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Malcolm Gillies

(b Nagyszentmiklós, Hungary [now Sînnicolau Mare, Romania], March 25, 1881; d New York, Sept 26, 1945). Hungarian composer, ethnomusicologist and pianist. Although he earned his living mainly from teaching and playing the piano and was a relentless collector and analyst of folk music, Bartók is recognized today principally as a composer. His mature works were, however, highly influenced by his ethnomusicological studies, particularly those of Hungarian, Romanian and Slovak peasant musics. Throughout his life he was also receptive to a wide variety of Western musical influences, both contemporary (notably Debussy, Stravinsky, Schoenberg) and historic; he acknowledged a change from a more Beethovenian to a more Bachian aesthetic stance in his works from 1926 onwards. He is now considered, along with Liszt, to be his country’s greatest composer, and, with Kodály and Dohnányi, a founding figure of 20th-century Hungarian musical culture.

At the time of Bartók’s birth, Nagyszentmiklós was part of the northern end of the ethnically diverse southern Hungarian province of Torontál. There, his father, also Béla Bartók (...

Article

Ned Quist

revised by Linda L. Giedl

[Schlossberg, Artur ]

(b Hamm, Germany, Sept 27, 1909; d Aurora, CO, May 28, 2002). Composer, musicologist, conductor, and pianist of German birth; naturalized American. Born Artur Schlossberg, he grew up in an orthodox Jewish family. After the Schlossbergs moved to Mannheim in 1919, he was introduced to German organ and choral literature by Arno Landmann, first Kantor (1911–43) of Christuskirche, and received piano instruction from Landmann’s wife. With Mannheim’s proximity to Strasbourg and Alsace-Lorraine, Schlossberg became fluent in French. Shortly after entering the University of Heidelberg in 1928, he applied for musicological studies with medievalist Heinrich Besseler. At the end of three years of intensive work, he submitted his doctoral dissertation (Die italienische Sonate für mehrere Instrumente im 17ten Jahrhundert, diss., U. of Heidelberg, 1932). Later that year he was engaged as a coach and conducting assistant to Hans Schmidt-Isserstedt at the Darmstadt Opera.

Beaten with guns by Adolf Hitler’s Stormtroopers in early ...

Article

Laurence Libin

(b Chelsea, London, UK, Dec 20, 1957; d London, UK, Aug 18, 2007). English organ designer and organ historian. He attended Westminster School, Winchester College, and St Chad’s College, Durham University, before beginning work in 1979 for N.P. Mander Ltd. He collaborated with his architect brother Julian on the case for Mander’s organ at Magdalen College, Oxford, completed in 1986. In 1987 he was employed by J.W. Walker & Sons, designing instruments for Oriel College, Oxford (1988), Carlisle Cathedral (quire organ), and Kesgrave parish church near Ipswich. In 1989 he surveyed Buckingham Palace’s much-deteriorated ballroom organ. Returning to Mander as head designer in 1990, Bicknell undertook restoration of the chapel organ at St John’s College, Cambridge, designed a four-manual mechanical-action organ inspired by Cavaillé-Coll for St Ignatius Loyola in New York (1992) and two organs for Chelmsford Cathedral (completed 1994 and 1995), and directed construction of the organ in Gray’s Inn Chapel (...

Article

Murray Campbell

(b Cleveland, OH, July 19, 1915; d Pittsburgh, PA, Feb 10, 2010). American scientist and acoustician. After studying physics at Case Institute of Technology (BS 1937), he carried out research in nuclear physics at the University of Illinois (PhD 1941). He then joined the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, remaining with the firm for the rest of his professional life; he retired in 1980 after a distinguished career culminating in six years as Director of Research and Development. In his youth he had become an accomplished flute player, and during his undergraduate studies at Case he encountered the notable acoustician Dayton C. Miller. This meeting led to a lifelong interest in the acoustics of the flute, and Coltman developed a laboratory at his home in which he conducted many important and illuminating experiments on flutes and flute playing. Particularly significant was his contribution to the understanding of the subtle interaction between the air jet blown across the flute embouchure hole by the player and the resonances of the air column within the flute pipe. Over four decades, starting in the mid-1960s, he published more than 40 papers on the acoustics of flutes and organ pipes. He was a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a Fellow of the American Physical Society and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers....

Article

Stanislav Tuksar

(b Dubravka near Dubrovnik, Croatia, June 16, 1934). Croatian musicologist, composer, organist, and choir conductor. He started his theological studies in Split and graduated in 1961 from the Catholic Theological Faculty in Zagreb, where he also attended courses in music at the Institute for Church Music. He gained the PhD in musicology in 1978 at the University of Cologne. From 1959 to 1961, and again from 1970 to 1975, he served in Dubrovnik as organist and choir conductor at the local cathedral. From 1965 until 1969 and from 1980 on he was regens chori at the Zagreb Cathedral. In 1969 he helped in resuming the publication of the oldest Croatian church music journal Sv. Cecilija in Zagreb, which had been interrupted in 1944. His most important scholarly contributions consist of several modern facsimile editions and commentaries on medieval neumatic codices and of musicological activities dealing mostly with Dubrovnik musical history. Among the facsimile editions the most interesting is ...

Article

Martina Bratić

(b Krapinica, Croatia, Sept 11, 1874; d Zagreb, Croatia, Dec 12, 1948). Croatian composer, organist, music educator, theoretician, and writer. Dugan had his first musical experience during his choir lessons in an archiepiscopal secondary school. He then studied theology and took organ lessons with the principal organist of the Zagreb Cathedral, Vatroslav Kolander. In 1893 he started mathematics and physics studies but graduated from the Hochschule für Musik in Berlin in 1908 (composition with Robert Kahn, conducting with Max Bruch, and organ with H. Becker). He became a director of the Croatian Music Institute (1908) and was named Zagreb Cathedral’s principal organist in 1912 (the position which he held until his death). From 1897 to 1920 he also worked as a secondary school teacher, giving lessons in mathematics and physics. At the Zagreb Music Academy he taught music theory, composition, and the organ (1920–1941); here his most important contribution was amplifying the foundation of, and developing the curriculum for, the counterpoint and fugue courses. He was also active as a conductor of, among others, the Croatian Choral Society, Kolo, and he periodically wrote music reviews. He worked as an editor of the music section in the sacral music journal ...

Article

Edmond T. Johnson

(b Gloversville, NY, June 4, 1950). American organologist and conservator. He was educated at Harvard College and studied harpsichord building under hugh Gough . Since 1991 Koster has been on the faculty of the University of South Dakota and the National Music Museum, where he holds the title of Conservator and Professor of Music. He is a leading authority on the history and development of early keyboard instruments, a topic on which he has extensively published. Between 1975 and 1991, Koster served as a technician and conservator to the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. In 1994 he published a monumental catalog of that museum’s collection of keyboard instruments, Keyboard Musical Instruments in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (Boston, 1994), which was awarded the American Musical Instrument Society’s Bessaraboff Prize in 1997. In addition to his work in the area of historic keyboard instruments, Koster has undertaken research on the choralcelo, an early electronic instrument developed during the first years of the 20th century....

Article

Martina Bratić

(b Kuče, Croatia, March 31, 1889; d Zagreb, Croatia, March 16, 1972). Croatian composer, organist, music theorist, and educator. He finished his education in 1909 at the music school of the Croatian Music Institute in Zagreb, where he acquired compositional and theoretical knowledge in music and developed his organ playing skills; he also simultaneously finished teacher-training school. From 1918 to 1927 Lučić was a district prefect of Turopolje County, where he initiated significant cultural and educational progress. He became an organ professor and taught counterpoint at the Zagreb Music Academy (1921–61) and was appointed a dean (1944–5; 1952–61). On his initiative a private music school, called Polyhymnia, was founded in Zagreb and Lučić was named its head principal (1932–41). He occasionally played the organ at the Zagreb Cathedral. Lučić’s oeuvre comprises orchestral pieces, chamber and vocal music, sacred works, and pedagogical instrumental exercises, but his most notable contribution as a composer lies in his organ music, where he presented his mastery of the laws of counterpoint, composing many fugues, fantasias, preludes, and the like. Lučić is also considered to be one of the first Croatian composers (together with Dora Pejačević) to create larger symphonies in a modern sense (Symphony in f-minor, ...

Article

Peter Bavington

(b London, England, May 27, 1922; d Malta, March 17, 1964). English organologist and collector of keyboard instruments. He was a Fellow of Trinity College London and a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. Born into a wealthy and artistic family (the owners of Mottisfont Abbey), he acquired his first keyboard instrument in 1939, and over the following 25 years built up a substantial collection of 17th- and 18th-century harpsichords and clavichords. Through detailed study of these and other antique instruments, he became an acknowledged expert, and was asked to compile catalogues of the Victoria and Albert Museum and Benton Fletcher collections. Although not himself a craftsman, he took a keen interest in the present-day manufacture of early keyboard instruments, being among the first to criticize modern developments and advocate a return to a more historical style. His book The Harpsichord and Clavichord outshone its predecessors for the accuracy and detail of its descriptions and the penetration of its analysis; it helped to inspire a change of direction in harpsichord making in favour of careful copies of antique instruments. Frank Hubbard was among those influenced by it. In ...

Article

Patrizio Barbieri

(b Gunzing, near Lohnsburg am Inn, Germany, Nov 28, 1669, d Mainz, Germany, April 30, 1728). German priest, philosopher, editor of Latin works of Raymond Lull, and inventor of an enharmonic keyboard. While working at the court of Johann Wilhelm, Prince-Elector of the Palatinate, in Düsseldorf, Salzinger invented and built a keyboard (‘Tastatura nova perfecta’) accommodating the division of the octave into 31 equal parts. His enharmonic harpsichord is mentioned by Joseph Paris Feckler, who reports (1713) that a further two had been ordered: one for the Emperor in Augsburg, the other for the Grand Duke of Tuscany, in Florence. Details of this instrument appear in Salzinger’s ‘Revelatio secretorum artis’ (1721), which he published as an introduction to his edition of Lull’s Ars magna et major. This work tells that ‘the Most Serene Elector continuously used this harpsichord for music at court’, and that years earlier the construction of an organ with the same kind of keyboard had begun, only to be halted in ...

Article

Florinela Popa

(b Bucharest, Romania, Nov 27, 1966). Romanian musicologist and pianist . She read musicology at the National University of Music Bucharest, where she has been teaching since 1993, and where she currently works as a professor. She has held courses in musicology, stylistics, and theories of musical performance, and has served as doctoral supervisor (since 2010). She has been a Fellow of the Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin/Institute for Advanced Study, Berlin, and a permanent Fellow of New Europe College (since 2010). She was later appointed Vice-Rector of New Europe College, and has, since 2014, held the office of Rector of the same institute for advanced study. In 2010 she founded Musicology Today, an online journal, where she serves as editor-in-chief.

One of the major interests of her musicological research has been the Romanian music of recent decades, and she has lucidly traced the interconnected relationship between it and the variegated and variable facets of contemporary European music. Her other major concern has been the different aspects involved in the concept of musical style (with particular reference to mannerism and rhetoric). Valentina Sandu-Dediu is the author of ten books published in Romania and Germany, of over 30 studies and 300 articles, and of several books of university lectures. She has developed a number of radio shows. In addition, she has also worked as a performer, appearing on stage and in recordings (CDs recorded in Romania with Aurelian Octav Popa, in Germany, for Neos, with Dan Dediu, and in Boston, for Albany, with Ray Jackendoff). She has been the distinguished recipient of several national and international awards, among them the Prize of the Romanian Academy (...

Article

Laurence Libin

(b Haarlem, Netherlands, Feb 24, 1942). Dutch clavichord builder and researcher active in Aerdenhout. He was educated at the choristers’ school of St Bavo Cathedral in Haarlem and at the Amsterdam Conservatory, where he studied music education and the recorder (1962–69). He built his first clavichord as a hobby in 1960 and assembled three from kits. He began building clavichords from technical drawings in 1976 while teaching school music at the Sweelinck Conservatory in Amsterdam (1970–95) and directing a chamber choir that he founded in 1972. Between 1978 and 2011 (the first four years working with Jan Oudshoorn, then alone) Vermeij produced 56 clavichords, three of them after the 1763 Hass (GB.E.u) but mainly after designs of Christian Gottlob Hubert. In 1985 he began research on all extant Hubert instruments, resulting in The Hubert Clavichord Data Book, and in 1999 he restored the ...