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Article

Andrew Hughes

(d 1286). ?French poet and priest. He was a canon and priest of the collegiate church of St Pierre in Lille, near Arras. About 1280, he wrote a metrical and rhymed paraphrase of the famous poem, Anticlaudianus, by the 12th-century theologian, philosopher and poet Alain de Lille. Its plot concerns Nature’s formation of a perfect man to be imbued with the Arts and Virtues, and an ascent to heaven, on which journey the music of the spheres is heard, to request a soul from God. Adam named his new work Ludus super Anticlaudianum. It survives today in one manuscript ( F-Lm 316), thought to be partly autograph. Adam’s work retains the plot, the moral and the didactic character of the original, but the forbidding allegory and encyclopedic tone is modified in favour of a simpler style and language so that the work, although in Latin, is almost like a ...

Article

Kurt von Fischer

revised by Gianluca D’Agostino

(d c1415). Italian composer and organist. A relatively large amount of information about Andreas’s life is available, because of the important position he held in the Order of the Servi di Maria, which he entered in 1375. From 1380 until 1397, with interruptions, he was prior of the monastery of the SS Annunziata in Florence; in 1393 he was prior in Pistoia and from 1407 to 1410 he was the leader of the Tuscan Servites. Andreas was closely associated with Landini and worked with him on the construction of the organ at both the SS Annunziata and Florence Cathedral, in 1379 and in 1387. Moreover, the names ‘Cosa’ and ‘Sandra’, which occur in ballata texts that he himself probably set to music and in works by Landini (and Paolo da Firenze), point to these composers sharing a social environment. Andreas was the teacher of the Florentine composer Bonaiuto Corsini who is known for several ballatas. It is uncertain whether a Maestro Andrea who was commissioned in ...

Article

Ian R. Parker

[Givenci, Gevanche, Gievenci]

(fl 1230–68). Trouvère. His name implies that he was born in the village of Givenchy (Pas de Calais). His activity centred around Arras where he seems to have come in contact with Simon d’Authie, Pierre de Corbie, Guillaume Le Vinier and Jehan Bretel. His name appears first in two charters, dated May and July 1230, in which he is given the title of clerk to the Bishop of Arras. In 1232 an act of procedure named him among the official household and as agent for the same bishop. In 1243 he is listed as priest and chaplain to the bishop and in 1245 as ‘doyen de Lens’. Eight surviving poems are commonly attributed to Adam including two jeux-partis in which he is partnered by Jehan Bretel and Guillaume Le Vinier. The latter, Amis Guillaume, ainc si sage ne vi, has survived with several melodies. Of the four other songs that have surviving melodies, two are ...

Article

Kurt von Fischer

revised by Gianluca D’Agostino

[Landino, Franciscus; Magister Franciscus de Florentia; Magister Franciscus Coecus Horghanista de Florentia; Francesco degli orghani; Cechus de Florentia]

(b ? Fiesole or Florence, c1325; d Florence, Sept 2, 1397). Italian composer, poet, organist, singer and instrument maker of the second generation of Italian Trecento composers.

Only a few dates relating to Landini’s life can be established with any certainty. There is no record of his date of birth, which Fétis gave as c1325 and Pirrotta as c1335. Fiesole was stated as his place of birth, but by only one authority: the Florentine humanist Cristoforo Landino (1429–98), Landini’s great-nephew, in his Elogia de suis maioribus. Most of the available biographical information derives from Filippo Villani’s Liber de origine civitatis Florentiae et eiusdem famosis civibus: the chapter that concerns certain of the Trecento composers (Bartholus, Giovanni, Lorenzo and Jacopo) was written after 1381 but still within Landini’s lifetime (see Villani, Filippo). The name Landini (Landino), according to Pirrotta, descends from Francesco’s grandfather, Landino di Manno, who can be traced in Pratovecchio (Casentino) from ...

Article

Anne Beetem Acker

(b Vienna, Austria, 1370; d Nuremberg, Germany, 1401). Viennese physician, medical astrologer, organist, and presumed harpsichord maker. The earliest dated reference to what might be a harpsichord is in a letter from Padua of 1397 that names Hermann Poll as its inventor. Poll earned bachelor’s and master’s degrees from the University of Vienna between 1388 and 1395. In 1397 Poll went to the University of Pavia to study medicine (MD, 1398), and en route met the Paduan jurist Giovanni Lodovico Lambertacci, who asked Poll to deliver a cup to his son-in-law in Pavia. In the letter, Lambertacci wrote to his son-in-law describing Poll as ‘a very ingenious young man and inventor of an instrument called the clavicembalum.’ At the age of 31, Poll was discovered in a plot to poison the Elector Palatine of the Rhine, and died on the wheel.

R. Strohm: ‘Die private Kunst und das öffentliche Schicksal von Hermann Poll, dem Erfinder des Cembalos’, ...