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(b Le Pallet, nr Nantes, 1079; d Saint-Marcel, nr Chalon-sur-Saône, April 21, 1142). French philosopher, poet and musician of Breton origin. After studying philosophy in Paris, he taught dialectic at the cathedral school. His love affair with Heloise, the young niece of Canon Fulbert, brought him fame as a musician. However, after they had secretly married in ...

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Owen Wright

(fl first half of the 11th century). Arab musician and writer. The son of an eminent musician, he became a prominent singer at the Cairo court of the Fatimid caliph al-Ẓāhir (1021–36), and was still active as a teacher in 1057...

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Mary Berry

(b nr Ilchester, c1214; d Oxford, c1292). English theologian and philosopher. He studied first under Grosseteste in Oxford, then in Paris. In 1247 he gave up his official teaching in Paris, returning some three years later to Oxford. In about 1255...

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Kurt von Fischer and Gianluca D’Agostino

(d Florence, Dec 1372 or Jan 1373). Italian composer and teacher of music. He belonged to the second generation of Trecento composers. The name ‘Masini’ probably refers to his being the son of ‘Tomaso’. Villani named him together with Bartholus de Florentia as a composer. According to Gallo he was a ...

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(b c1000–02; d Füssen am Lech, Bavaria, 1083). Writer on music. He was probably born in Bavaria, and later became a canon of Augsburg Cathedral; by the middle of the 11th century he was acting as scholasticus in the cathedral choir school there. In ...

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Michel Huglo

(d Lobbes, nr Liège, 1007). Benedictine monk of Liège. From 990 he was abbot of Lobbes. He accompanied Bishop Notker of Liège (formerly Provost of St Gallen) to Rome in 989. Herigerus taught divinity and the liberal arts; Berno of Reichenau described him as ‘of no small authority’ (‘vir non parvae auctoritatis’, ...

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Yves Chartier

(b northern France, c850; d St Amand, June 20, 930). Benedictine monk, theorist, poet, composer, teacher and hagiographer. Though chiefly known as a theorist – ironically for works that have proven not to be his own – he was also a writer (of both verse and prose) and a composer, whose reputation has grown considerably with the progressive discovery of works that can positively be attributed to him. Coming immediately after Aurelian of Réôme (...

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Jan Kouba

(b Husinec, Bohemia, ?1371; d Konstanz, July 6, 1415). Czech reformer. He was one of the most influential preachers and teachers at Prague University at the beginning of the 15th century. He was burnt at the stake by order of the Council of Konstanz. He has been associated with a number of Latin and Czech hymns, but there is very little evidence to support his authorship; it seems that he arranged the medieval melody ‘Jesu Kriste, štědrý kněže’ (‘Jesus Christ, thou bountiful prince’) in the Jistebnice Hussite hymnbook, and he may also have arranged or translated the texts of several other hymns, but the best-known one attributed to him, ‘Jesus Christus, nostra salus’, is clearly not by him. Some Czech musicologists (e.g. Nejedlý) have described Hus as the innovator of congregational singing in church, but this practice arose in 15th-century Bohemia only after his death. Hus's aesthetic views on music and singing did not deviate from those of the medieval tradition. Thus musical history was influenced only indirectly by him: the Hussite reformation, of which he was the inspiration, constitutes the first significant chapter in the history of Protestant church music in Europe....

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Gordon A. Anderson

(b Giengen an der Brenz, c1400; d Rome, June 29, 1450). German theologian and writer. He studied theology, philosophy and the liberal arts at the University of Vienna from 1422 to 1429, and as a Master of Arts lectured there in mathematics, philosophy and theory from ...

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Lawrence Gushee and Bradley Jon Tucker

(bc 950; d St Gallen, June 29, 1022). Monk and teacher at the Benedictine abbey of St Gallen . His many translations from Latin to Old High German are among the earliest German literary texts; of the 11 translations Notker reported making, four are extant and include two philosophical works by Boethius, two books of Martianus Cappella's ...

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Lawrence Gushee and Bradley Jon Tucker

(fl 862–c900). Latin writer and teacher. He was the author of a commentary on the De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii of Martianus Capella, the ninth book of which deals with music. In 861–2 Remigius was at the monastery of St Germain in Auxerre as a pupil of Heiric of Auxerre. In 876 he succeeded Heiric as master of the school, and in 883 (893, according to some) was given the task of reorganizing the school at Reims. In the period just before his death he taught in Paris where, for example, he instructed Odo of Cluny in dialectic and music....

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(fl early 13th century). Teacher of music, active in France. Anonymus 4 (ed. Reckow, 1967, i, 46, 50), writing about 1275, clearly regarded him as the most significant figure since Perotinus: ‘He taught most widely, and made the singing of music sound truly delicious’. Anonymus 4's reference to him in conjunction with Petrus optimus notator may suggest that he was a scribe; the theorist also reported that ‘the book of books of Perotinus were in use up to the time of Robertus de Sabilone in the choir of Notre Dame in Paris, and from his time up to the present day’. Despite a suggestion that he may have been the first choirmaster of the new cathedral (Niemann, ...

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Svetlana Kujumdzieva

(fl Dyrrachion, now Durrĕs, 1280–1341). Composer, singer, teacher, and theoretician. One of the most famous medieval musicians of Bulgarian origin (on his mother’s side), though he is also considered of great significance in present-day Macedonia. Judging by his Vita, he lived from approximately ...

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Craig Wright

(b c1370; d before Aug 1410). French composer and pedagogue . Tapissier, whose true name was Jean de Noyers, is named along with the composers Susay and Jehan Vaillant in the anonymous Règles de la seconde rhétorique (c1400) as one of the principal French poet-musicians of the day. By ...