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Article

Michel Huglo

[Hériger]

(d Lobbes, nr Liège, 1007). Benedictine monk of Liège. From 990 he was abbot of Lobbes. He accompanied Bishop Notker of Liège (formerly Provost of St Gallen) to Rome in 989. Herigerus taught divinity and the liberal arts; Berno of Reichenau described him as ‘of no small authority’ (‘vir non parvae auctoritatis’, PL , cxlii, 1033). He wrote mainly hagiographical and biographical works; in the dedication of his Gesta episcoporum leodiensium to Bishop Stephen of Liège, he quoted documents showing that Stephen composed the Office of the Trinity. His works on chronology were dedicated to his disciple, the monk Hugo, who in 1033 also became abbot of Lobbes. Albéric de Trois-Fontaines recorded that Herigerus in 990 composed Regulae numerorum super abacum Gerberti (see Olleris, 1867, pp.311–24).

In 980 he was mentioned as ‘learned and skilled in the art of music’ (‘didascalum ac musicae artis peritum’, Elevatio s. Landoaldi...

Article

Yves Chartier

(b northern France, c850; d St Amand, June 20, 930). Benedictine monk, theorist, poet, composer, teacher and hagiographer. Though chiefly known as a theorist – ironically for works that have proven not to be his own – he was also a writer (of both verse and prose) and a composer, whose reputation has grown considerably with the progressive discovery of works that can positively be attributed to him. Coming immediately after Aurelian of Réôme (Musica disciplina, ?c840s), he was probably a contemporary of the anonymous authors of the Musica enchiriadis and other related treatises to which his name was assigned (Commemeratio brevis, Alia musica, De modis), composed in the same area at the end of the 9th century. He remains one of the foremost expositors of music theory in the Carolingian era.

Apart from a few sketchy indications found in his own works or in the contemporary ...

Article

Lawrence Gushee

revised by Bradley Jon Tucker

[Notker III, Notker the German]

(bc 950; d St Gallen, June 29, 1022). Monk and teacher at the Benedictine abbey of St Gallen . His many translations from Latin to Old High German are among the earliest German literary texts; of the 11 translations Notker reported making, four are extant and include two philosophical works by Boethius, two books of Martianus Cappella's De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii, and an interlinear psalter. Of special interest to music historians are five short essays in Old High German on musical topics, perhaps intended for elementary music instruction at St Gallen, where Notker taught and directed the school. A brief key in Latin to the meaning of the significative letters (litterae significativae; also known as Romanian or St Gallen letters) is sometimes ascribed to him, but belongs to his namesake of a century earlier, Notker , also of St Gallen.

The not entirely secure ascription of the five little essays to Notker rests principally on three points: the age of the five extant manuscripts (11th century); the language; and the preservation of the largest group (four out of five) in a St Gallen manuscript, whose text was published by Gerbert under Notker's name (...

Article

Dimitri Conomos

(bc1730; d Constantinople, 1778). Greek chanter, composer and teacher of Byzantine music. He received his first music lessons in monastic communities in Smyrna (Papadopoulos). In 1764 he travelled to Constantinople, where he became associated with the well-known prōtopsaltēs of Hagia Sophia, Joannes Trapezountios, with whom he chanted as second domestikos in the right choir. He held this office until his promotion to lampadarios (leader of the left choir) between 1769 and 1773. He was made an instructor in the second patriarchal school of music, founded in 1776, and from this time his reputation as an important teacher and composer was established. It is reported that he was also a specialist in Armenian and Turkish music and that he composed melodies based on the oriental maqāmāt.

Petros contributed a number of original compositions to the Offices and liturgies of the Greek Church, including complete sets of Cheroubic Hymns and communion chants in all eight modes, as well as music for funerals, ordinations, baptisms, weddings etc. In addition, he composed exercises and lessons for students of chant. Although his life as a composer was short (he died prematurely when a plague swept Constantinople in ...

Article

Lawrence Gushee

revised by Bradley Jon Tucker

[Remigius Autissiodorensis]

(fl 862–c900). Latin writer and teacher. He was the author of a commentary on the De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii of Martianus Capella, the ninth book of which deals with music. In 861–2 Remigius was at the monastery of St Germain in Auxerre as a pupil of Heiric of Auxerre. In 876 he succeeded Heiric as master of the school, and in 883 (893, according to some) was given the task of reorganizing the school at Reims. In the period just before his death he taught in Paris where, for example, he instructed Odo of Cluny in dialectic and music.

The commentary on Martianus Capella was but one among many commentaries on Latin grammarians and poets (e.g. Donatus, Priscian, Juvenal, Cato) by Remigius. He also wrote biblical commentaries and several works on religious subjects, including an essay on the ceremonies of the Mass sometimes ascribed to Alcuin. This last work is of some interest for the early history of plainchant (...

Article

Şahan Arzruni

( fl early 8th century). Armenian hymnographer, poet and pedagogue . Sister of the music theorist Step‘annos Siwnec‘i, she was an ascetic who lived in a cave in the Gaṙni valley (near Erevan) and produced ecclesiastical poems and liturgical chants. Srp‘uhi Mariam (‘Saint Mary’), consisting of nine stanzas in acrostic formation, is her only verse to have survived. Reportedly, many of her šarakaner (hymns) were devoted to the Mother of God (akin to the theotokion in the music of the Byzantine rite) and helped to shape the development of the genre during subsequent centuries. Seated behind a curtain, as the mores of the period required, Sahakduxt taught sacred melodies to clerical students and lay music lovers.

S. Ōrbelyan: Patmut‘yun nahangin Sisakan [History of the Province of Sis] (Tbilisi, 1910), 139 Archbishop Covakan Norayr [Połarian]: Sahakduxt Siwnec‘i ev Srp‘uhi Mariam [Sahakduxt of Siunik and Saint Mary], Hask (Antilias, 1951), 366–7 M. Ōrmanian...