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Carolyn Gianturco

(b Verdello, Sept 14, 1898; d Bergamo, Jan 22, 1981). Italian music critic. He took a diploma in composition at the Turin Conservatory (1929) and studied musicology with Cesari. His career as a critic was centred in Milan; after working on Secolo sera (1928–34), he succeeded Cesari at Corriere della sera, remaining there until his retirement (1973). In 1949 he founded the monthly journal La scala, which he edited until its closure in 1963; he was particularly interested in opera, especially its authentic performance. Abbiati also published a history of music in five volumes (1939–46), which he later updated and revised in four volumes (1967–8). This was well received, although (being the work of a single author) it was inevitably incomplete; the comments in the second edition on 20th-century composers, notably Italian composers of Abbiati’s own generation, are especially valuable as a contemporary response. His four-volume work on Verdi (...


Israel J. Katz

(b Berlin, May 30, 1872; d Berlin, Jan 24, 1926). German physician and psychologist. He graduated in medicine at Berlin University in 1894, and thereafter dedicated himself primarily to psychoacoustics and the physiology of music. From 1896 to 1905 he was assistant professor under Carl Stumpf at the Psychological Institute of Berlin University (which in 1905 became the Berlin Phonogramm-Archiv). In 1900, when Hornbostel joined the staff, Abraham and Stumpf recorded on wax cylinders a visiting Siamese court orchestra – the first German attempt to record non-Western music. Abraham also recorded music from South Africa in the same year. In 1901 he published an article on absolute pitch which later (1906) resulted in a polemic between him and Auerbach. Adopting Stumpf's methods, Abraham and Hornbostel entered into a collaboration which laid the foundation for comparative musicology; he also collaborated with the physiologist and otologist K.L. Schaefer (...


Ricardo Miranda Pérez

(b Mexico City, Dec 5, 1938). Mexican musicologist, writer and critic. He studied at the Conservatorio Nacional de Música under Armando Montiel, Esperanza Pulido and José Pablo Moncayo. He was also a pupil of Otto Mayer-Serra. At the beginning of his career he dedicated himself to composition, which led him to take courses at the Paris Conservatoire as well as spending time in Darmstadt, Venice and London, where he took instruction from Daniel Lesur, Pierre Boulez, Bruno Maderna and Pierre Wissmer. Among his most important compositions are works for stage and film, which have earned him several prizes. Nevertheless, his most important work is in the fields of criticism and research, although his valuable contributions in the fields of theatre and opera production must also be remembered. As a critic, Alcaraz has played a fundamental role in making diverse repertories known in Mexico, ranging from ancient to contemporary music. He has insistently disseminated and analysed the Mexican repertory, particularly that of the 20th century. His knowledge, combined with a keen sense of humour and a stance legendary for being radical and uncompromising, has made him into one of the most authoritative and recognized critical voices in Mexico and Latin America. As a musicologist, Alcaraz has occupied himself with the discussion and assessment of the Mexican school of the 20th century. His works on composers such as Carlos Chávez, Rodolfo Halffter and José Pablo Moncayo are fundamental, as are his numerous essays on authors such as Rolón, Carillo, Huízar, Revueltas, Sandi, Galindo Dimas, Enríquez and Estrada. As a music critic, he has written for over 20 years (since ...


Larisa Georgievna Danko

[Glebov, Igor′]

(b St Petersburg, 17/July 29, 1884; d Moscow, Jan 27, 1949). Russian musicologist, composer and critic. He studied at the St Petersburg Conservatory from 1904 to 1910 with Rimsky-Korsakov and Lyadov, and graduated in 1908 from the faculty of history and philology of the University of St Petersburg. From 1910 he worked as a repetiteur; from 1916 edited and composed ballet music and from 1919 was a member of the board of directors and repertory consultant at the Mariinsky and Mikhaylovsky Theatres. In 1919 he became head of the Central Library for State Musical Theatres. In the same year, in association with Lyapunov and Bulich, he organized the music department at the Petrograd Institute for the History of the Arts (now the Zubov Institute for the History of the Arts); he was its director from 1921. Between 1922 and 1925 he was responsible for the organization there of concerts of contemporary music. He was made a professor at the Leningrad Conservatory in ...


Ronit Seter

[Berman, Bernhardt]

(b Wiesbaden, July 20, 1923). Israeli critic, composer and musicologist. He moved to Mandatory Palestine in 1936. After studying composition with Paul Ben-Haim, his most influential teacher, Bar-Am attended the Ecole Normale de Paris (1949–51). He studied musicology at Tel-Aviv University (BA 1977), where he became the principal lecturer for courses on Jewish music and Israeli contemporary music (1973–96) and the first director of the Archive of Israeli Music. The secretary general of the Israeli League of Composers (1960–76, 1976–8), he became chair of the organizing committee of the ISCM in Israel in 1980. Though most influential as the music critic of the Jerusalem Post between 1958 and 1995, Bar-Am also wrote many essays on Israeli music in Hebrew, English and German, notably ‘A Musical Gateway between East and West’ (Jerusalem Post, 20 April 1988). He ceased composing in the early 1970s but resumed in ...


David Trippett

(b Créteil, France, Nov 30, 1907; d San Antonio, TX, October 25, 2012). Cultural historian, critic, and teacher of French birth. Born into the artistic environs of French modernism, he wrote widely on Western culture and its documents, founding the discipline of cultural history at Columbia University, where he spent his academic career.

After leaving France for America in 1920, he attended Columbia University (BA 1927, PhD 1932) where he lectured on contemporary civilization from 1927, becoming assistant professor (1937), professor (1945), Seth Low Professor of History (1955), Provost (1958–67), and University Professor (1967–75). He also served as president of the American Academy of Arts (1972–5, 1977–8), and was made an Extraordinary Fellow of Churchill College, Cambridge University in 1960.

Barzun regarded culture as a fabric of interwoven ideas which historians should trace through time, and between which exist a series of links: “because culture is a web of many strands; none is spun by itself, nor is any cut off at a fixed date.” He viewed music through the prism of a broader culture, typified in the scope of ...


Yury Keldïsh

revised by Iosif Genrikhovich Rayskin

(b Uralsk region, Feb 6, 1888; d Moscow, Feb 16, 1968). Russian musicologist, folksong scholar and music critic. He graduated in 1914 in composition from the Petrograd Conservatory, where he had studied with Glazunov, Lyadov and Jāzeps Vītols. Having joined the staff of the conservatory the previous year, he was appointed senior lecturer in 1916 and professor of theory in 1919. After the October Revolution he participated in the work of various state musical organizations, and in 1922, after moving to Moscow, he was elected a member of the Academy of Artistic Sciences. During the 1920s he was an active figure in the Association for Contemporary Music, whose journal Sovremennaya muzïka (‘Contemporary Music’) he edited together with V.V. Derzhanovsky and L.L. Sabaneyev. He also pursued a wide range of activities as a music critic, writing for Soviet and foreign publications. Belyayev taught at the Moscow Conservatory (1938–40...


John Edward Hasse

[Rudolph] (Pickett)

(b Guthrie, OK, Jan 21, 1899; d Gilmanton, NH, Aug 25, 1985). American writer on music. He attended Dartmouth College and earned the BS in architecture from the University of California, Berkeley. In the 1940s he served as jazz critic for the San Francisco Chronicle and the New York Herald Tribune. He wrote a pioneering serious history of jazz, Shining Trumpets (1946), and with Harriet Janis was co-author of the first history of ragtime, They All Played Ragtime (1950). The latter work established him as the leading authority in this field, and eventually prompted a revival of the music. Also with Janis, he founded Circle Records, a small but significant jazz label which became the first to issue the Library of Congress recordings of Jelly Roll Morton. In 1953 they sold Circle Records – apart from the Morton recordings – to Jazzology Records. From 1947 to 1950...


(b Lisbon, Oct 12, 1890; d Lisbon, Nov 27, 1955). Portuguese composer, teacher, musicologist and critic. He studied composition in Lisbon privately with Augusto Machado and Tomás Borba, then with Désiré Pâque and Luigi Mancinelli. He also studied the piano and the violin. He completed his studies in Berlin with Humperdinck and Pâque (1910) and in Paris with Grovlez (1911). After his marriage he lived on Madeira for two years, returning to Lisbon in 1914. He taught at the Lisbon Conservatory (1916–39), later becoming its assistant director (1919–24). There he worked with Mota in the major reforms which began in 1918. At the same time he established himself as a composer, musicologist, critic and lecturer and slowly rose to a position of fundamental importance in Portuguese musical life. As a teacher, he also played an important role in the preparation of a new generation of composers. In the 1930s, he began to have difficulties with the political authorities and in ...


Jürg Stenzl

(b Zürich, May 31, 1923). Swiss musicologist and music critic. He studied at Zürich Conservatory and at Zürich University, where he took the doctorate with Hindemith in 1955 with a dissertation on the concept of time in music. After working for a short time at Radio Zürich, he served as assistant professor of music history and music theory at the University of Pennsylvania (1955–64). In 1964 he was appointed music critic of the Neue Zürcher Zeitung, and the following year succeeded Willi Schuh as its music editor. He retired in 1988. Like his predecessor, Briner based his critical judgments of the works being performed on a detailed analysis of the score. Briner is known primarily for his work on Hindemith, having written one of the first comprehensive studies on the composer ever published (1971); he has also examined 20th-century Swiss composers and the music history of Zürich. He was appointed president of the Paul Hindemith Foundation in ...


Rosemary Williamson

(b London, Aug 3, 1906; d Marlborough, Sept 27, 1975). English writer on music. At London University he took the BSc (1929) and BMus (1939). After teaching music at Belle Vue High School, Bradford (1939–44), and serving as a radio and telegraph instructor with the RAF, he taught physics at Marlborough Grammar School, where he was head of the science department (1945–66).

Brown was the leading Schubert scholar of his generation. His work was notable for its disciplined accuracy and depth, balance and perception, and was informed both by his thorough knowledge of the progress of Schubert research and by his enthusiasm for the music under discussion. His knowledge of and delight in literature contributed greatly to his understanding of the devices of word-setting in lieder. The other major subject of his research was Chopin: he compiled the standard thematic index of his works and studied their publishing history....


(b 1843–4; d ?1917). English translator . He was a scholar of Oriel College, Oxford (BA 1866), and was ordained in the Church of England in 1868. He was choirmaster and organist of Christ Church, Marylebone, London, from 1878 to 1882.

For the production of Così fan tutte (at that time rarely staged) by the Royal College of Music at the Savoy Theatre in 1890, he wrote an amusing and elegant English version, ‘translated and adapted from the original Italian and the German paraphrase’, in a style Richard Brinsley Sheridan would not have disdained. It was published in vocal score by Novello, with the characters Fiordiligi and Guglielmo renamed Isidora and Gratiano, presumably for the convenience of English tongues. The long survival of this version, with modifications, extended to the ENO production of 1990. Browne also translated Cornelius’s Der Barbier von Bagdad (RCM, Savoy, 1891) and Hermann Goetz’s ...


Gerald Abraham

(b Marseilles, Oct 2, 1877; d London, Feb 1, 1944). Critic and musicologist of Greek parentage, French birth and English adoption. Calvocoressi studied classics at the Lycée Janson de Sailly, Paris, and entered the law faculty but soon abandoned law to study harmony with Xavier Leroux at the Conservatoire. Here he formed a lifelong friendship with Ravel. In 1902 he embarked on a career as critic and also as music correspondent of English, American, German and Russian periodicals. He was a remarkable polyglot, and from 1904 he specialized in the translation of song texts, opera librettos and books – ultimately from languages as unfamiliar as Russian and Hungarian, and into both French and English. He also began to champion Russian music, particularly Musorgsky's, but his earliest book was on Liszt. From 1905 to 1914 he lectured at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes Sociales, mainly on contemporary music. Calvocoressi was principal French adviser to Diaghilev when the latter was introducing Russian orchestral music, opera and ballet to Paris (...


John Tyrrell and Geoffrey Chew

(b Ptení, nr Prostějov, Moravia, Dec 19, 1882; d Brno, Oct 13, 1961). Czech musicologist and critic. He studied history at the universities of Prague and Kraków (1901–5); he also attended music lectures at Prague University. At first he taught in a school in Hradec Králové (1905–8), where he was also active as accompanist and choir conductor. In 1918 he moved to Brno where, in addition to his school post, he taught music history at the conservatory (1919–39). After the war he continued to teach at the conservatory until his retirement. He also lectured at the Janáček Academy and at the university. He wrote two standard Czech histories of music. His Dějepis hudby continued to be used in revised editions for over 60 years.

Between the wars Černušák was music critic of the influential Lidové noviny and was a frequent broadcaster and lecturer. His most lasting contribution, however, was his dictionary work. He wrote the music articles for general Czech encyclopedias such as ...


Ferruccio Tammaro

(b Cremona, June 24, 1870; d Sale Marasino, Brescia, Oct 21, 1934). Italian musicologist, critic and double bass player. Besides the double bass, he studied the violin, cello and flute at the Milan Conservatory (1888–91); while visiting Hamburg on tour with the Bimboni orchestra in 1894 he attended the lectures of Julius Bernuth and Arnold Krug at the conservatory there. After taking up his education again in 1903, he took the doctorate in 1908 at Munich University under Sandberger, Kroyer and Lipps, concurrently taking an MA in music under Felix Mottl at the Munich Akademie der Tonkunst. From 1910 he contributed to the newspaper Il secolo, the Rivista musicale italiana and the Revue de pays latins, subsequently working as music critic of the Corriere della sera (1920–34) and correspondent of the Revue de musicologie (1929–34). He was also librarian of the Milan Conservatory (...


H. Wiley Hitchcock

(b Havana, Sept 4, 1906; d Chapel Hill, NC, Feb 22, 1992). American music historian and critic. He studied at Columbia University and the University of North Carolina (AB), and privately (piano, music theory) with Max Drittler in New York and Max Weld in Paris. He was awarded the honorary LLD degree from the University of Miami, Florida (1955). From 1929 to 1935 he was music critic in Paris for the continental edition of the London Daily Mail and correspondent for Musical America and the Musical Times. He was associate editor of the International Cyclopedia of Music and Musicians (1938) and of the fourth edition of Baker’s Biographical Dictionary of Musicians (1940). From 1940 to 1943 he served as Latin American specialist in the music division of the Library of Congress, from 1943 to 1947 as educational music supervisor at NBC. He was American cultural attaché in Lima and Buenos Aires (...


Tat′yana S. Kyuregyan

(b Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine, Sept 1, 1952; d Moscow, Nov 28, 2003). Russian musicologist, cultural historian and music journalist. She studied musicology under Yu.N. Kholopov (1969–76) at the Moscow Conservatory, where she also completed her postgraduate studies. She obtained the Kanditat degree in philosophical sciences in 1979 and the doctorate in 1989. She taught aesthetics and the history of culture at the Moscow Conservatory from 1979 and was appointed senior lecturer in 1988 and professor in 1991. In 1993 she was made head of the department created at the conservatory to assist the post-Soviet reform in the teaching of social sciences. She wrote more than 100 items on matters concerning musical aesthetics, the avant garde and post-avant garde, the history of 20th-century musical theatre and the theory of mass culture. As an expert on reconstituting literary texts, she took part in reconstructing a number of Russian operas including Pashkevich's ...


Viorel Cosma

(b Botoşani, Feb 2, 1890; d Bucharest, June 13, 1962). Romanian writer on music and critic. He studied music history and the violin at the Iaşi Conservatory (1906–8), and at the Leipzig Conservatory (1912–14) with Arnold Schering. He studied law in Paris, taking the doctorate at the Sorbonne. He taught music history at the Pro-Arte Conservatory in Bucharest (1936–9) and became director of the Enescu PO (1945–7). Ciomac wrote criticism and scholarly articles for numerous periodicals and also made Romanian translations of oratorio and opera librettos, including Ariadne auf Naxos, Prince Igor, Gounod’s Faust, and Enescu’s Oedipe. An excellent orator, he was much in demand as a lecturer in Romania and throughout Europe, and became one of the most respected Romanian teachers of the first half of the 20th century.

George Enescu (Bucharest, 1915) Viaţa şi opera lui Richard Wagner...


David Tunley

(b Sydney, Feb 1, 1931). Australian musicologist, music critic and conductor. He graduated from the University of Queensland with the BA in 1964 and founded the department of music at the University of New South Wales, Sydney, in 1966 (the university first offered music as an interdisciplinary study before it established an institute of practical studies and music education). He took the doctorate at New South Wales in 1976 and was appointed Chair in 1984. His work covers a broad spectrum and includes writings on 17th-century Italian and 19th-century German and French opera, but his major contribution has been in Australian music. His Australia's Music: Themes of a New Society (1967) is regarded as the classic study on this topic, and his insights into the Australian repertory (and beyond) have been sharpened through his work as chief music critic at the Sydney Morning Herald (from 1960...


F.E. Sparshott

revised by Naomi Cumming

(b Pescasseroli, nr Aquila, Feb 25, 1866; d Naples, Nov 20, 1952). Italian philosopher, historian and critic. In its original and most influential formulation Croce's aesthetic theory is part of a general philosophy of civilization (largely derived from Vico and Hegel). Croce's view is both ‘idealist’ and ‘historicist’. His idealism is evident when he poses a strong contrast between ‘intuition’ and ‘intellect’, and argues that art is ‘intuition without intellectual relations’ (1915). His emphasis on the intuitive is motivated by a resistance to contemporary positivism, which gave weight to scientific understanding. His ‘intuition’ is a form of non-conceptual, non-experimental activity. It does not, however, consist in introspective knowledge, or vague impressions which can be known apart from any tangible form. Rather, that which is ‘known’ intuitively is grasped only in its expression (‘The spirit only intuits by making, forming, expressing’, 1902, Eng. trans., 1992, 8–9). ‘Expression’ itself gains an unusual meaning by this association with the intuitive. If the act of ‘expressing’ gives content to the intuition, it cannot be claimed that the expression is of something already ‘known’, as if intuition and expression were two separate things. To say that art ‘expresses’ intuitions is to say that it brings a state to clear and explicit consciousness by giving it a material and perceptible form....