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Owen Wright

(fl first half of the 11th century). Arab musician and writer. The son of an eminent musician, he became a prominent singer at the Cairo court of the Fatimid caliph al-Ẓāhir (1021–36), and was still active as a teacher in 1057...

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Andrew Hughes and Randall Rosenfeld

(b ?before 1200; d Saxony, ?1272). English Franciscan theologian. He has been falsely identified with Bartholomeus de Glanvilla (fl late 13th century). He studied at Oxford and later at Paris, where he was incepted as a regent master; he joined the Franciscans about ...

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Mary Berry

(b Fontaines-lès-Dijon, 1090; d Clairvaux, 1153). French theologian, reformer and mystic. He was educated at Châtillon by the canons of St Vorles. In 1112 or 1113 he entered Cîteaux, and in 1115, in obedience to his abbot, St Stephen Harding, he left it to found Clairvaux, which was to become one of the most famous houses of the Cistercian order. Bernard was its first abbot, ruling over it until his death. Many of his written works were designed for delivery in the chapter house before his own monks. His influence, however, extended far beyond the confines of Clairvaux. He travelled throughout Europe, from Speyer to Palermo and from Madrid to Bordeaux, crossing and recrossing the Alps and the Pyrenees. He made active contributions to synods and councils, notably at Troyes (...

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Michel Huglo

(fl Paris, late 10th and early 11th centuries). French mathematician. According to two late manuscripts used by Gerbert, he compiled a mathematical treatise, Prefacio libri abaci quem junior Bernelinus edidit Parisius ( I-Rvat lat.4539, f.1; see GerbertS, i, Praefatio, no.X; RISM, B/III/2, 1968...

Article

(b c1000–02; d Füssen am Lech, Bavaria, 1083). Writer on music. He was probably born in Bavaria, and later became a canon of Augsburg Cathedral; by the middle of the 11th century he was acting as scholasticus in the cathedral choir school there. In ...

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Mary Berry

(b Cahors, c1245; d 1334). French pope. A member of a well-to-do family, he studied at Cahors, Montpellier, Paris and Orléans and taught canon and civil law at Cahors and Toulouse. In 1300 he was consecrated Bishop of Fréjus. In 1308 he became chancellor to Charles II of Naples and two years later was appointed to the See of Avignon. Raised to the purple in ...

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Luminita Florea

( fl 1351–92). English friar . He was from the Custody of Bristol and was the author-compiler of the Quatuor principalia musice ( GB-Ob Digby 90; CoussemakerS, iv, 200–98; shortened version in GB-Lbl Cotton Tiberius B.IX, ante f. 204-214r; CoussemakerS, iii, 334–64) and the scribe, maker and owner of the earliest extant copy of this work, completed at Oxford on ...

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Andreas Giger

(b c1215; d Viterbo, Sept 10, 1279). English theologian and scientist. He was a teacher of arts in Paris (c1237–45), noted for his extensive knowledge of Aristotle and for his numerous writings on subjects ranging from the liberal arts to religion. He later joined the Dominicans and was provincial prior of the order in England between ...

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Andrew Hughes and Randall Rosenfeld

(b c1232; d c1316). Mallorcan theologian and mystic. According to his Vida, Llull became seneschal to the king of Mallorca, and was a devotee of troubadour lyrics before his ‘conversion to penitence’. He did not leave an extended discussion of music as a liberal art, however, there are brief references to music among his many theological and literary works....

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Andrew Hughes and Randall Rosenfeld

(d Sens, 1222). French theologian and prelate . He was a master of theology at the University of Paris; his best-known pupil later became Pope Innocent III. Pierre received ecclesiastical preferment, becoming a canon of Notre Dame in Paris, Archdeacon of York (1198...

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Owen Wright

(b Shiraz, 1236; d Tabriz, 1311). Persian physician and scientist. The most outstanding pupil of the mathematician Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī, he is particularly known for his work in medicine, optics and astronomy. His encyclopedia, Durrat al-tāj (‘Pearl of the crown’) demonstrates his mastery of the whole range of traditional medieval scholarship, and contains within its treatment of the mathematical sciences (quadrivium) a lengthy section on music. This is mainly a restatement of the musical theory developed by ...

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F. Alberto Gallo

(b Parma, 1221; d 1288). Italian chronicler. A Franciscan, he lived at various places in central Italy and made several journeys to France. His Chronicle narrates historical events from 1167 to 1287 in a lively style, and also contains autobiographical details, some of which are of particular interest for the history of music in Italy in the mid-13th century. Salimbene had been taught singing by two brother friars, Fra Enrico da Pisa and Fra Vita da Lucca. He quoted the first lines of many poems written and set to music by Fra Enrico, and recalled Fra Vita’s skill in adapting a ...

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Luminita Florea

(bur. Bruisyard, Suffolk, 1369). Franciscan friar. He was warden of the Franciscan convent at Norwich, regent-master of the Oxford Franciscans in 1351 and the 23rd provincial minister of the Friars Minor in England c1360–69. He was buried at the Poor Clares nunnery at Bruisyard. Bale and Tanner credited Tunstede with the authorship of the ...

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F. Alberto Gallo and Gianluca D’Agostino

(b Florence, 1325; d ?1405). Italian chronicler . He completed his law studies in Florence in 1360, was chancellor of the city of Perugia 1376–81, and was lecturer on Dante in the University of Florence 1391–1404. His writings include a continuation of the Nuova cronica...

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Lawrence Gushee

(b Bavaria; d Hirsau, July 4, 1091). Benedictine writer on music and astronomy . Wilhelm was educated in the monastery of St Emmeram, Regensburg, where his works are commonly believed to have been written. He was made abbot of the monastery of Hirsau in the Black Forest in ...