Warren Anderson, revised by Thomas J. Mathiesen
Of the works of Aristophanes’ first period (427–421
Warren Anderson, revised by Thomas J. Mathiesen
Of the works of Aristophanes’ first period (427–421
[Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius]
(b Rome, c480
Boethius’s erudition in both the practical and speculative arts attracted the attention of Theodoric the Ostrogoth, then ruler of Italy. Through Cassiodorus, Theodoric requested Boethius’s aid in various matters, including the selection of a kitharode for Clovis, King of the Franks. Cassiodorus, writing in his official capacity as quaestor, repeatedly praised Boethius’s learning. Boethius became consul in 510, and in 522 was called to Ravenna to become Theodoric’s magister officium. In 523 Cyprian, Theodoric’s referendary, brought charges of treason against a senator, Albinus, and Boethius argued in Albinus’s defence. Boethius was himself then charged and imprisoned with Albinus in Pavia, and ultimately executed....
4th or early 5th century
Calcidius departs from tradition (in his commentary on Timaeus, 35b) when he asserts that geometry rather than harmonics holds the fundamental position and is a substructure for the others (‘geometrica vicem obtinet fundamentorum ceterae vero substructionis’), but otherwise his commentary is derivative. Several short chapters (40–55; pertaining to ...
Carthage, ?early 5th century). Latin writer
. His only known work, De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii (formerly often called Satyricon because of its affinity to Menippean satire) in nine books, is a fantasy in which seven bridesmaids, one for each of the artes, decribe the arts they personify. From his own remarks it seems that he was a resident of Carthage and perhaps a lawyer by vocation, to judge from some idiosyncrasies of vocabulary and statements made in two separate places in his book. He is generally assumed to have lived before 439
Martianus’s main interest was to compile information on each of the liberal arts, couched in terms of an elaborate allegory. The direct sources for his discussions of grammar, dialectic and rhetoric are not known, but those for the quadrivial sciences are less obscure. His treatment of geometry is a geographic exercise drawn from Pliny and Solinus; that of arithmetic relies on Nicomachus and Euclid, although it is unlikely he consulted these sources directly; for astronomy, he is thought to have transmitted Posidonius through a Latin intermediary; as for music, the greater part of book 9 (Willis, §§936–95) is, with some rearrangements, deliberate or accidental omissions, and insertions of passages from other Greek or Latin sources, virtually a translation of ...
[Flavius Cassiodorus Magnus Aurelius Senator]
(b Scylacium [Scylletium; now Squillace, Calabria], c485
(b Arpinum [now Arpino], Jan 3, 106
Cicero's orations usually referred to the place of music in private life and for forensic purposes treated it as a sign of dissolute tendencies; but his treatises on rhetoric show a lively awareness of the rhythmic and melodic elements that entered into oratorical technique. The influence of Cicero's oratorical theory is most directly seen in the ...
[Aetheria, Etheria, Eucheria]
(fl late 4th century
The diary begins with remarks about Egeria's visits to eastern ecclesiastical centres such as Mount Sinai, Alexandria and Constantinople, but the bulk of the text consists in a description of the liturgy at Jerusalem. First the daily and weekly Offices are depicted in great detail, providing our best knowledge of the composite monastic and ‘cathedral’ Offices of the late 4th century. There follows, after a break in the manuscript, an account of special services throughout the liturgical year, beginning with the Epiphany and including the feast of the Presentation, Lent, Holy Week, Easter and its octave and Pentecost and its octave. The document breaks off during a description of the octave of ...
(fl Rome and Alexandria, c200
(fl Rhegium [now Reggio Calabria], c400 BC). Greek writer from the south-west coast of Italy. He was the author of a treatise (now lost) On the Ancient Poets and Musicians, a major source for portions of the Pseudo-Plutarch On Music. The musical writings of the philosopher known as Heraclides Ponticus may have been an intermediary source. Pseudo-Plutarch mentioned the author, title and contents of this treatise in On Music (1132e, 1133f, 1134d–f); at least a portion of the material on Terpander's supposed debt to Homer and Orpheus (1132f) and concerning Clonas and Archilochus (1133a) may also derive from Glaucus.
Glaucus's work apparently showed a practical concern with compositions and composer-poets; the latter he attempted to arrange in a sequence based on the line of succession from master to pupil. His familiarity with technical details recalls the expertise of Damon, his contemporary, and foreshadows that of Aristoxenus. Conjectures that he, like Aristoxenus, came from a family of musicians and was himself a professional have no support except his stress on the prior development of aulos playing and singing to aulos accompaniment. To be sure, this emphasis is strikingly evident. It provides a welcome counterbalance to the usual concentration on the kithara; moreover, it came at a time when the aulos had few champions but many attackers, among them ...
(b Zadar, 1472; d Zadar, 1538). Croatian cosmographer, mathematician, astrologer and physicist. He is known particularly for his ingenious theory of ebb and flow. In 1507–8 he taught astrology and mathematics at the university of Padua and was later active as a physician in his own town. His ideas on music are contained in two published treatises: Speculum astronomicum terminans intellectum humanum in omni scientia (Venice, 1507), which includes a chapter ‘De musica integritate’, and De modo colegiandi, pronosticandi et curandi febres (Venice, 1528). He was not an original thinker and recapitulated some late-medieval ideas, mostly concerning neo-Pythagorean speculative numerology and the theory of musical ethos as conveyed by Boethius.I. Supičić: ‘Glazba u djelu Federika Grisogona’ [Music in F. Grisogono's writings], Zbornik radova o Federiku Grisogonu, zadarskom učenjaku [Collection of essays on F. Grisogono, the scholar from Zadar] (Zadar, 1974), 143–9 S. Tuksar: ‘Federik Grisogono-Bartolačić (Federicus Chrisogonus): Pythagorean Cosmology and the Mysticism of Numbers’, ...
(b c1215; d Viterbo, Sept 10, 1279). English theologian and scientist. He was a teacher of arts in Paris (c1237–45), noted for his extensive knowledge of Aristotle and for his numerous writings on subjects ranging from the liberal arts to religion. He later joined the Dominicans and was provincial prior of the order in England between 1261 and 1272. In 1273 he was consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury and in 1278 was named Cardinal-Bishop of Porto and Santa Rufina. His introduction to all sciences (including music), De ortu scientiarum (ed. A.G. Judy, London, 1976), was possibly written about 1250, some time between his entry into the Dominican order and the completion of his theological studies.
In De ortu scientiarum Kilwardby synthesized musical ideas by earlier scholars, especially Boethius, reinterpreting some aspects on the basis of the intensive reception of Aristotle’s works. The central problem of defining the essence of music and its relationship to the other sciences was not, however, resolved satisfactorily: typically for his time, the author wavered between a Neoplatonic interpretation of music as a mathematical science and an Aristotelian one based on principles of logic and empiricism. The increasing influence of Aristotle apparent in ...
(b Gadara, 110–100
b Sarsina, Umbria, c
The abbreviations DV and C in the manuscripts of Plautus indicate the division of scenes into the two main categories of diverbium, spoken dialogue, and canticum, lines accompanied by a tibia player (tibicen). On average, nearly two-thirds of the play is occupied by canticum. There were apparently two varieties of canticum: the first was recitative, written in iambic, trochaic or anapaestic septenarii or octonarii (seven- or eight-feet lines); the second was lyric song in more intricate and variable metres, chiefly cretics, bacchics and ionics. Although a ...
(fl second half of the 6th century
Pythagoras’s teachings, prominently publicized by Philolaus (fl second half of the 5th century
[Marcus Fabius Quintilianus]
(b Calagurris, Spain, 30–35
The recognition of a relationship between music and rhetoric goes back to earlier Roman writers such as Marcus Tullius Cicero, and beyond them to ...
[Publius Terentius Afer]
(b north Africa, c190
The didascalia (prefatory information) to each of Terence's works names a slave or freedman, Flaccus, as composer of the music (modi) and mentions the kinds of double reed pipe used. These are ‘equal’ in length, ‘unequal’, ‘right’, ‘left’ or, for one play, ‘Sarranian’. Commentaries by the 4th-century grammarian Aelius Donatus also specify them for each play, and identify equal pipes as Lydian and unequal as Phrygian, but the connections he suggested between these terms and the ethos or mood of the piece seem arbitrary and should be treated with caution (Wille, 169ff)....
first half of the 5th century
[Wilhelmus Hirsaugiensis ]
(b Bavaria; d Hirsau, July 4, 1091). Benedictine writer on music and astronomy . Wilhelm was educated in the monastery of St Emmeram, Regensburg, where his works are commonly believed to have been written. He was made abbot of the monastery of Hirsau in the Black Forest in 1069, actually assuming office two years later. Although not known as a composer, he was said by one early biographer to have corrected many errors in songs, presumably plainchant; he was thus a participant in the widespread attempts of that epoch to bring traditional chant into line with new modal theories. His major work on music is presented as a dialogue with his learned teacher, Otloh of St Emmeram, although the special advantages of that method of exposition are not exploited. Possibly the work was originally conceived in another form, then mechanically transformed into a dialogue. Two of the four manuscripts of the complete text present it as one book; the other two have it as two, but divided at different points. The texts, however, appear to be substantially the same....