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Article

Simon Towneley and Derek McCulloch

[Bertie, Willoughby]

(b Gainsborough, Jan 16, 1740; d Rycote, Sept 26, 1799). English music patron, composer, and political writer. He was educated at Westminster and Oxford (MA 1761) and spent several years in Europe. In Geneva (1765) he met Grétry, who wrote a flute concerto for him based on the improvisations he had played to Grétry to demonstrate his prowess. He spent time in Geneva with the exiled politician John Wilkes and met Voltaire in nearby Ferney. From the mid 1770s he was much involved in the musical and political life of Britain. He was brought into close contact with J.C. Bach and C.F. Abel through his brother-in-law Giovanni Gallini, who was concerned in the organization of the Bach-Abel subscription concerts, which the Earl is said to have subsidized. At his request, Abel composed Four Trios: Two for Two Flutes and a Bass op.16 and J.C. Bach is the author of one of two trios composed for the earl, ‘selected’ and published by Monzani in about ...

Article

(b Berlin, Nov 9, 1723; d Berlin, March 30, 1787). German patron, amateur musician and composer. The youngest sister of Frederick the Great, she seems to have sought and received his advice on musical matters. A music exercise book, dated 1735, which she shared with her sister Luise Ulrike, indicates an early commitment to musical studies, but it is not certain precisely when Amalia’s formal musical training began. By 1740 she and Ulrike were receiving regular instruction from the cathedral organist, Gottfried Hayne (1684–1758), and this continued until 1742. Amalia apparently reached a high level of accomplishment as a player of stringed keyboard instruments and in about 1755 began to devote herself enthusiastically to playing the organ. Although contemporary reports, including her own letters, suggest that she also played the lute, the violin and the flute, they indicate that she was far less proficient on those instruments....

Article

Roger J.V. Cotte

[Ennal, Charles-Ernest]

(b Fockenhof, Kurland, Feb 14, 1722; d Paris, March 24, 1791). French dilettante, amateur violinist and composer, patron of the arts and instrument collector. A magnificent and very wealthy nobleman, he both amused and astounded his contemporaries. M. Audinot in his comic opera La musicomanie (1779), and possibly E.T.A. Hoffmann in his tale Die Serapionsbrüder (1819), attempted to evoke his strange personality, emphasizing its ridiculous nature.

At the death of his father, a landed nobleman, in 1747, Bagge inherited a large fortune which enabled him to study the violin in Italy with Tartini. By 1750 he had settled in Paris; in the following year he was awarded the title chambellan du Roi de Prusse (then Frederick II) and married the daughter of the Swiss banker Jacob Maudry. With Maudry's death in 1762 the very large inheritance proved a source of contention to the ill-matched couple and they soon separated. Bagge later attempted to gain possession of the inheritance of Mme Maudry, who had died in ...

Article

Linda Troost

(b Fonthill, Sept 29, 1760; d Bath, May 2, 1844). English writer, patron and amateur composer. He is chiefly remembered as author of the oriental tale Vathek (1786). Although he was an accomplished performer on the harpsichord and pianoforte, it is unlikely that, as he later claimed, Beckford studied with Mozart when both were children. Beckford met Pacchierotti in Italy in 1780; he encouraged the castrato to return to England to sing at the Italian opera and became one of his most important patrons. For Beckford’s coming-of-age party at his Fonthill estate the following year a cantata (Il tributo) composed by Rauzzini was performed by the composer together with Pacchierotti and Tenducci. Beckford provided music for Elizabeth, Lady Craven’s opera The Arcadian Pastoral (1782), which was written for private performance at Queensberry House in London; his other compositions include an Overture du Ballet de Phaeton...

Article

Ann Willison Lemke

[Bettine, Elisabeth]

(b Frankfurt, April 4, 1785; d Berlin, Jan 20, 1859). German writer, editor, publisher, composer, singer, visual artist and patron of young artists. Although known today primarily for her writing and her illustrious associates, Bettine was also a talented musician. She composed songs in a simple folk style, choosing texts by poets she knew and loved, including Goethe, Achim von Armin, and her brother, Clemens Brentano. She helped gather songs for Armin and Brentano’s influential collection Des Knaben Wunderhorn (1806–8) and decades later published a fourth volume based on their notes (ed. Ludwig Erk, 1854). From 1808 to 1809 she studied singing and composition with Peter von Winter and the piano with Sebastian Bopp in Munich. Her first two songs appeared under the pseudonym ‘Beans Beor’ (‘blessing I am blessed’) with Arnim’s literary works. After her crucial meeting with Beethoven in Vienna (May, 1810), she mediated between him and Goethe....

Article

Nicholas Temperley

[Fane, John; later 11th Earl of Westmorland]

(b London, Feb 3, 1784; d Wansford, Northants., Oct 16, 1859). English amateur musician. He was the eldest son of the 10th Earl of Westmorland, a Tory politician, and was educated at Harrow and at Trinity College, Cambridge (MA 1808), where he studied music under Charles Hague. His career was political, military and diplomatic. He was MP for Lyme Regis (1806–16). From 1803 to 1815 he served in various campaigns in the Napoleonic wars, at one time as aide-de-camp to the Duke of Wellington (his wife’s uncle). He became a privy councillor in 1822, a major-general in 1825, lieutenant-general in 1838 and full general in 1854. He was British envoy at Florence from 1814 to 1830, resident minister at Berlin from 1841 to 1851 (acting as mediator between Prussia and Denmark in the Schleswig-Holstein dispute), and ambassador to the imperial court at Vienna from 1851 to 1855...

Article

(bap. Handsworth, Yorks., Dec 16, 1593; d Welbeck Abbey, Notts., Dec 25, 1676). English poet, playwright and music patron. Christopher Simpson recognized his knowledge of and skill in the science of music and praised him for ‘cherishing and maintaining such as are excellent in it’ (A Compendium of Practical Musick, 1667). The duke's enthusiasm for playing divisions on the bass viol is reflected in his employment of Maurice Webster, from whom he acquired four books of divisions (now lost), and his close friendship with Simpson, who during the early years of the Civil War served under Newcastle's younger son. A 1636 inventory of the duke’s music collection lists important manuscript sources, including the only surviving copy of John Dowland’s funeral psalms for Henry Noel ( GB-NO ) and a set of ‘Fantasies, Almaigns Corantoes, &c.’ by Webster, Stephen Nau and John Adson (now lost), as well as madrigal prints by English and continental composers and Roman Catholic liturgical works by Infantas and Byrd. Newcastle came into close contact with many theatrical composers. Four songs from his comedy ...

Article

David Johnson

(b Penicuik House, nr Edinburgh, Nov 8, 1676; d Penicuik, Oct 4, 1755). Scottish politician, composer and music patron. Born into a landed Scottish family, from 1694 to 1697 he studied law at Leiden University, where he probably had composition lessons with Jakob Kremberg. He then did a grand tour until 1700, visiting Vienna and settling for 15 months in Rome, where he had composition lessons with Corelli. On returning to Scotland he was caught up in public affairs, which led to his being one of the signatories of the Treaty of Union between Scotland and England in 1707. From the age of 26 onwards he seems to have had no time for serious composition: his main surviving musical works were all written by about 1703. He succeeded his father as second baronet of Penicuik in 1722. In later life the erstwhile composer contented himself with patronizing others' musical efforts; an important protégé was the writer Allan Ramsay (...

Article

Edmond Strainchamps

(b Florence, July 17, 1561; d Florence, Dec 29, 1602). Italian patron and composer. He was of aristocratic origins and may have been associated with the Camerata of Count Giovanni de’ Bardi, which was at its most active between 1577 and 1582, though there was rivalry between Bardi and Corsi and among the musicians and patrons associated with each. After Bardi’s departure for Rome in 1592 Corsi was the leader of the principal artistic group in Florence and, except for the Medici family, the most important patron of music there. While Bardi’s Camerata was preoccupied with the philosophy and theory of music, Corsi’s circle defined its interests more narrowly to take a practical interest in the relationship of music and dramatic poetry. Carlo Roberto Dati (see Solerti, 1904) recalled that Corsi’s house ‘was always open, as though a public academy, to all who took a lively interest in the liberal arts … noblemen, literati and eminent poets and musicians’, and named Tasso, Chiabrera, Marino, Monteverdi and Effrem as some of the guests there; but more important was the regular attendance of Florentines, especially Ottavio Rinuccini and Jacopo Peri, whose discussions and experiments led to what is now regarded as the birth of opera....

Article

Ferenc Bónis

[Paul]

(b Eisenstadt [Hung. Kismarton], Sept 7, 1635; d Eisenstadt, March 26, 1713). Hungarian composer, poet and patron of the arts. He was the son of Nikolaus (Miklós) Esterházy, palatine of Hungary. He was a pupil at the Jesuit school in Nagyszombat, where he appeared in school dramas, and later he had a brilliant career as a statesman and soldier. In 1652 he was appointed governor of the county of Sopron and royal councillor, and in 1661 he became Lord Steward at the court of Leopold I in Vienna. He was created Hungary’s palatine (1681) and prince of the Holy Roman Empire (1687).

In his collection of poems dating from 1656, Palas s Ester kedves táncza (‘Much-loved dance of Palas and Ester’ – a reference to his own name), Esterházy described instruments then in use in Hungary. In 1674 he engaged a church choir and an orchestra in Eisenstadt, which were to form the basis of musical life at the Esterházy residence. Esterházy was a virginalist and his repertory has survived; it includes some 80 sacred and secular songs and both international and east European (Polish, Slovak, Hungarian and Walachian) dances....

Article

Josef-Horst Lederer

revised by Andrew H. Weaver

(b Graz, July 13, 1608; d Vienna, April 2, 1657). Austrian emperor, patron of music, and composer. He was the son of Ferdinand II and became King of the Romans in 1636 and Holy Roman Emperor in 1637; he was succeeded by his son Leopold I. Like his father, he was an enthusiastic patron of music; he maintained a large chapel and used music (both sacred and secular) to shape his public image and maintain political power during the disastrous final decade of the Thirty Years’ War. Also like his father, his musical tastes were decidedly Italianate. Most of the musicians in his chapel were Italian, among the most prominent of which were Giovanni Valentini, Antonio Bertali, and Giovanni Felice Sances. Nevertheless, distinguished German composers such as Johann Jacob Froberger and Wolfgang Ebner – the latter a particular favourite – also worked at his court. Ferdinand III played an active part in the preparation of great court festivities, especially stage works of various kinds that were produced with utmost magnificence in Vienna and elsewhere in his Habsburg domains. Several Italian composers wrote operas for Vienna during his reign, and Monteverdi’s eighth book of madrigals (...

Article

(b Cognac, Sept 12, 1494; reigned 1515–47;d Rambouillet, March 31, 1547). French ruler, poet and patron. He was the son of Charles de Valois, Duke of Angoulême, and Louise of Savoy, and succeeded his cousin Louis XII, whose daughter Claude de France he had married in 1514. Dubbed ‘père et restaurateur des lettres’, François encouraged Renaissance ideas, patronizing Italian and French artists, poets and musicians in his new châteaux (notably Chambord and Fontainebleau), protecting humanist scholars such as Erasmus, Budé and Dolet against the censure of the Paris Parlement and University, granting printing privileges (to Attaingnant, among others), establishing regius professorships in Latin, Greek, Hebrew and mathematics, and founding the Collège de France and the royal library (the nucleus of the Bibliothèque Nationale).

François recognized the political and diplomatic value of a large musical establishment; as well as employing instrumentalists in his domestic service he had a lavish chapel (...

Article

E. Eugene Helm

revised by Derek McCulloch

[Friedrich II; Frederick the Great]

(b Berlin, Jan 24, 1712; d Potsdam, Aug 17, 1786). German monarch, patron of the arts, flautist and composer. His father, Friedrich Wilhelm I, was alarmed at his son’s early preference for intellectual and artistic pursuits over the military and religious. In spite of being supervised day and night and in the face of his father’s rages and corporal punishments, Frederick managed, partly through the complicity of his mother and his older sister Wilhelmina, to read forbidden books, to affect French dress and manners and to play flute duets with his servant. As a seven-year-old he was permitted to study thoroughbass and four-part composition with the cathedral organist Gottlieb Hayne. Wilhelmina, also musically talented, joined him in impromptu concerts. On a visit to Dresden in 1728 the prince was overwhelmed at hearing his first opera, Hasse’s Cleofide; there he also first heard the playing of the flautist J.J. Quantz, who soon thereafter began making occasional visits to Berlin to give Frederick flute lessons. The king tolerated such amusements for a while, but by ...

Article

Christopher Wilkinson

[now Legnica], Brieg [now Brzeg] and Goldberg

(b Ohlau [now Oława], nr Breslau [now Wrocław], Jan 22, 1595; d Breslau, Jan 14, 1653). German patron, bibliophile, composer and poet. The son of Joachim Friedrich, Duke of Brieg-Liegnitz, he became duke in 1613 at the age of 18. He was educated at the university at Frankfurt an der Oder (Słubice). In his early years he was active as composer and poet. He displayed his love of music as early as 1610. The first collection of his music consisted of several partbooks in manuscript, most containing the series of initials GRHZLVB (Georg Rudolph Herzog zu Liegnitz und Brieg), followed by the date 1612. Two of the partbooks, however, conclude thus: ‘1610. 15. Maij … Georgius Rudolphus, Dux Lignicencis et Bregnsis Mannupp/ria’.

On assuming power Georg Rudolph continued the Kapelle at his court, but his interest in music mainly assumed a different form. In the course of a journey throughout Europe, he began collecting books for what was to become known as the Bibliotheca Rudolphina. His first wife, Princess Sophie Elisabeth of Anhalt, whom he married in ...

Article

Iain Fenlon

(b Mantua, April 24, 1538; d Goito, nr Mantua, Aug 14, 1587). Italian composer and patron of music. Shortly before he succeeded his uncle, Cardinal Ercole Gonzaga, as Duke of Mantua in 1556, he founded the palatine basilica of S Barbara, which was completed in 1565 with an impressive organ designed by Girolamo Cavazzoni and constructed by the Brescian builder Graziadio Antegnati (i). Throughout his reign he maintained a strong interest in the music of the new chapel, then directed by Wert and Gastoldi, as well as in court music. He secured from Pope Gregory XIII a concession, dated 10 November 1583, for S Barbara's specially constituted college of canons to practise an independent liturgy, and he was personally involved in attempts to attract Marenzio and Annibale Zoilo to Mantua. Although he failed in this, mainly because of Vatican political machinations, his relationship with Palestrina seems to have been close; Palestrina composed a series of masses on chants from the S Barbara liturgy, which reflect the ...

Article

Bertil H. van Boer

(b Stockholm, Jan 24, 1746; d Stockholm, March 29, 1792). Swedish ruler, patron and librettist. Son of Queen Lovisa Ulrika (the sister of Frederick the Great) and King Adolph Frederik, he began to write librettos and dramas at the age of ten. He continued his education in Paris, where he began to write paraphrases of opéras comiques by Favart and tragédies lyriques by Racine, Marmontel, Quinault and others. In 1771 he became King of Sweden, and in March 1772 staged a coup which gave him absolute authority and allowed him to pursue his aim of creating a Swedish national opera. In January 1773 F.A.B. Uttini’s Thetis och Pelée, for which Gustavus had drafted the text, inaugurated the Swedish Royal Opera. Over the next decade Gustavus personally oversaw the development of Swedish opera, gathering around him a group of native writers to rework his prose texts into librettos. He established a court theatre, gave financial support to private theatres, and encouraged the composers J.G. Naumann, J.M. Kraus and G.J. Vogler, the ballet-masters Louis Gallodier, Frederico Terrade and Antoine Bournonville and the set designer Louis-Jean Desprez. He built the Royal Opera (...

Article

Ruth Smith

(b Gopsall, Leics., 1700; d Gopsall, bur. Nether Whitacre, Warwicks., Nov 20, 1773). English patron, scholar and librettist. The grandson of a wealthy Birmingham ironmaster, he was educated at Balliol College, Oxford, and subsequently divided his time between London and the family estate of Gopsall, Leicestershire, which he inherited, with properties in five other counties, in 1747.

A member of the circle of Handel’s admirers that included the 4th Earl of Shaftesbury and James Harris, Jennens’s devotion to Handel’s music is first attested in his subscription to Rodelinda (1725), the first Handel score published by subscription; thereafter he was a constant and generous subscriber. Apparently aiming at a complete archive, he amassed the most comprehensive contemporary collection of Handel’s music, both manuscript copies and printed editions, forming the Aylesford Collection (principally GB-Mp ; named after his cousin who inherited it), which also included works by more than 40 other composers, mainly Italian but also English. Through the agency of his friend Edward Holdsworth, a grand tour tutor, he acquired newly published and MS music from Italy, including part of Cardinal Ottoboni’s library, from which Handel borrowed and which he used. Evidently a competent keyboard player, Jennens figured the bass lines in many of his MS copies. He owned one of the first pianos in England, a Cristofori shipped from Florence in ...

Article

Rudolf Schnitzler and Herbert Seifert

(b Vienna, June 9, 1640; d Vienna, May 5, 1705). Austrian composer and patron of music . He was the second son of Emperor Ferdinand III. A member of the house of Habsburg, he received a broad humanistic education under the tutelage of the Jesuit Neidhard to prepare him for intellectual and spiritual pursuits rather than for the succession to the throne. His training included extensive instruction in playing various instruments (notably the harpsichord, violin and recorder) and in composition, probably at the hands of Antonio Bertali and Markus and Wolfgang Ebner, the last of whom kept a collection of his early works, Spartitura compositionum sacrae regiae maiestatis Hungariae, Leopoldi I, composed and copied between 1655 and 1657. When the first son and chosen successor to Ferdinand III died, however, Leopold succeeded to the royal thrones of Hungary (1655) and Bohemia (1656) and on the death of his father was crowned Holy Roman Emperor on ...

Article

Margaret M. McGowan

(b PARIS, Sept 27, 1601; d Paris, May 14, 1643). French ruler, patron of music and composer. He was the son of Henri IV, whom he succeeded in 1610. His doctor recorded that from an early age he took a lively interest in music and dancing; he continually invented new steps and songs and had musicians sing and play for him. This passionate interest, however, did nothing to change radically the nature of music at his court. He maintained the same musical establishment as his father (30 musicians in the royal chapel and the ‘24 violons du roi’) and enjoyed the same kind of airs de cour sung in his bedchamber or in public by leading singers of the day; he wrote one or two himself.

Occasionally more ambitious compositions were attempted: to mark Louis’s triumphant return from Brittany in 1614 Jacques Mauduit organized concerts for massed choirs and instruments; and to enhance the melodramatic effects of the ballet ...

Article

David W. Bernstein

[Yurgis]

(b 1931; d Boston, May 9, 1978). Lithuanian-American architect. In 1947 he emigrated from Lithuania to New York, where he studied architecture at Cooper Union. He opened the AG Gallery at 925 Madison Avenue in 1960 with fellow Lithuanian Almus Salcius. After meeting La Monte Young, he agreed to let Young and Jackson Mac Low produce a series of concerts at the gallery featuring musicians, artists and poets active in the New York avant garde. It was largely through his exposure to Young and his circle that Maciunas became acquainted with radical art.

In 1961, Maciunas moved to Wiesbaden where, in the following year, he founded the Fluxus movement. In a lecture entitled ‘Neo-Dada in Music, Theater, Poetry and Art’ Maciunas declared himself a ‘concrete artist’ who preferred noise to so-called musical sounds. His Carpenter’s Piano Piece for Nam June Paik no.13, in which the performer nails down the keys of a piano, demonstrates the iconoclastic nature of his work. Maciunas believed in art’s potential to transform society and adamantly objected to its institutionalization. His activities outside of the creative arts included an urban redevelopment project in lower-Manhattan that contributed to the growth of the SoHo art community....