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Article

Owen Wright

[Maḥmūd ibn Mas‘ūd al-Shīrāzī]

(b Shiraz, 1236; d Tabriz, 1311). Persian physician and scientist. The most outstanding pupil of the mathematician Naṣīr al-Dīn Ṭūsī, he is particularly known for his work in medicine, optics and astronomy. His encyclopedia, Durrat al-tāj (‘Pearl of the crown’) demonstrates his mastery of the whole range of traditional medieval scholarship, and contains within its treatment of the mathematical sciences (quadrivium) a lengthy section on music. This is mainly a restatement of the musical theory developed by Ṣafī al-Dīn, but is important for its attention to musical practice, particularly in its codification and description of modes and rhythmic cycles. In both areas it points to the existence of a wider range of structures than is apparent from the works of Ṣafī al-Dīn; its treatment of the modes in particular is far fuller, and is less restricted by purely theoretical concerns. It ends with the most extended, complex and precise example of notation to be found in the works of the medieval Arab and Persian theorists, a unique document which allows some insight into the nature of the compositional practice of the period with regard not only to formal, modal and rhythmic strategies but also to techniques of text setting....

Article

Owen Wright

(fl first half of the 11th century). Arab musician and writer. The son of an eminent musician, he became a prominent singer at the Cairo court of the Fatimid caliph al-Ẓāhir (1021–36), and was still active as a teacher in 1057. His music treatise, completed after 1036 and entitled Ḥāwī al-funūn wa-salwat al-maḥzūn (‘Compendium of the arts to comfort sad hearts’), is of particular interest in that it deals with various topics of little concern to other authorities. Written from the perspective of a cultured musician rather than that of a philosopher-theorist, it calls upon a literary tradition of writing about music, and its historical content is frankly derivative, even if of interest for the implication of continuity with the court music of 9th-century Baghdad. But it is wide-ranging in its treatment of contemporary practice, dealing not only with such basics as mode and rhythm, but also with such matters as the normal sequence of events in performance, deportment and etiquette, the materials and construction of the ‘...

Article

Andrew Hughes

revised by Randall Rosenfeld

(b ?before 1200; d Saxony, ?1272). English Franciscan theologian. He has been falsely identified with Bartholomeus de Glanvilla (fl late 13th century). He studied at Oxford and later at Paris, where he was incepted as a regent master; he joined the Franciscans about 1225. He taught as a lector in Magdeburg, and was subsequently elected Provincial in Austria (1247), then Bohemia (c1255); he became bishop of Łuków (1257) and was appointed papal legate. Some ten years before his death he was elected minister provincial in Saxony. While at Magdeburg he completed his De proprietatibus rerum (c1245), of which well over 100 copies in manuscript survive; the editio princeps appeared in Cologne in 1472/3 (see Bartholomaei Anglici de genuinis rerum … proprietatibus, Frankfurt, 1601/R). The text was well known in university circles, and also appeared in several vernacular translations (that of John Trevisa into English, from ...

Article

Michel Huglo

(fl Paris, late 10th and early 11th centuries). French mathematician. According to two late manuscripts used by Gerbert, he compiled a mathematical treatise, Prefacio libri abaci quem junior Bernelinus edidit Parisius ( I-Rvat lat.4539, f.1; see GerbertS, i, Praefatio, no.X; RISM, B/III/2, 1968, p.95). The treatise claims to be based on the doctrine of Gerbert d’Aurillac (d 1003) and can thus be dated to the late 10th or early 11th century. A musical treatise (GerbertS, i, 312–30; PL, cli, 651–74) is ascribed to Bernelinus in only one manuscript, I-Rvat Regin.lat.1661 (see RISM, B/III/2, p.119). It comprises two sections; the first, Dimidium proslambenomenos (GerbertS, i, 312), sometimes appears, anonymously, separately from the second, Rogatus a pluribus (GerbertS, i, 314), as for example in GB-Lbl Harl.3199, f.69v (RISM, B/III/4, 1992, p.82) and I-CEc S.XXVI.1, f.177v; and, according to Smits van Waesberghe, Berno (...

Article

Mary Berry

(b Fontaines-lès-Dijon, 1090; d Clairvaux, 1153). French theologian, reformer and mystic. He was educated at Châtillon by the canons of St Vorles. In 1112 or 1113 he entered Cîteaux, and in 1115, in obedience to his abbot, St Stephen Harding, he left it to found Clairvaux, which was to become one of the most famous houses of the Cistercian order. Bernard was its first abbot, ruling over it until his death. Many of his written works were designed for delivery in the chapter house before his own monks. His influence, however, extended far beyond the confines of Clairvaux. He travelled throughout Europe, from Speyer to Palermo and from Madrid to Bordeaux, crossing and recrossing the Alps and the Pyrenees. He made active contributions to synods and councils, notably at Troyes (1128), Pisa (1135), Sens (1140) and Reims (1148). At Troyes he was responsible for establishing the Order of the Knights Templar and he may have been the author of their Rule. He supported Pope Innocent II against the antipope Anacletus II at the disputed election after the death of Honorius II in ...

Article

Andrew Hughes

revised by Randall Rosenfeld

(d Sens, 1222). French theologian and prelate . He was a master of theology at the University of Paris; his best-known pupil later became Pope Innocent III. Pierre received ecclesiastical preferment, becoming a canon of Notre Dame in Paris, Archdeacon of York (1198), Bishop of Cambrai (1199) and Archbishop of Sens (1200). He led the council at Paris in 1210 which forbade the public teaching and private reading of Aristotle's works on natural history. As archbishop Pierre was a respected familiar of King Philip Augustus. Of his works, including sermons and commentaries, very few have survived. An Office of the Assumption, used at Sens until the 17th century, and the Office for Circumcision are attributed to him.

It is on the latter that his musical reputation is founded. In 1198 Cardinal Peter of Capua, papal legate for France, addressed a letter to the Bishop and cathedral chapter of Paris concerning the Feast of Fools which traditionally took place on the Feast of Circumcision and which had become the focus for much abuse. This document, an attempt to regulate the celebration of the feast, sets guidelines including prescriptions for processions and the performance of liturgical items ‘in organo, vel triplo, vel quadruplo’. Reference to ‘quadruplo’ at once suggests the four-voice compositions of Parisian composers associated with Notre Dame. Other works of the Notre Dame repertory are, furthermore, associated with Sens; it seems possible that Pierre, who is named among the other members of the chapter, responded to the cardinal's letter by writing an Office for the Feast of Circumcision, and by taking the decrees on musical practice with him to Sens....

Article

F. Alberto Gallo

[Salimbene da Parma]

(b Parma, 1221; d 1288). Italian chronicler. A Franciscan, he lived at various places in central Italy and made several journeys to France. His Chronicle narrates historical events from 1167 to 1287 in a lively style, and also contains autobiographical details, some of which are of particular interest for the history of music in Italy in the mid-13th century. Salimbene had been taught singing by two brother friars, Fra Enrico da Pisa and Fra Vita da Lucca. He quoted the first lines of many poems written and set to music by Fra Enrico, and recalled Fra Vita’s skill in adapting a contracantus to a cantus – that is, in composing polyphonic music. In the course of the work he mentioned the musical talent of a number of people, for example Emperor Frederick II, of whom he said that he could sing and compose cantilene and cantiones, and Fra Guidolinus Ianuarius da Parma, who he said sang secular songs very well. There are also descriptions of musical performances. During Carnival at Reggio people sang and danced in the street (‘in strata publica choreiçando cantabant’). A group of young people performed in a courtyard at Pisa:...

Article

(b c1000–02; d Füssen am Lech, Bavaria, 1083). Writer on music. He was probably born in Bavaria, and later became a canon of Augsburg Cathedral; by the middle of the 11th century he was acting as scholasticus in the cathedral choir school there. In 1083, as the result of a conspiracy, Henricus was expelled from Augsburg at the same time as his bishop, Wigold. He sought refuge in the monastery of St Mang in Füssen, where he died and was buried. There is insufficient evidence to confirm his identification with Honorius Augustodunensis (see Flint).

Henricus's teachings on music are assembled in a treatise entitled De musica. This survives only in a south German manuscript ( A-Wn cpv 51), which has a lacuna at the end of the treatise. The work is set out in the form of a dialogue between pupil and teacher, a very popular literary technique used two centuries earlier by the author of the ...

Article

Mary Berry

[Duèse, Jacques ]

(b Cahors, c1245; d 1334). French pope. A member of a well-to-do family, he studied at Cahors, Montpellier, Paris and Orléans and taught canon and civil law at Cahors and Toulouse. In 1300 he was consecrated Bishop of Fréjus. In 1308 he became chancellor to Charles II of Naples and two years later was appointed to the See of Avignon. Raised to the purple in 1312, he was created Cardinal-priest of S Vitale and, in 1313, Cardinal-Bishop of Oporto. His election to the papacy came in 1316; at a time of great confusion and discord this elderly candidate with his ailing appearance was acceptable because it seemed unlikely that he would live long. He was, however, to prove an energetic and authoritarian ruler during his reign at Avignon. In 1317 he dissolved the Spiritual Franciscans and denounced as heretical their doctrine of total poverty. His conflict with Louis of Bavaria ended only with the recantation in ...

Article

Luminita Florea

( fl 1351–92). English friar . He was from the Custody of Bristol and was the author-compiler of the Quatuor principalia musice ( GB-Ob Digby 90; CoussemakerS, iv, 200–98; shortened version in GB-Lbl Cotton Tiberius B.IX, ante f. 204-214r; CoussemakerS, iii, 334–64) and the scribe, maker and owner of the earliest extant copy of this work, completed at Oxford on 4 August 1351 and donated by John to the Oxford Franciscans in 1388 with the assent of Thomas de Kingsbury, the 26th provincial minister of the Franciscan order in England. Another book of which John was the author-compiler, scribe, maker and owner, containing the astronomical treatise De situ universorum and two smaller tracts ( GB-Mch 6681), was compiled some time between 1356 (or 1357) and (possibly) 1371, and it includes an explicit date of 1392; several passages in this work indicate that he had been at the Oxford Franciscan convent on ...

Article

Andreas Giger

(b c1215; d Viterbo, Sept 10, 1279). English theologian and scientist. He was a teacher of arts in Paris (c1237–45), noted for his extensive knowledge of Aristotle and for his numerous writings on subjects ranging from the liberal arts to religion. He later joined the Dominicans and was provincial prior of the order in England between 1261 and 1272. In 1273 he was consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury and in 1278 was named Cardinal-Bishop of Porto and Santa Rufina. His introduction to all sciences (including music), De ortu scientiarum (ed. A.G. Judy, London, 1976), was possibly written about 1250, some time between his entry into the Dominican order and the completion of his theological studies.

In De ortu scientiarum Kilwardby synthesized musical ideas by earlier scholars, especially Boethius, reinterpreting some aspects on the basis of the intensive reception of Aristotle’s works. The central problem of defining the essence of music and its relationship to the other sciences was not, however, resolved satisfactorily: typically for his time, the author wavered between a Neoplatonic interpretation of music as a mathematical science and an Aristotelian one based on principles of logic and empiricism. The increasing influence of Aristotle apparent in ...

Article

Andrew Hughes

revised by Randall Rosenfeld

[Ramón [Lull, Raymond; Lullus, Raymondus]

(b c1232; d c1316). Mallorcan theologian and mystic. According to his Vida, Llull became seneschal to the king of Mallorca, and was a devotee of troubadour lyrics before his ‘conversion to penitence’. He did not leave an extended discussion of music as a liberal art, however, there are brief references to music among his many theological and literary works.

In his Ars brevis Llull defined music as ‘the art devised to arrange many voices so that they may be concordant in a single song’, a definition he used in other works. The treatment of his Ars generalis ultima considers music from the standpoint of his unusal theory of cognition. More typical of his writing is the passage in his Libre de doctrina pueril, ‘De les vii arts’, which compares the clergy singing in praise of God with minstrels expressing worldly vanity in songs and on instruments. He put great stress on reforming worldly entertainment into morally improving works, and proposed the idea of divine troubadours in two works, ...

Article

Gordon A. Anderson

revised by C. Matthew Balensuela

[Rodulfus Sancti TrudonisRudolf of St Trond]

(b Moustiers-sur-Sambre, nr Namur, c. 1070; d St Truiden, 1138). South Netherlandish ecclesiastic. He was abbot of St Truiden (north-east of Liège) from 1108 until his death. He began the Gesta abbatum Trudonensium (ed. in PL, vol.173, 33–434; and Monumenta Germaniae historica, Scriptores, vol.10 Hanover, 1852/R, 227–317), in which he described all aspects of monastic life including musical practice at St Truiden and the teaching of boy scholars according to the methods of Guido of Arezzo. An anonymous tract Quaestiones in musica has sometimes been attributed to him, probably incorrectly (see Anonymous theoretical writings).

MGG1 (‘Rodulfus von Sint Truiden’; P. Fischer)R. Steglich: Die Quaestiones in musica: ein Choraltraktat des zentralen Mittelalters und ihr mutmasslicher Verfasser, Rudolf von St Trond (1070–1138) (Leipzig, 1911/R)J. Smits van Waesberghe: Muziekgeschiedenis der Middeleeuwen, vol.1 (Tilburg, 1936–9), 253–7M. McCormick: ‘Rudolf of St Trond’, ...

Article

Luminita Florea

[Friar of Bristol]

(bur. Bruisyard, Suffolk, 1369). Franciscan friar. He was warden of the Franciscan convent at Norwich, regent-master of the Oxford Franciscans in 1351 and the 23rd provincial minister of the Friars Minor in England c1360–69. He was buried at the Poor Clares nunnery at Bruisyard. Bale and Tanner credited Tunstede with the authorship of the Quatuor principalia musice ( GB-Ob Digby 90; CoussemakerS, iv, 200–298). Tanner referred to a copy of the Quatuor principalia found in the manuscript Gb-Ob Bodley 515 and equated this text (as Anthony Wood had done before him) with De musica continua et discreta cum diagrammatibus. The Quatuor principalia was subsequently regarded as the work of an anonymous Franciscan from Bristol, but is in fact by John. Tunstede wrote commentaries on Aristotle's Meteorica and on Albion, a description by Richard Wallingford, Abbot of St Albans, of an astronomical instrument invented in 1326.

J. Bale...

Article

F. Alberto Gallo

revised by Gianluca D’Agostino

(b Florence, 1325; d ?1405). Italian chronicler . He completed his law studies in Florence in 1360, was chancellor of the city of Perugia 1376–81, and was lecturer on Dante in the University of Florence 1391–1404. His writings include a continuation of the Nuova cronica (ed. G.C. Galletti, Florence, 1847), begun by his uncle Giovanni and continued by his father Matteo, a commentary (surviving incomplete) on Dante's Commedia, and the two-volume Liber de origine civitatis Florentiae et eiusdem famosis civibus (ed. G.C. Galletti, Florence, 1847; ed. G. Tanturli, Padua, 1997). The second volume mentions several 14th-century musicians, including Bartolo, Lorenzo da Firenze, Giovanni da Cascia and Jacopo da Bologna; it also includes a biography of Francesco Landini. For the latter this is the most detailed account to survive (although some of it is now thought to be spurious) and was used as a source of information for references to the composer throughout the 15th century....

Article

Lawrence Gushee

[Wilhelmus Hirsaugiensis ]

(b Bavaria; d Hirsau, July 4, 1091). Benedictine writer on music and astronomy . Wilhelm was educated in the monastery of St Emmeram, Regensburg, where his works are commonly believed to have been written. He was made abbot of the monastery of Hirsau in the Black Forest in 1069, actually assuming office two years later. Although not known as a composer, he was said by one early biographer to have corrected many errors in songs, presumably plainchant; he was thus a participant in the widespread attempts of that epoch to bring traditional chant into line with new modal theories. His major work on music is presented as a dialogue with his learned teacher, Otloh of St Emmeram, although the special advantages of that method of exposition are not exploited. Possibly the work was originally conceived in another form, then mechanically transformed into a dialogue. Two of the four manuscripts of the complete text present it as one book; the other two have it as two, but divided at different points. The texts, however, appear to be substantially the same....