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Ann Willison Lemke

[Bettine, Elisabeth]

(b Frankfurt, April 4, 1785; d Berlin, Jan 20, 1859). German writer, editor, publisher, composer, singer, visual artist and patron of young artists. Although known today primarily for her writing and her illustrious associates, Bettine was also a talented musician. She composed songs in a simple folk style, choosing texts by poets she knew and loved, including Goethe, Achim von Armin, and her brother, Clemens Brentano. She helped gather songs for Armin and Brentano’s influential collection Des Knaben Wunderhorn (1806–8) and decades later published a fourth volume based on their notes (ed. Ludwig Erk, 1854). From 1808 to 1809 she studied singing and composition with Peter von Winter and the piano with Sebastian Bopp in Munich. Her first two songs appeared under the pseudonym ‘Beans Beor’ (‘blessing I am blessed’) with Arnim’s literary works. After her crucial meeting with Beethoven in Vienna (May, 1810), she mediated between him and Goethe....

Article

Frank Howes and Christina Bashford

(b Blackheath, London, July 11, 1847; d London, Jan 22, 1937). English amateur violinist, patron and lexicographer. Cobbett's efforts in the field of chamber music were important to the development of the English musical renaissance and to the cultivation and appreciation of chamber music in Britain; he is noted in particular for editing Cobbett's Cyclopedic Survey of Chamber Music (2 vols., London, 1929–30; rev. 2/1963 by C. Mason). In an autobiographical article, ‘The Chamber Music Life’, published in this encyclopedia, he related how he studied the violin with Joseph Dando, received a Guadagnini violin from his father and was fired with a lifelong enthusiasm for chamber music after hearing Joachim play at St James's Hall. From that time he played chamber music regularly at home, and also led several amateur orchestras, including the Strolling Players Orchestral Society. He became a connoisseur of violins and delighted in lending instruments from his fine collection to suitable players....

Article

Susan Au

[Lincoln Edward]

(b Rochester, NY, May 4, 1907; d New York, Jan 5, 1996). American impresario, arts patron, writer, editor, and ballet company director. He was the embodiment of a twentieth-century Renaissance man, blessed not only with many diverse talents and interests but also with the financial resources and connections to realize his visions. His achievements spanned the arts of dance, theater, painting, sculpture, photography, film, and literature, but he is perhaps best known for his decades-long association with choreographer George Balanchine and the school and ballet company they founded together.

He was educated at Harvard, earning Bachelor’s (1929) and Master’s (1930) degrees. Although he first saw Anna Pavlova dance in Boston when he was thirteen, his passion for dance did not take fire until he saw Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes in Europe. Among Diaghilev’s dancers and choreographers was Balanchine, whom he first met in 1933. Balanchine came to the United States at his invitation, and opened the School of American Ballet in New York City in ...

Article

Paul C. Echols

revised by Esther R. Crookshank

(b New York, NY, March 8, 1839; d Poland Springs, ME, July 10, 1909). American philanthropist, activist, composer, and hymnal compiler. She was the daughter of lay Methodist evangelists Phoebe Palmer (1807–74), considered the founder of the American Holiness movement, and medical doctor Walter Palmer. The younger Phoebe began composing hymns and songs as a child; two of her earliest tunes, set to hymn texts by her mother, were published in Joseph Hillman’s revival song collection, The Revivalist (1868). At 16 she married Joseph F. Knapp, later founder of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company of New York. As a wealthy society woman in New York, she entertained dignitaries, including four American presidents, at evening musicales held regularly in her home; a trained singer, she often performed at these events. She also hosted religious leaders, social reformers including Harriet Beecher Stowe, and female gospel hymn writers such as Fanny Crosby, with whom she formed a close friendship. In the late 1860s, Knapp wrote her most successful piece, the tune “Assurance,” to Crosby’s text “Blessed assurance, Jesus is mine.” It was circulated internationally after Ira D. Sankey included it in ...