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Article

Dimitri Conomos

revised by George Leotsakos

(b Piraeus, May 19, 1929). Greek composer and musicologist. He graduated in theology from Athens University (1954), in neo-Byzantine music (1955) and harmony (1956) from the Piraeus League Conservatory, and in counterpoint, fugue and composition (1959) from the Hellenic Conservatory, where he studied with Yannis A. Papaïannou. At Brandeis University (1962–5) he studied composition (with Arthur Berger), Byzantine music palaeography and electronic music. In 1950 he revived the boys' choir of the Greek Royal Palace, which he directed until 1967. He also established and conducted the Athens Chamber Chorus (1958–61). Between 1961 and 1963 he taught Byzantine music at the Holy Cross Theological Academy, Boston, Massachusetts. In 1965 he established the first electronic music studio in Athens. He was a founder-member (1965) and later president (1975–85) of both the Hellenic Association for Contemporary Music and the Greek section of the ISCM. In ...

Article

Juan Orrego-Salas

(b Santiago, June 29, 1885; d Santiago, Aug 17, 1959). Chilean composer and ethnomusicologist. He studied the violin, music theory and composition at the Santiago Conservatorio National de Música (1899–1908). The Chilean government then sent him to France and Spain for further study (1910–11). On returning to Chile he was elected to the Folklore Society and worked for the Ministry of Education in improving the teaching of music in the state schools (1924–8). He travelled again to Europe in 1922 and was one of the founders of the International Academy of Fine Arts in Paris (1923). In 1928 he was appointed professor of composition at the Conservatorio National, which had recently become part of the arts faculty of the University of Chile. There, until his retirement in 1946, he taught many Chilean composers who later came to international prominence. On another visit to Europe, also in ...

Article

Robert Paul Kolt

(b Santiago, Chile, Jan 2, 1963). American composer, guitarist, ethnomusicologist, educator, and producer of Chilean birth. He immigrated to the United States as a child and studied guitar with Joseph Torello, Vincent Bredice, Lou Mowad, and George Aguiar. Amigo enrolled at Florida State University (1980) where he studied classical guitar with Bruce Holzman and William Carter and was active as a performer of popular music. In 1986, he moved to Los Angeles, earning a degree in political science from California State University, Northridge (BA 1995) and degrees in ethnomusicology (MA 1988, PhD 2003) from the University of Calfornia, Los Angeles. He studied in Los Angeles with Kenny Burrell, Gary Pratt, Harihar Rao, and wadada leo Smith. Amigo also performed with African, Arabic, funk, hard rock, free jazz, jazz, and reggae groups, and worked as a session guitarist for Hans Zimmer, Mark Mancina, Jay Rifkin, and Les Hooper, among others....

Article

Owen Wright

[Avenpace]

(b Zaragoza, north Spain; d Fez, Morocco, c1139). Philosopher, administrator and composer. He spent much of his life, first in Zaragoza and then in Játiva, south Spain, as vizier to various Almoravid governors, and later moved to Fez.

His Kitāb fī al-nafs (‘Book on the soul’) deals with acoustics. He is also reported to have written a substantial treatise on music that could stand comparison with that of al- Fārābī, but this, unfortunately, has not survived. However, his reputation as a composer stayed alive for some considerable time, and his songs are still mentioned by Ibn Khaldūn (1332–1406). He was also a dexterous ‘ūd player. The fullest, if still succinct, account of his achievements is provided by al-Tīfāshī (d 1253), according to whom he studied for several years with female professional musicians (qiyān) and subsequently introduced two important innovations. One resulted in improvements to two of the important song forms, while the other, more general, is intriguingly characterized as a fusion of ‘Christian’ and ‘Eastern’ song. The resulting synthesis was to establish itself as the dominant style in Muslim Spain, effacing that of the earlier school of Ziryāb....

Article

Viorel Cosma

(b Lugoj, 20 March/April 2, 1877; d Bucharest, Dec 19, 1968). Romanian composer, folklorist and administrator. He studied privately in Lugoj with Josif Czegka and Sofia Vlad-Rădulescu, in Blaj with Iacob Mureşianu, in Sibiu with Hermann Kirchner and in Braşov with Paul Richter. Extremely active in the musical life of Romania, he participated in the foundation of the Romanian Opera, the Romanian National Theatre (1919), the Dima Conservatory, Cluj (1920), the Society of Romanian Composers (1920) and the Astra Conservatory, Braşov (1928); during this period he directed the opera houses in Cluj and Bucharest. He collected more than 2000 folksongs, recorded on 214 cylinders, and made use of them in his ten books of Doine şi cântece poporale (‘Doinas and Other Folksongs’) and in eight books of instrumental pieces published as Jocuri populare româneşti (‘Romanian Folkdances’); he also published a scholarly collection, ...

Article

Michael Fend

(Carlo Zanobi Salvadore Maria )

(b Florence, 8/Sept 14, 1760; d Paris, March 15, 1842). Italian, composer, conductor, teacher, administrator, theorist, and music publisher, active in France. He took French citizenship, probably in 1794, and was a dominant figure in Parisian musical life for half a century. He was a successful opera composer during the Revolutionary period, and had comparable success with religious music from the beginning of the Restoration. He was made director of the Paris Conservatoire and consolidated its pre-eminent position in music education in Europe.

In the biographical preface to his work catalogue, compiled in 1831, Cherubini gave 8 and 14 September as his dates of birth, but the records of the baptistery of S Giovanni state that he was born on 14 September (and baptized the following day). He was the tenth of 12 children. It has been claimed that his mother died when he was four years old (Pougin, ...

Article

Matteo Sansone

(b Naples, Aug 25, 1933). Italian composer, musicologist and artistic director. He studied at the Naples Conservatory with Tita Parisi (piano) and Renato Parodi (composition). After starting a career as a pianist, he turned to composition, writing music for films, ballet and TV serials. His research interests led him to tour his native region, Campania, collecting and editing popular and religious songs. An expert on 18th-century Neapolitan opera, De Simone made his début as a director in 1979 with the revival of Vinci’s Li zite ’ngalera for the Maggio Musicale Fiorentino. He also edited and produced Jommelli’s La schiava liberata (Naples, S Carlo, 1984), and, most significantly, Pergolesi’s Flaminio (Venice, Fenice, 1982), Adriano in Siria with the intermezzo Livietta e Tracollo (Florence, Maggio Musicale, 1985) and Lo frate ’nnamorato (Milan, Scala, 1989–90). He was artistic director of the Teatro S Carlo in Naples from ...

Article

Wayne D. Shirley

(b Paris, July 21, 1883; d New York, May 6, 1944). American musicologist, administrator and composer of German birth. After studying at the universities of Strasbourg and Munich and as a composition pupil of Thuille in Munich, he emigrated to the USA (1905), becoming an American citizen in 1917. He was music editor for the Boston Music Company (1909–22), head of the Music Division of the Library of Congress (1922–34), president of the music publishing firm of G. Schirmer (appointed 1929) and honorary consultant in musicology to the Library of Congress (from 1934). Concurrently he worked as a columnist (1922–44) and editor (1929–44) of the Musical Quarterly. In 1934, with Sonneck and Kinkeldey, he founded the American Musicological Society, subsequently serving as its president (1937–8).

Engel was one of the first generation of American musicologists trained in Europe who applied the standards of continental musicology to American scholarship. He was closely associated with Sonneck (succeeding him as head of the Music Division of the Library of Congress, as president of G. Schirmer and as editor of the ...

Article

John Warrack

revised by James Deaville

(b Würzburg, May 28, 1780; d Würzburg, Jan 5, 1862). German teacher, musical organizer, critic, theorist, conductor and composer. He studied music at the student institute of the Juliusspital in Würzburg, and studied law and philosophy at the university there. In 1801 he began his career as a violinist in the prince-bishop’s court orchestra. He also founded the Akademische Bande, a student choral and orchestral group, which in 1804 became the Akademisches Musikinstitut and was made part of the university, thus becoming the basis of the first state music school in Germany. His teaching and organizational work was of the highest importance and encompassed several disciplines and activities. He became reader in aesthetics in 1812, reader in pedagogical studies in 1819 and professor in 1821. In 1820 a singing school was established as part of the institute. He also conducted important historical concerts for King Ludwig I in ...

Article

Hans Heinrich Eggebrecht

(b Bad Salzbrunn [now Szczawno-Zdrój], Silesia, Nov 20, 1925). German musicologist, choir director and composer. He studied singing with Hüsch, choir directing with Kurt Thomas, and musicology at the universities of Tübingen and Frankfurt, with sociology, Protestant theology and folklore as subsidiary subjects. In 1961 he received the doctorate at Frankfurt under Helmuth Osthoff with a dissertation proving through style criticism that Ghiselin and Verbonnet were the same person; he has also edited the complete works of that composer. He was Kantor at St Paul's in Stuttgart (1958–70) and in 1960 he founded the Stuttgart Schola Cantorum, which he led until it disbanded in 1990. He was adviser for new music for the South German Radio in Stuttgart (1969–88). In 1972 Pierre Boulez selected him to help in the planning of the Centre Beaubourg in Paris. His musicological estate is held by the Paul Sacher Stiftung....

Article

Oldřich Pukl

revised by Jaromír Havlík and Jan Ledeč

(b Prague, April 29, 1929). Czech composer, musicologist and administrator. In 1948 he entered Charles University, Prague, to read musicology, music teaching and aesthetics; he then spent five years in Moscow (1951–6) studying composition with Shebalin at the conservatory and musicology with R.I. Gruber and Tsukkerman. On his return he was appointed head of the department of foreign music at Czech Radio in Prague, moving in 1959 to take charge of the department for the study of contemporary music in the Union of Czech Composers. From 1962 to 1969 he worked in the institute for musicology of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, and in 1969 he was made general secretary of the Union of Czech Composers. In 1975 he was appointed to the chair of composition at the Prague Academy of Musical Arts (AMU), becoming professor in 1988.

During the 1950s his music was deeply influenced by folklore and retained close links with Romanticism. He became acquainted with the new music of western Europe in the mid-1960s, and this changed his development. From that time he made considerable use of electronic means, working at the electronic music studio of Czech Radio in Plzeň. His work from the end of the 1970s and early 80s is characterized by transparency and simplified form and means of expression, all of which has strengthened the monumental nature of his work. This shift is also evident from his choice of subject matter, dominated now by an interest in Czech history and culture. In the 1980s Kučera turned increasingly towards vocal genres. He is recipient of the Queen Marie-José prize (...

Article

David Scott

(Carey)

(b Bermuda, March 2, 1915; d Haslemere, June 5, 1983). English musicologist, conductor, music administrator and composer. He went to Peterhouse, Cambridge, in 1932. Dent guided his studies at Cambridge and a grant from his college enabled him to study with Nadia Boulanger in 1934. In 1935 he took the BA and the MusB and joined the BBC music department, where he organized the ‘Foundations of Music’ series and later became responsible for all broadcast chamber music and recitals. In 1938 he devised a memorable series ‘Handel in Rome’. After the war he returned to the BBC to plan the Third Programme, which gave its first broadcast in 1946. Lewis took charge of the organization and general direction of all Third Programme music.

In 1947 he was elected Peyton and Barber Professor of Music at Birmingham University, where he continued his pioneering activities. During his 21-year professorship he conducted many revivals of orchestral, choral and stage works, particularly Handel operas; these performances are remembered for the high standards they established. During this time Lewis was also active in the recording studio and made the first English recordings of such works as Monteverdi's ...

Article

Victoria Eli Rodríguez

(b Cienfuegos, Oct 6, 1915; d Havana, May 16, 2004). Cuban composer, musicologist, teacher, and administrator. One of the most important, senior figures in Cuban music, he began his musical studies at the age of seven with his aunt, Aurea Suárez (a native of Madrid). He went on to study with Jascha Fischermann in Havana (1936–7) and with Ardévol at the Havana Conservatory (1939–46), whose example in particular led him to become part of Cuba’s outward-looking artistic avant garde. As a teacher of history and aesthetics he worked at the Havana Conservatory (1945–68), the National School of Arts (1968–9), and the university summer courses (1945–70). He also worked as a music critic for various newspapers between 1943 and 1967. He belonged to the progressive associations Grupo de Renovación Musical (1942–48) and Nuestro Tiempo (1950–59). He served on numerous committees set up to reform music teaching in the country, worked in aid of various provincial music societies and in ...

Article

Anastasia Siopsi

(b Piraeus, 1897; d Piraeus, 1981). Greek composer, music teacher, conductor, music manager, and historian.

He studied music theory with Geōrgios Lampelet and Armando Marsik at Athens Conservatory, and continued his studies in Leipzig with Fritz Benesevic and Max Steinizer. From 1914, and for several years, he was a teacher of vocal training in several schools and a professor in the Academy of Film Studies, of the Higher School of Cinema. He was a member of the board of the organization ‘Ellēnikon Melodrama’ [Greek Melodrama] and directing advisor; founder and conductor of the choir in the church of the Greek community in Leipzig; and founding member of the board of the Union of the Critics of the Theatre and Music, the organization ‘Arxaion Drama’ [Ancient Drama], the Greek Society of composers, writers, and publishers, among others. He was the director of the journal Mousika Chronika [Musical Chronicles] (...

Article

Mike Hazeldine

revised by Barry Kernfeld

[William; Wagner, Russell William]

(b Canton, MO, Feb 26, 1905; d New Orleans, Aug 9, 1992). American jazz historian, record producer, violinist, and composer. He played violin from the age of ten, and later studied music in Chicago (1924). After private violin tuition in New York (1927) he attended Columbia University Teachers College (1929), where he took up composition; around 1930 he dropped his surname, Wagner, to avoid comparisons with a rather more famous composer in the field. While touring with a theatrical group, the Red Gate Shadow Players, which staged classical Chinese puppet plays (1934–40), he began collecting early jazz records, reselling many through the Hot Record Exchange that he ran from 1935 with the painter Steve Smith. He contributed articles to the magazine Jazz hot and wrote three chapters of Jazzmen: the Story of Hot Jazz Told in the Lives of the Men who Created it...

Article

John Kennedy

[Wagner, Russell William]

(b Canton, MO, Feb 26, 1905; d New Orleans, Aug 9, 1992). American composer, record producer, jazz musician and historian. He studied at the Quincy (Illinois) Conservatory, Culver-Stockton College (Missouri), privately with Max Pilzer (New York) and at Columbia University Teachers College (New York). During the 1930s he became acquainted with Cowell and Cage (who later programmed many of his works) and, over eight years, composed his complete oeuvre. To avoid any association with Richard Wagner, he adopted his first name, Russell, as a surname when Cowell published his Fugue (1931–2), a work first performed on the same programme as the première of Varèse’s Ionisation. From 1934 to 1939 he toured with the Red Gate Shadow Players, a Chinese shadow puppet play troupe, playing Chinese percussion instruments.

A collector of early jazz recordings, Russell co-founded the Hot Record Exchange in 1935. During the 1930s his writings appeared in ...

Article

Günther Leucht

(b Vienna, Oct 26, 1957). Austrian composer, organist, musicologist and artistic administrator. He studied at the Vienna Hochschule für Musik with Michael Radulescu (organ, 1976–83) and Francis Burt (composition, 1982–5), among others, at the University of Vienna (1976–84), where he completed a dissertation on Messiaen, and at the Paris Conservatoire, where his teachers included Messiaen (composition) and Langlais (organ). He has served as music drama adviser at the Salzburg Landestheater (1986–9), music director of the Brucknerhaus, Linz (1990–98), and project director of the Guardini Foundation, Berlin (from 1995, chair 1998). In 1999 he was appointed deputy intendant of the Beethoven Festival in Bonn. He became a Chevalier des Arts et des Lettres in 1990.

Schlee's various professional activities, taken together, represent a consistent concern for musical trends and musical performance. Although he has chosen his compositional material and methods deliberately, his approach to music remains extremely poetic, even religious or metaphysical. He shapes sounds, rhythmic elements, melodies and harmonic colours into forms that develop organically in an analogous fashion to tonal structures. His discourse is rich in nuances, conflicts and contrasts. He has striven to achieve beauty, not by reprocessing the ideals of the past, but by engaging in a search of his own. (...

Article

George Leotsakos

(b Përmet, Albania, Nov 22, 1963). Albanian composer, ethnomusicologist, and administrator. After early musical training in Përmet and Korça, he studied at the Tirana Conservatory (1984–7), where his teachers included Gaqi, Kushta, Lara, Simoni, and Shupo. Between 1988 and 1991 he worked in Përmet as music director at the Naïm Frashëri Palace of Culture and as artistic director of the Elena Gjika ensemble. He was appointed to teach ethnomusicology and composition at the Tirana Conservatory (now the music faculty of the Academy of Arts) in 1991. In 1993 he founded the New Albanian Music association and in 1997 the Ton de Leeuw International Competition for New Music in Tirana. After receiving the doctorate in ethnomusicology in 1994, he undertook further composition studies with Hufschmidt at the Folkwang Hochschule, Essen (1994–5), followed by postdoctoral studies at Athens University (1996). In 1997 he was appointed director of the Theatre of Opera and Ballet, Tirana, and of the State Ensemble of Folk Songs and Dances. He resigned in ...

Article

Israel J. Katz

[Tomás Parés, Juan]

(b Barcelona, April 6, 1896; d Barcelona, Nov 7, 1967). Catalan choral director, composer and folklorist. From the age of 11 he studied solfège with Lluís Millet, the piano with María R. Canals and Juan Battista Pellicer and composition with Antonio Nicolau and Enrique Morera at the Barcelona Municipal School of Music. In 1908 Millet gave him a place in the children’s section of Orfeó Català, and later he joined the main chorus, becoming one of its deputy directors in 1946. In the same year he joined the newly founded Instituto Español de Musicología under Anglès. As a prominent choral director he conducted such choirs as the Chor Infantil Mossèn Cinto, la Escuela Coral de Tarrasa, Parroquia de S Paciano and Orfeó Lluis Millet; he taught music and was organist at the Colegio de S Ignacio de los PP Jesuítas de Sarriá and for the student group Pere Vila. In the early 1950s he became director of the schola cantorum of the Barcelona Seminary. His main area of research was Spanish folk music; having participated in many field trips throughout Catalonia, Castile and León, he began to prepare a systematic study of regional Spanish cancioneros, which is fundamental to the study of Spanish traditional folk music. His compositions include several choral works, including ...

Article

Paula Morgan

(b Patton, PA, April 2, 1927). American liturgiologist . He took two BA degrees at St Vincent College (1949 and 1952) and the MS in piano at the Juilliard School (1954), and then took further graduate courses at Columbia University. From 1957 to 1967 he was associated with St Vincent College, first as a music teacher and later in administrative positions, including those of chancellor and chairman of the board of directors. He was a member of the university seminar in medieval studies at Columbia, 1957–66. In 1967 he was appointed abbot primate of the Benedictine Confederation and in 1977 he became the Archbishop of Milwaukee. He was also music editor of the New Catholic Encyclopedia. His principal interests are medieval Latin drama and music theorists, and Ambrosian chant. He studied the compositions and theoretical writings of Hucbald, and his transcription of the Play of Daniel...