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Article

[Emmanuel]

(b Antwerp, c1554; d Antwerp, bur. Feb 27, 1604). Flemish lutenist, teacher and composer. He went to Rome to study in 1574, a visit that probably accounts for the Italian elements in his publications. He was a Protestant, but after the fall of Antwerp in 1585 he was compelled for political reasons to embrace the Catholic faith. With his brother Gysbrecht he opened a school for lutenists at Antwerp, but in 1587 they came into conflict with the musicians’ guild because neither of them was a member; later, however, Emanuel must have qualified as a freeman of the guild, for he occasionally assumed the title of master. He was appointed captain of the citizens’ watch, which brought him a regular income, and in 1595 he took part in the relief of the nearby town of Lier, which had been occupied by the Dutch. He moved in the highest circles in Antwerp, and the principal families doubtless admired his virtuosity as a lutenist and engaged him to perform. His publications brought him wider fame, and they were to be found in the libraries of many prominent people, among them Constantijn Huygens, King João IV of Portugal and Cardinal Mazarin. He was mentioned by Adrian Denss (...

Article

Lini Hübsch-Pfleger

(b Nuremberg, c1560–70; d ?Erfurt, after 1601). German composer. In 1601, when he published a collection of motets, Agricola was teaching at the Gymnasium Augustinianum at Erfurt; he can scarcely be identified with the Christianus Johannes Agricola who was a discantist in the Kapelle at Weimar in 1594. The surname ‘Noricus’, used on the title-page and in the dedication, meant ‘born at Nuremberg’, and a Johannes Agricola baptized on 29 November 1564 at St Sebaldus at Nuremberg could be the composer. Yet another Johann Agricola (d 1605), Kantor at St Bartholomäus, Frankfurt, in 1591, was probably not the composer.

As a composer Agricola is known only by Motetae novae pro praecipuis in anno festis (Nuremberg, 1601), dedicated to the Erfurt senate; the bass partbook addresses the same dedication to the Mühlhausen senate, so possibly the collection appeared in at least two editions. The preface is a humanistic essay about the importance of music from ancient times to the 16th century. The 26 motets, for four to six, eight and twelve voices, are settings in a freely imitative style characterized by fluent counterpoint. The exact scansion of the Latin texts, which include some on secular subjects, is evidence of Agricola’s humanistic education and profession....

Article

Anna Maria Busse Berger

(b Schwiebus [now Świebodzin, Poland], c1486; d Magdeburg, June 10, 1556). German music theorist, teacher and composer. According to his own statements, he came from a peasant family and was largely self-taught in music. By 1520 he was in Magdeburg working as a music teacher. He became choirmaster of the Protestant Lateinschule in about 1525 and retained this position until his death.

Agricola was one of the earliest teachers of music to realize Luther's wish to incorporate music as a central component of Protestant education. His foremost aim in educating students and congregation was to present material as clearly as possible and to reach a large audience. It was for this reason that his early treatises were written in German rather than the customary Latin. His translation of the terms clavis (as Schlüssel), vox (as Stimme or Silbe) and scala (as Leiter) are still used today. His desire to relate music education to everyday life can be seen in his modernization of old-fashioned rules of harmonic and rhythmic proportions, which he related to commercial arithmetic, in particular the Rule of Three, which formed the most important component of arithmetic instruction in Latin schools. He was the only theorist to consider ...

Article

[Abbondio, Abondio, Abundii]

(b Fabrica, nr Viterbo; d probably at Rome, ? in or before 1629) Italian composer and teacher. According to Casimiri he must have taught music at the Seminario Romano, Rome, some time between 1602 and 1606. The first post he held that is specifically documented is that of maestro di cappella of S Giovanni in Laterano, Rome, where he is recorded from 1 June 1611 to 20 July 1613 (there is no evidence to substantiate Pitoni’s and Baini’s statements that he was there by 1608); Tullio Cima was one of the boys who sang under him there. The title-pages and dedications of works that Antonelli published in 1614 and 1615 indicate that he was then maestro di cappella of Benevento Cathedral. That he had returned to Rome by February 1616 can be determined from the dedication of his print of that year. In 1619 he corresponded with Romano Micheli regarding what he considered to be Micheli’s excessive application of ...

Article

[Johann]

(b Tonnedorf, nr Erfurt; d Eisenberg, nr Gera, Jan 22, 1617). German writer on music, composer and schoolmaster. In 1579 he was teaching at the Lateinschule at Ronneburg, near Gera, and in 1591 he was Rektor of the Lateinschule at Gera. Later he was a preacher at Bernsdorf, near Torgau, at Munich and at Krossen, near Gera, and from ...

Article

Peter Le Huray

revised by Bernarr Rainbow

(b Dublin, April 2, 1564; d Madrid, June 17, 1614). Irish teacher and writer. He was the son of Judge John Bathe. Anthony Wood wrote that he studied at Oxford and constructed a ‘harp of a new device’ which he presented in 1584 to Queen Elizabeth, to whom he taught mnemonics. By January 1585 he was in the service of Sir John Perrott, and shortly afterwards took possession of family estates in Ireland, including Drumcondra Castle. In October 1591 he left England for Spain; in August 1595 he entered the novitiate at Tournai, and studied successively at Saint Omer and Padua, where he was ordained priest in the order of Jesuits in 1599. In 1601 he was attached to the papal nuncio at the Spanish court, and three years later was appointed director of the Irish college in Lisbon. In 1606 he settled in Salamanca, where he published a language tutor, the ...

Article

Iain Fenlon

(b Argenta, nr Ferrara, 1552; d ?Argenta, c1620). Italian composer and teacher. He received his early musical training from Luzzaschi and began his career as a singer at the Gonzaga court at Mantua; he later moved to Rome. His earliest datable compositions are four madrigals in a manuscript ( I-MOe 1358) compiled in about 1580, and one in Il lauro secco (RISM 15825); the latter was published in Ferrara and suggests that he was there during the early 1580s, although he is not known to have settled there until 1583. Einstein’s claim that Belli served the Duke of Mantua between 1584 and 1587 was probably based on remarks in Bertolotti (1890) and on the dedications of Belli’s second book of six-voice madrigals and of I furti amorosi, but there is no archival evidence to support it. Belli dedicated the first two publications of his own works to Duke Alfonso II d’Este and his wife, Margherita Gonzaga, almost certainly in the hope of securing an appointment as a court musician; but the court records (in ...

Article

F.E. Kirby

(b Immecke, nr Meinerzhagen, 1536; d Dortmund, Aug 6, 1609). German theorist, teacher and Kantor. He was educated first in Münster and Dortmund, and later at Cologne University where he received the MA in 1560. After serving as teacher, Kantor and administrator for several years in various schools, mainly in Dortmund, he took up a post in 1567 as Kantor at the famous Reinoldi School there; he became Rektor in 1582 in succession to his former teacher and long-standing friend and colleague, Johann Lambach. His work in this post was widely acclaimed and in 1587 he was made Comes Palatinus by Emperor Rudolf II.

He is important for his treatise Erotematum musicae, originally published in 1573 under the title Musicae erotematum, and subsequently reprinted three times. The treatise, of the musica practica type, presents the fundamentals of music in question and answer form. For his formulations Beurhaus borrowed considerably, as was customary in a treatise of this kind, from other German theorists of the time, notably Agricola, Faber (both Gregor and Heinrich), Figulus, Galliculus, Ornithoparchus, Wilfflingseder and Zanger....

Article

(b ?Liegnitz [now Legnica], c1494; d after 1527). German theorist. The family residence in Liegnitz is documented from 1381, but the name is absent from the town records begun in 1546. Bogentantz attended the Gymnasium in Goldberg, and in 1508 he matriculated in the faculty of arts of Cologne University, where he may have been the pupil of Cochlaeus and fellow student of Glarean. In 1516 he was granted the status of magister, and he probably taught there for two years in accordance with the faculty regulations. In 1525 he matriculated at Wittenberg University, perhaps to study theology; he returned to Liegnitz in 1527. No documents have been found to support Bauch’s theory that Bogentantz was rector of the parish school of St Peter and St Paul Liegnitz, from about 1530.

Bogentantz wrote a music treatise, Collectanea utriusque cantus … musicam discere cupientibus oppido necessaria (Cologne, 1515...

Article

(b Namur, c1472; d Lier, May 20, 1522). South Netherlandish organist and music teacher. In 1488 he was a singer at the church of Our Lady, Antwerp, and in 1491–2 served as organist at Jacobskerk in that city. In 1493 he became organist in the chapel of the Confraternity of Our Lady at Our Lady's church. In February 1500 he entered the chapel of Philip the Handsome as organist and journeyed with the court to Spain in 1501–3 and 1505–6. In September 1506 Philip died at Burgos, and Bredemers arranged for the transport of the chapel's missals and music books to Antwerp.

In August 1507 Bredemers became organist in the domestic chapel of Philip's seven-year-old son Charles, under the regency of Philip's sister, Margaret of Austria. At her court in Mechelen, Bredemers taught the young Charles and his sisters to play the clavichord and other instruments. He was also charged with the musical instruction of choirboys and court entertainers, and with the purchase and maintenance of instruments. Between ...

Article

Heinrich Hüschen

[Borckhart, Burchard, Burckhart, Burgardus, Purckhart; Ulrich]

(b Waischenfeld, c1484). German music theorist and theologian. He attended the cathedral school in Bamberg and in 1500 entered Leipzig University where he became Bachelor of Arts in 1507, Master of Arts in 1511 and from 1513 until 1515 taught as Master of Law. In 1515 he joined the theology faculty, but left Leipzig in 1516 and returned to Bamberg, where he was court chaplain until 1527 and served the prince-bishops Georg III of Limburg and Weigand von Redwitz. In Bamberg he got to know Tilman Riemenschneider and Albrecht Dürer and in 1517, 1518 and 1520 had contact with von Hutten. The publication of Burchardi’s Ein schöner Dialog von dem christlichen Glauben (Bamberg, 1527), in which he presented a German translation of his treatise Dialogus de fide christiana (Bamberg, 1522), a work in the spirit of Erasmus’s reforming zeal, led to his dismissal from the service of the prince-bishops. He resumed his teaching at Leipzig University and in ...

Article

Adam Adrio

revised by Clytus Gottwald

[Kalwitz, Seth]

(b Gorsleben, nr Sachsenburg, Thuringia, Feb 21, 1556; d Leipzig, Nov 24, 1615). German music theorist, composer, teacher, chronologist and astronomer. He was one of the most influential German theorists of his time and prominent in the musical and intellectual life of Leipzig.

After attending schools at Frankenhausen and Magdeburg, Calvisius began his studies at the University of Helmstedt in 1579 and continued them from Easter 1580 at the University of Leipzig, where he had matriculated in 1576. In 1581 he became Kantor at the Paulinerkirche, Leipzig, only to move in November 1582, on the recommendation of the Leipzig theologian Nikolaus Selnecker, to Schulpforta as Kantor of the Fürstenschule. He spent 12 fruitful years there not only as an inspiring teacher but also in the study of history, chronology and music theory. In May 1594 he was recalled to Leipzig as Kantor of the Thomaskirche in succession to Valentin Otto. For a short period in about ...

Article

Julia Sutton

(b probably Sermoneta, c1527–35; d after 1605). Italian dancing-master. He was the author of two large manuals of vital significance as sources of dance steps, types and music of the second half of the 16th century. Caroso's works include over 100 different dances by himself and others, as well as valuable rules for basic step vocabulary and etiquette. The ballettos, which form the major part of his repertory, clearly descend from the balli of 15th-century Italy, being similarly multi-partite and individually choreographed, with specially composed or adapted music. The fact that Nobiltà di dame (1600) was reprinted under a different title as late as 1630 supports other evidence that Caroso's style may have continued to hold good for Italian dance in the first third of the 17th century.

Caroso's volumes include a few simple group figure dances such as the contrapasso, but most are more elaborate social dances for a skilled amateur couple, for example the ...

Article

Claude V. Palisca

(b Rome, c1550; d Rome, March 11, 1602). Italian composer, organist, singing teacher, dancer, choreographer, administrator and diplomat. He was the composer of the first surviving play set entirely to music, the Rappresentatione di Anima, et di Corpo (Rome, 1600), the score of which is the earliest one printed with a figured bass.

Cavalieri was the son of Lavinia della Valle and Tommaso Cavalieri (1512–87), an architect and intimate friend of Michelangelo Buonarotti. His brother, Mario (d 1580), coordinated the Lenten music in the Oratorio del SS Crocifisso in S Marcello, Rome, between 1568 and 1579. He himself also participated in this Oratorio both as an organist and as a coordinator of Lenten music from 1578 until at least 1584 (the account books are missing for 1584–94); during his administration the yearly expenditure on music rose from 51 to 140 scudi....

Article

Peter Bergquist

revised by Stephen Keyl

[Bickel, Conrad; Pickel, Conrad]

(b Wipfeld, Feb 1, 1459; d Vienna, Feb 4, 1508). German humanist and poet. Son of a vintner, he ran away from home in 1477 and studied at Cologne University for two years. After receiving the baccalaureate he travelled and studied further before matriculating in 1484 at Heidelberg University, where he received the MA within a year. When in 1487 he was crowned Poet Laureate in Nuremberg by Emperor Frederick III, he was the first German to be so honoured. During the next ten years he travelled widely through central Europe, in Italy during the period 1487–9, in Kraków, Danzig (now Gdańsk), Prague and north Germany between 1489 and 1491. In 1491–2 he lectured at Ingolstadt University for a short time. He was in Nuremberg for most of 1493, then in 1494 appointed again at Ingolstadt, where he retained his position until 1497, though spending much of that time in Heidelberg. There he founded the first of his associations of learned men for the advancement of the new humanist literary culture, the Sodalitas Litteraria Rhenana. In ...

Article

Donna G. Cardamone

revised by James Haar

(b Monte San Giovanni Campano, nr Arpino, c1510; d after 1579). Italian composer, teacher, poet and theorist. He was active in Naples during the 1540s, though he seems never to have held a permanent post there. He was attached, perhaps informally, to the entourage of Giovanna d'Aragona: his madrigal volume of 1548 opens with dedicatory poems addressed to her and her sons Fabrizio and Marc'Antonio Colonna. He seems also to have had some connection with the short-lived Accademia dei Sereni (1546–8), composing a madrigal for a comedy staged there in 1548. At some point, perhaps in the 1550s, Cimello was in Rome in the service of Marc'Antonio Colonna. During that time he began a treatise on plainchant reform, and he had some dealings with Annibale Zoilo, to which he later alluded in a rambling letter to Cardinal Guglielmo Sirleto (in I-Rvat ). In the early 1570s he was in Benevento, teaching grammar and music at the local seminary and doing research on witchcraft in the area; he claimed to have written some collections of poetry (none are known to survive) including a poem called ...

Article

(b Wendelstein, Jan 10, 1479; d Breslau, Jan 10, 1552). German theologian, historian, humanist, music theorist and pedagogue. After studies with Heinrich Grieninger in Nuremberg, Cochlaeus entered the University of Cologne in 1504. A year later he had already gained the baccalaureate degree and in 1507 the MA. During these years his first treatise, Musica, was printed in three editions. He also became the music teacher of Heinrich Glarean, who, greatly admiring him, later included in his Dodecachordon three pedagogical compositions from his Musica. In 1510 on the recommendation of Willibald Pirckheimer, he became the rector of St Lorenz school in Nuremberg. There he organized a humanistically orientated curriculum and wrote the Tetrachordum musices (1511), his most valuable music treatise. In 1517 he earned a doctorate in theology at Ferrara and was ordained to the priesthood in Rome. In succeeding years he acquired a reputation as a fierce and unremitting opponent of Lutheranism and Calvinism. In an encounter with Luther at Worms in ...

Article

Christopher D.S. Field

[Giovanni]

(b c?1570–80; d ?London, cJune 1626). English composer, viol player and teacher. Playford referred to him as ‘Mr John Coperario aliàs Cooper’, John Aubrey as ‘Jo. Coperario, whose reall name I have been told was Cowper’, and Roger North as ‘Coperario, who by the way was plain Cooper but affected an Itallian termination’. He himself spelt his name ‘John Coprario’. In a document dated 1617 he is described as ‘John Coperario, gentleman’. Dart (ML, 1961) conjectured that he may have been the John Cowper who became a chorister of Chichester Cathedral in 1575 but this seems improbable. He had already adopted his pseudonym by February 1601, when William Petre made a gift of 10 shillings to ‘Coprario for Lessons hee broughte mee while in London’ ( US-Ws 1772.1; copy in Essex Record Office). Anthony Wood’s notes seem to contain the earliest suggestion that the italianization of his name was a result of a sojourn in Italy, describing him as ‘an English man borne, who having spent much of his time in Italy was there called Coprario, which name he kept when he returned into England’. Such an Italian visit is far from being out of the question, though evidence remains elusive. He was however on the Continent during ...

Article

Ingrid Schubert

(b Finsterwalde, Lower Lusatia, 1546; d Frankfurt an der Oder, Oct 23, 1614 or Oct 25, 1615). German teacher and writer. He may have been related to Johannes Crüger. He is first heard of as Kantor at the Martinsschule, Brunswick. In October 1575 he moved to Helmstedt as a teacher of Latin and poetry, and at the inauguration of the university there on 16 October 1576 he received a master’s degree in philosophy. From 24 December 1580 to 11 April 1581 he was dean of the faculty of philosophy and in January 1581 was appointed professor of logic. He later became Rektor of the grammar school at Lübeck. In his singing instruction there he wished to use note names (A, B, C, D etc.) instead of the traditional solmization syllables (ut, re, mi, fa etc.), and he also campaigned at Halberstadt and Rostock in support of the alphabetical system and against solmization. As a consequence, proceedings were started against him which led to his dismissal in ...

Article

Frank Dobbins

(b ?Montricoux; d before Jan 9, 1571). French singer and music teacher active in Switzerland. Although he was proposed by Calvin as the successor to Guillaume de La Moeulle as choirmaster at Geneva Cathedral, the town council appointed Pierre Vallette in October 1556. Dagues was, however, responsible for teaching singing to the boys at St Gervais and La Madeleine between ...