 1755, he listed numerous works now lost. In vol.iv, pp.593–6, he indexed musicians under ‘Musica’, thus making it simple for later writers to plagiarize his musical entries. Foreign reference works still copy Vasconcellos's ...

Article

[Caspar Bartholin Secundus ]

(b Copenhagen, Sept 10, 1655; d ?Copenhagen, June 11, 1738). Danish anatomist, doctor of medicine, and polymath. Scion of a famous family of doctors and natural philosophers, he began medical studies with his father in 1671 and three years later was appointed professor of philosophy by King Christian IV. He then travelled for several years, and working in Paris with the anatomist Joseph Guichard Duverney, he first described ‘Bartholin’s glands’ in a cow. Returning to Copenhagen, he took up medical practice and taught medicine and anatomy. In 1678 his father conferred on him the doctorate in medicine. Among his writings on various scientific subjects, in De tibiis veterum, et earum antiquo usu libri tres (Amsterdam, 1677, 1679) he discussed the wind instruments of antiquity. Like many of his publications this one was based mostly on previous authors’ work rather than first-hand research, but it was influential, for example being cited uncritically by Filippo Bonanni (...

Article

(b Paris, 1689; d Paris, March 22, 1781). French dramatist and literary historian. A prolific writer of ballets, comedies, harlequinades and licentious tales disguised in the garb of classical antiquity, Beauchamps seems to have begun his career in 1714 when he wrote the words for the divertissement Le comte de Gabalis et les peuples élémentaires, performed at the Château de Sceaux (music by Bourgeois, lost). He continued along the same lines with the Ballet de la jeunesse, first performed at the Tuileries in 1718 (music by Matho and Alarius, mostly lost). The rest of his theatrical career was spent at the Théâtre Italien, where he had ten comedies produced between 1722 and 1731, three of which contained musical intermèdes. The Chefs d’oeuvre de M. Beauchamps (1787) contained only three works, all without intermèdes; another 11 plays, never performed, are listed in his Recherches sur les théâtres de France...

Article

John Walter Hill

(b Florence, Nov 8, 1679; d ?Prato, 1734). Italian theorist and composer. Beccatelli’s early musical studies were under Virgilio Cionchi and G.M. Casini in Florence. By order of Grand Duke Cosimo III, he was made maestro di cappella and organist of Prato Cathedral in 1704 where he remained until his death. Domenico Zipoli studied with Beccatelli at Prato from 1704 until his departure for Florence in 1707. Although he composed a quantity of church music, Beccatelli was best known as a speculative writer on music theory and its history. As one of the Florentine neo-Pythagoreans of the late Baroque (cf Nigetti and Casini), Beccatelli treated problems of temperament and relied heavily on mathematical reasoning; among other things, Beccatelli described equal temperament. Of particular interest is his contention that the 4th is a consonance (see Lustig). His supporting arguments include the construction of an hypothetical modo obbliquo in which all the intervals of the normal ...

Article

William Weber

(b Tiddenham, Glos., Sept 8, 1668; d Hoxton, London, Aug 13, 1745). English clergyman, scholar and writer. He held clerical positions in Bristol from 1693, in Newton St Loo, near Bath, from 1713, and at the Haberdashers’ Hospital, Hoxton, from 1724. He supposedly was chaplain to the first two dukes of Bedford, and in his later years to Frederick, Prince of Wales, but does not seem to have served actively in their households. He was a major figure in the campaign against the theatres, publishing The Evil and Danger of Stage Plays (Bristol, 1706) and a sermon (London, 1730) given in 1729 at St Botoph Aldgate, against the building of Goodman’s Fields Theatre. In doing so he and the Nonjuror Jeremy Collier (1650–1726) prepared the way for the Licensing Act of 1737 that instituted the first censorship of plays. He also exerted an important influence on writings on musical taste, especially on 16th-century music, or ‘ancient music’, as it became called around ...

Article

Jean-Paul Montagnier

(b Mantes-la-Jolie, 5/June 6, 1665; d Paris, July 6, 1734). French composer, harpsichordist, theorist and teacher. He probably learnt music in the maîtrise of the collegiate church of Notre Dame, Mantes, and in that of Evreux Cathedral. According to the Etat actuel de la Musique du Roi (1773) he then studied with Caldara in Rome. In 1692 Bernier was living in the rue Tiquetonne in Paris and was teaching the harpsichord. On 20 November 1693 he failed to win the post of maître de musique at Rouen Cathedral in competition with Jean-François Lalouette. He was appointed head of the maîtrise of Chartres Cathedral on 17 September 1694 and remained there until 18 March 1698, when he obtained a similar position at St Germain-l'Auxerrois, Paris. A Te Deum performed before the king at Fontainebleau on 24 October 1700 was very successful, and was sung again in several Parisian churches in ...

Article

(b nr Tours, 1711; d Paris, 1769). French theorist, composer and cellist. The Marquise de Villeroy was for a time his pupil and patron. He claimed the discovery of a third mode (‘mode mixte’) between major and minor, and his theories provoked controversy and criticism (from Daquin, La Borde and others); after the performance of his symphony in the newly discovered third mode, on 30 May 1751, Rousseau published a sympathetic comment in the Mercure de France (June 1751), and Blainville himself replied (November 1751 and May 1752) to objections such as those of J.A. Serre (January 1752).

In his L'esprit de l'art he discussed aspects of vocal composition and performance: recitative, ariette, the voice, accompaniment and expression. His last theoretical work, the Histoire générale et philologique (dedicated to the Duchesse de Villeroy) has a final section on harmonic theory, in which he tried to demonstrate that the method of ‘counterpoint’ (of Corelli, Lully and Campra) is preferable to that of the ...

Article

George J. Buelow

(b Immensen, nr Lehrte, Lower Saxony, March 1679; d Wolfenbüttel, Dec 7, 1751). German composer and theorist. He was a friend of and frequent correspondent with J.G. Walther, who published Bokemeyer’s autobiographical sketch in the Musicalisches Lexicon. From it we learn the few facts known of Bokemeyer’s life. He was first educated in his home town and also in the neighbouring village, Burghof. From 1693 to 1699 he studied at the church school of St Martin and St Katharina in Brunswick, and in 1702–4 was at the university in Helmstedt. On 2 April 1704 he returned to Brunswick as Kantor at St Martin. Bokemeyer began composition lessons in 1706 with Georg Oesterreich, Kapellmeister and Kantor to the ducal court of Braunschweig-Lüneburg. Between 1712 and 1717 Bokemeyer served as Kantor in Husum (Schleswig) where, he states, he learnt the ‘manner of singing alla siciliana’ from Kapellmeister Bartolomeo Bernhardi, who also asked Bokemeyer to sing some of his Italian cantatas in the presence of the King of Denmark. In ...

Article

Jamie C. Kassler

(b Rothbury, Northumberland, Nov 5, 1715; d Newcastle upon Tyne, Sept 23, 1766). English clergyman, writer and amateur musician. He was educated at Cambridge University and held several positions in the Church of England. His contribution to music historiography is contained in his Dissertation on the Rise, Union, and Power, the Progressions, Separations, and Corruptions, of Poetry and Music (London, 1763; Ger. trans. by J.J. Eschenburg, Leipzig, 1769; It. trans. by Oresbio Agieo, academic name of Francesco Corsetti, Florence, 1772). Proceeding on the assumption that music arose from the passions and principles of the human mind, Brown isolated 36 stages of musical history, from the early unity of gesture, voice and speech and its perfection as dance, melody and song in Greek society to the separation and degeneration of those arts in the 18th century. Thus, like Isaac Vossius (whom he cited with approval), he believed that music reached its perfection among the ancients and declined with the moderns....

Article

(b Berneck, Franconia, Oct 10, 1669; d Ansbach, Aug 26, 1745). German singer, composer and theorist. As a founder-member with Lorenz Mizler of the Leipzig Correspondierende Societät der Musicalischen Wissenschaften, he was accorded a detailed necrology in Mizler’s Neu eröffnete musicalische Bibliothek, iv (1745). This states that he was born near Bayreuth in Berneck, where his father served as Kantor before moving to Naila as a manager of mines. At ten, on the death of his father, Bümler was sent to Münchberg to become a student in the Lateinschule. When he was about 13 he joined the Bayreuth court as a chamber discantist, where he studied singing and keyboard instruments with Ruggiero Fedeli. During the next two decades his exceptional talent as a singer made possible an extensive career at Wolfenbüttel, Hamburg, Berlin, and back again at Bayreuth. In 1698 he was appointed chamber musician and solo alto at the court of Ansbach, where in ...

Article

(b Bindersleben, nr Erfurt, April 25, 1666; d Erfurt, Dec 1, 1727). German composer and theorist. He was one of four children of Johann Henricus Buttstett (d 25 Dec 1702), pastor in Bindersleben, who had been educated at the University of Erfurt. He received his early education in Bindersleben, and at the age of 15 was sent to the Erfurt Ratsschule. As early as 1678 he began to study with Johann Pachelbel, organist at the Erfurt Predigerkirche. Buttstett's first appointment as organist was in 1684 at the Reglerkirche, where he also taught in the church school. In 1687 he held positions as organist and Latin teacher at the Kaufmannskirche and school, and in July of that year he married Martha Lämmerhirt of Erfurt, a distant cousin of J.S. Bach's mother. Their marriage produced ten children between 1688 and 1704, among whom was Johann Samuel, probably the father of Franz Vollrath Buttstett. In ...

Article

Walter W. Schurr

revised by Patrizio Barbieri

(b Venice, 1656; d Venice, Nov 12, 1742). Italian composer and theorist. He took his vows as a Franciscan at the convent of Palma del Friuli in Venice, and earned the bachelor's degree at the Franciscan seminary in Assisi; he then studied counterpoint with Lotti. On 1 September 1700 he was elected maestro di cappella of S Francesco in Bologna. He later held the same position at S Maria Gloriosa dei Frari in Venice from 1701 to 1703, and at the basilica of S Antonio in Padua from 3 May 1703 until 5 April 1727. He exchanged posts with Giuseppe Antonio Rinaldi, maestro di cappella at the Frari (1715–27), and thus returned to the Frari to spend his last years. During his lifetime Calegari was well known for his music and his extensive knowledge of music theory. Benedetto Marcello sent Calegari his psalms Estro poetico-armonico and his ...

Article

Philippe Vendrix

(b Rouen, c1685; d Paris, Oct 21, 1747). French musician, composer and theorist. In 1704 he succeeded Maltot as guitarist and theorbo player in the orchestra of the Académie Royale de Musique. He held this position until 1719, also teaching the guitar and theorbo in Paris. He seems to have moved in the circle of the Duke of Noailles. In 1731 he stayed in England for six months; he may have been a descendant of Thomas Campion. Thereafter his works are evidence that he was still active in Paris. On his death, his nephew respected his wishes by placing a copy of his Nouvelles découvertes (1705) and some manuscript pieces in the royal library. His inventory of 12 February 1748 shows that he owned a large collection of instruments.

Campion was well known as a composer before he turned to writing theoretical and polemical works. He composed several pieces for five-course guitar; although he provided the instrument with a new repertory, he unwittingly left it obscured by complex tablatures that make use of up to eight different tunings. His ...

Article

Viorel Cosma and Owen Wright

[Demetrius]

(b Silişteni-Fălciu, Moldavia, Oct 26, 1673; dDmitrievka, Russia, Aug 21, 1723). Prince of Moldavia (1683, 1710–11), Romanian scholar, encyclopedist, composer, folklorist and theorist. He started his musical studies under Jeremia Cacavelas in Iaşi and continued them in Istanbul with Kemani Ahmed and Angeli. In the Ottoman capital he compiled a treatise on the theory of Turkish music which used an innovative system of musical notation based on the Arabic alphabet. At the end of this treatise, Edvar-i musiki (‘Textbook of music’), he added notations of some 350 instrumental pieces in the peşrev and semai forms, a few of them his own compositions. These notations provide an important comprehensive record of the late 17th-century Ottoman instrumental repertory.

Back in his country, as Prince of Moldavia (1710–11), he continued his ethnographic and folk music studies, recorded in Descriptio Moldaviae (1716). Appointed councillor to the Tsar of Russia, Peter I, Cantemir settled in Moscow. But he continued his musical activities, compiling (in Romanian) ...

Article

Albert Cohen

revised by Philippe Vendrix

(b Montpellier, Nov 5, 1688; d Paris, Jan 19, 1757). French mathematician, physicist, journalist and theorist. According to Schier his birthdate was not 11 November as stated in the Journal de Trévoux. He joined the Jesuit order on 16 October 1703 at Toulouse, where he first undertook humanistic studies and later concentrated on mathematics and philosophy. After assuming teaching responsibilities for the order in Toulouse (1707), Clermont (1711), Aubelas (1714), Pamiers (1716) and Cahors (1719), he was sent in 1720 to the Jesuit school in Paris, where he taught physics, mathematics, mechanics, architecture and military science. He held this post for the rest of his life. From the time of his arrival in Paris he contributed articles and criticisms to the Mercure de France and the Journal de Trévoux on a wide variety of subjects, including music, where his criticisms of the theories and works of Rameau are of note....

Article

Siegfried Gmeinwieser

(b Siena, Jan 19, 1679; d Rome, Sept 4, 1759). Italian composer and music theorist. He first studied under G.O. Cini and T. Redi in Siena. In 1713 he went to Rome, where B. Gaffi and above all G.O. Pitoni were his teachers. In 1717 he referred to himself as Maestro eletto all'Orfanelli, i.e. of S Maria in Aquiro. In 1726 he took over the direction of music at S Giovanni in Laterano, a position he held until his death. As a member of the Congregazione dei Musici di S Cecilia in Rome, he was several times Guardiano della sezione dei maestri. From 1745 onwards, he carried on an extensive correspondence with Padre Martini in Bologna.

Chiti wrote in a mixed style characteristic of the Roman school, using not only strict imitation, but also homophonic note-against-note writing and a concertato manner. His masses and psalms are primarily contrapuntal; the psalm tone emerges more strongly here. In his polychoral works Chiti included passages for few voices, combining the polychoral and concertato principles. In his duets he preferred to compose according to the more modern Affect principle, using a descriptive, expressive style. He held a somewhat special place in the Roman school because he occasionally used accompanying instruments in addition to continuo. The older masters that Chiti took as his models were principally Palestrina, Benevoli and Pitoni....

Article

Nicholas Temperley and Simon Heighes

(b Norwich, July 5, 1775; d Taunton, Dec 29, 1847). English composer, organist, theorist and painter. He was an exceptional child prodigy and became one of the most distinguished English musicians of his day.

Crotch was the youngest son of Michael Crotch, a master carpenter, and his wife Isabella. At the age of about 18 months he began to pick out tunes on a small house organ which his father had built, and soon after his second birthday he had taught himself to play God Save the King with the bass. He played to a large company at Norwich in February 1778, and that summer his mother began taking him on a series of tours in which his phenomenal gifts were exploited. They went first to Cambridge and other main towns in East Anglia, then to Oxford and London, where on 10 December 1778 Daines Barrington heard him play tunes ‘almost throughout with chords’. On ...

Article

David Fuller

(d after 1727). French theorist. Nothing is known of his life beyond the two addresses in Paris given in the titles of the two editions of his treatise: rue St Honoré and rue des Poulies. He is said to have signed the action of 1750 taken by the ‘harmonists’ (organists and composers) against Guignon and the corporation of popular musicians known as the menestrandise, but if we assume that the first edition of his Traité d'accompagnement pour le théorbe et le clavessin (Paris, 1690/R; Eng. trans., 1991) was published after his 20th year, he would have been at least 80 at the time of signing. Perhaps there was a son of the same name. The title of Delair's treatise goes on to claim that it ‘includes all the rules necessary for accompanying on the two instruments, with special observations on the different approaches they require. It teaches also how to accompany unfigured basses’. A second edition, ...