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Article

Lini Hübsch-Pfleger

[Spangenberg, Wolfhart]

(b Mansfeld, probably before 1570; d Buchenbach, nr Freiburg, before Oct 1636). German theologian and writer. The first two names of his pseudonym are equivalents of Wolfhart Spangenberg, his original name, and Andropediacus derives from the name of his birthplace. He was the son of Cyriac and grandson of Johann Spangenberg. His father having been obliged to leave his position as court preacher at Mansfeld in 1574 because he supported Matthias Flaccius's substantialist view of Original Sin, he spent his earliest years at, among other places, Strasbourg, from 1578, and Schlitz, near Fulda, from 1581 and came under his father's influence in theological and artistic matters. He matriculated at Tübingen University on 5 April 1586 and took the bachelor's degree in 1588 and master's degree in 1591. He too was an adherent of Flaccianism, which hindered his career as a theologian. In 1595 he followed his father to Strasbourg, where he gained citizenship and earned his living as a proofreader. In ...

Article

(b Seville; fl 1628–33). Spanish writer. He was a member of the Trinitarian order in Seville. Between 1628 and 1633 he wrote several pseudo-historical works on local and religious topics as well as one pertaining to music: El psalterio de David: exortación, y virtudes de la música, y canto, para todo género de gentes, en particular para los eclesiásticos, y obligación que tienen de cantar, o rezar las divinas alabanzas con toda atención, y devoción (Jerez de la Frontera, 1632). This is a curious mixture of legend and history. The first part traces music from classical and biblical times up to and including the medieval period, the second treats of its various uses, not only religious but also military, social, educational and recreational. Arellano mingled ancient fable with contemporary anecdote and drew fanciful analogies between the realms of music and religion. His book is of particular interest as a compendium of the kind of material used in the traditional ‘praise of music’ (...

Article

[Caspar Bartholin Secundus ]

(b Copenhagen, Sept 10, 1655; d ?Copenhagen, June 11, 1738). Danish anatomist, doctor of medicine, and polymath. Scion of a famous family of doctors and natural philosophers, he began medical studies with his father in 1671 and three years later was appointed professor of philosophy by King Christian IV. He then travelled for several years, and working in Paris with the anatomist Joseph Guichard Duverney, he first described ‘Bartholin’s glands’ in a cow. Returning to Copenhagen, he took up medical practice and taught medicine and anatomy. In 1678 his father conferred on him the doctorate in medicine. Among his writings on various scientific subjects, in De tibiis veterum, et earum antiquo usu libri tres (Amsterdam, 1677, 1679) he discussed the wind instruments of antiquity. Like many of his publications this one was based mostly on previous authors’ work rather than first-hand research, but it was influential, for example being cited uncritically by Filippo Bonanni (...

Article

Albert Cohen

(b Pont-de-Vaux, Ain, April 24, 1633; d Paris, May 4, 1691). French lawyer and man of letters. He is often confused with his great-grandson, Charles-Emmanuel Borjon de Scellery (c1715–95). He was active in the law courts of both Dijon and Paris and is known chiefly for his writings on jurisprudence. He also composed poetry (noëls ‘en patois bressan’), published after his death and later set to music, and is credited with Traité de la musette, avec une nouvelle méthode, pour apprendre de soy-mesme à jouer de cet instrument facilement, et en peu de temps (Lyons, 1672, 2/1678/R), which describes an instrument in vogue throughout France at the time and includes examples of music collected by the author.

DBF (M. Prevost) P. LeDuc: Les noëls bressans de Bourg, de Pont-de-Vaux et des paroisses voisines (Bourg-en-Bresse, 1845) C.-J. Dufaÿ: Dictionnaire biographique des personnages notables du département de l’Ain...

Article

Almonte Howell

(fl 1689–1702). Spanish theologian. A Jesuit priest, he taught theology at the royal college of his order in Salamanca and was the author of several works on moral and theological questions. His Discurso theológico sobre los theatros y comedias de este siglo (Salamanca, 1689), a vigorous attack on moral grounds on the theatre of his day, is frequently quoted for its account of contemporary Spanish stage music. He describes its beauties with great eloquence, suggesting that they may have been inspired by the Devil, and elaborates in suspiciously vivid terms on its power to arouse amorous feelings. It is unlikely that he can be identified with the Ignacio Camargo who in the 1660s composed some 40 vocal works ( E-V ).

SubiráHME G. Chase: The Music of Spain (New York, 1941, 2/1959) M. Querol: ‘Neuvos datos para la biografía de Miguel Gómez Camargo’, Miscelánea en homenaje a Monseñor Higinio Anglés...

Article

George J. Buelow

(b Quedlinburg, Saxe-Anhalt, bap. June 2, 1611; d Sülzhayn, Harz Mountains, July 31, 1673). German theologian and writer on music. He was educated in the schools of Quedlinburg, including the Lateinschule, where he studied with Henricus Baryphonus. A scholarship from the town enabled him to enrol at the University of Helmstedt, where he spent three years studying theology. In 1634 he became Kantor at Schwanebeck (south of Helmstedt), thus beginning a long career as Kantor and minister in a number of Protestant churches in the Harz Mountains region, including periods as Kantor at Einbeck (1635–43) and Osterode (1643–4), rector and later vicar at St Alexandri, Einbeck (1644–57) – from 1647 he was simultaneously pastor at neighbouring Negenborn (Holzminden) – and finally as pastor at Sülzhayn (see Liebminger for additional biographical details). He wrote his only known work, Gründliche Einführung in die edle Music oder Singe Kunst...

Article

( b Lyons, March 9, 1631; d Paris, Jan 21, 1705). French writer . Menestrier studied at the Jesuit Collège de la Trinité in Lyons and subsequently taught rhetoric there, having joined the Jesuit order in 1646. He later taught at Chambéry, Vienne (Isère) and Grenoble before being recalled to the college at Lyons. It was during this latter stay there that he developed the special interest in the history and organization of public festivals and ceremonies that occupied him for most of his life. This interest resulted not only in his organizing such events (for example on the occasion of the visit of Louis XIV to Lyons in 1658, an event which is known to have included student performances of ballets devised by Menestrier, and for the beatification of François de Sales at Annecy in 1662), but also in his publishing a series of works dealing with their details. His studies in heraldry, in imagery and decoration, in stage design and construction, in the writing of occasional poetry and ballets, and in the theatrical use of music and dance are all notable. In ...

Article

Laurence de Laubadère

revised by Manuel Couvreur

( b Paris, Sept 25, 1613; d Paris, Oct 9, 1688). French polymath , elder brother of Charles Perrault . He studied medicine and qualified as a doctor in Paris in 1641. Boileau was one of his patients before becoming one of his detractors. His medical practice was soon confined to his immediate circle of acquaintances; but he had many other interests. He concerned himself with physics and anatomy and in 1666, on its foundation, was admitted to the Académie des Sciences, where he directed studies in natural history, a field in which he also published new and penetrating observations. His abilities extended to music and architecture as well. When it was decided that the Louvre should be given a façade befitting its monumental grandeur, Perrault entered the competition. He probably benefited from the influential position of his brother Charles, who gave him steadfast support throughout his life. The result was the colonnade of the Louvre built under the supervision of François d’Orbay between ...

Article

Albert Cohen

revised by Julie Anne Sadie

(bap. St Denis-le-Gast, Manche, Jan 5, 1614; d London, Sept 29, 1703). French man of letters. After studies at the Jesuit college in Paris, he entered military service, rising to the rank of maréchal de camp in 1652. During the Fronde he was disgraced by his Lettre sur la Paix des Pyrénées (1661) and was obliged to seek exile outside France. He fled to the Netherlands and in 1670 to England, where he was appointed Charles II’s Keeper of the Ducks in the Decoy at St James’s Park. A keen music lover and amateur, Saint-Evremond frequented the Chelsea académie of Hortensia Mancini, the Duchess of Mazarin (the niece of Cardinal Mazarin and mistress of the king), where French music was performed and discussed. His own home in London also became a centre of intellectual and social activity which is reflected in his literary production. He is said never to have learnt to speak English....

Article

Traute Maass Marshall

revised by Robin A. Leaver

(b Rappoltsweiler, Alsace, Jan 13, 1635; d Berlin, Feb 5, 1705). German theologian. His upbringing in a very religious legal family and his early extensive reading of puritanical and other devotional books, especially those of J. Arndt, the most significant pre-Pietist author, laid the groundwork for his later development as a religious reformer. He studied theology at the University of Strasbourg (1651–9) and then undertook an academic journey through southern Germany and Switzerland (1659–62) where he experienced the worship and psalmody of Calvinism. On his return he became a deputy clergyman at Strasbourg Cathedral and received the doctorate in 1664. Trained for an academic career, he nevertheless accepted the call to be Superintendent and senior pastor in Frankfurt, where he remained from 1666 to 1686. In 1686 he was appointed senior Saxon court chaplain in Dresden, the most important and influential position in Lutheran Germany at that time. He left five years later because of personal differences and became senior pastor at the Nicolaikirche in Berlin, where he stayed until his death....

Article

Karl-Ernst Bergunder

[Nikolaus]

(b Erfurt, Aug 31, 1609; d Erfurt, April 5, 1680). German writer on music and organist. He spent his whole life at Erfurt. He attended the St Michael Lateinschule until 1621, when he transferred to the Protestant Ratsgymnasium, which was at that time noted for its fostering of music. One of his teachers there was Liborius Capsius, director of the collegium musicum and an important Erfurt University professor. He matriculated at the university in 1626, took his bachelor’s degree in 1628 and became a Master of Philosophy in 1629. He then became organist at the Protestant Thomaskirche and at the Catholic church of the Neuwerk monastery. From 1632 to 1635 he was Kantor and teacher at the Protestant school of preaching and also studied theology. In 1635 he was ordained and became deacon (in 1638 pastor) of the Kaufmannskirche in succession to Joseph Bötticher, who had won a good reputation as a musician. In ...

Article

Anthony C. Baines

revised by Darryl Martin

(b London, 1664; d Spofforth, 1708). English writer on music . He was educated at Westminster School and Trinity College, Cambridge where he matriculated in 1683, becoming a minor Fellow in 1689 and major Fellow in 1690. He played a leading role in the early promotion of Cambridge University Press. He was Regius Professor of Hebrew at Cambridge from 1699 to 1704 when he moved to Spofforth, where he had a rectorship since 1700. He received his doctorate from Cambridge in 1705. His importance to music history derives from his manuscript GB-Och Music MS 1187 (formerly owned by Henry Aldrich) which provides copious information on instruments. The manuscript, which was probably written between 1690 and 1700, consists mainly of 250 numbered sheets on which are recorded details of instruments; much of the information was obtained first-hand from leading players and makers (including Gottfried Finger, John Banister (ii), James Paisible, John Shore and William Bull) and from Talbot’s examination and measurement of instruments provided by these men. Other pages record tunings and tablatures, or quotations from Praetorius, Mersenne and Kircher. The remainder of the manuscript, including sections on ancient Greek music, is in another hand....

Article

Heinrich Hüschen

(b nr Heidelberg, 1577; d Amsterdam, March 19, 1649). Dutch polymath and writer on music of German birth . He received a master’s degree and a doctorate from the University of Leiden. He became rector of the grammar school at Dordrecht in 1600 and director of the theological college at Leiden in 1615 but in 1619 he was suspended as an Arminian. He held professorships at the University of Leiden and at the newly established Athenaeum Illustre, Amsterdam. When he was in England in 1629 Charles I granted him a private audience in recognition of his learning.

Vossius wrote many theological, philological and historical works, a complete edition of which was published in six volumes over 40 years after his death (Amsterdam, 1695–1701). Five of his works (all published at Amsterdam) contain observations on music: De theologia gentili (1642); De artis poeticae natura et constitutione (...