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Article

Saul Novack

(Ludwig)

(b Cologne, Nov 17, 1902; d Basle, Oct 19, 1996). American musicologist and pianist of German origin. After schooling in Cologne he was awarded a music teacher's diploma by the Austrian State Commission in 1930. He studied musicology at the University of Vienna (1933–8), and took the doctorate in 1938 with a dissertation on acoustical psychology. He also studied privately with Schenker. In 1940 he emigrated to the USA, later becoming an American citizen, and was active as a conductor, teacher, accompanist and répétiteur. He held teaching posts at the Los Angeles Conservatory of Music and Art (1947–53) and the University of California at Los Angeles (1953–6) before his appointment in 1956 as professor of music at the California State University at Los Angeles, where he taught until his retirement in 1970 as professor emeritus. He frequently served as accompanist to distinguished singers such as Elisabeth Schumann, Pinza and Fischer-Dieskau, and assisted Lotte Lehmann in her art-song courses. Albersheim was one of the first to write on the importance of the theories of Heinrich Schenker, whose influence is occasionally reflected in his writings. He wrote mainly on acoustics and the psychology of hearing, as well as its relationship to musical aesthetics....

Article

Carolyn Gianturco and Teresa M. Gialdroni

(b Mosso Santa Maria, nr Biella, Jan 31, 1921). Italian musicologist. He took diplomas in piano at the Parma Conservatory (1942) and in choral music at the Turin Conservatory (1948), and studied music history with Della Corte at Turin University, where he took an arts degree (1946). He subsequently taught music history in the conservatories of Bolzano (1950–51), Parma (1951–5) and Milan (1954–88); he has edited the journals Almanacco musicale italiano (1954–5), Ricordiana (1955–7) and Musica d’oggi (1958–63) and has been vice-director of Enciclopedia della musica Ricordi (1960–64). He has been a consulting editor for Ricordi since 1964. Music education is one of his major interests: he became director of the series Manuali di Didattica Musicale and Canti nel Mondo (Ricordi) in 1965, and editor of Educazione musicale...

Article

Lawrence Schenbeck

(b Detroit, MI, Sept 24, 1951). American composer, theorist, and jazz saxophonist. He attended public schools in Detroit, including Cass Technical High School, where he studied jazz and led his own band, the Seven Sounds. He continued his education at the University of Michigan (BMEd 1973, MA 1974) and at Yale University (MDiv 1977, PhD music theory 1993). Andrews was ordained as a minister in 1978, serving as Yale University campus chaplain and as faculty member in the Music Department and Department of African American Studies for more than a decade. During that period he met Lloyd Richards, director of the Yale Repertory Theatre, and playwright August Wilson. Andrews became resident music director (1979–86) for the company and contributed original music scores to a number of Wilson’s plays, including Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom, Joe Turner’s Come and Gone, Fences, The Piano Lesson, and Seven Guitars...

Article

Vera Lampert

[Weisshaus, Imre]

(b Budapest, Oct 22, 1905; d Paris, Nov 28, 1987). French composer, pianist and ethnomusicologist of Hungarian birth. He studied the piano at the Budapest Academy of Music with Bartók (1921–4), whose advice on composition he often sought in later years and who kindled his love for folksong and collection. (In a lecture given at Harvard in 1943, Bartók spoke of Arma’s textless song for solo voice on one pitch with variations of vowel sound, dynamic and rhythm.) Arma began his career as a member of the Budapest Piano Trio (1925–6). Between 1924 and 1930 he gave many recitals in Europe and the USA and lectured on contemporary music at American universities. He settled in Germany in 1931, and for a time he led the musical activities at the Dessau Bauhaus, lecturing on modern music and experimenting with electronic music produced on gramophone records. Later he lived in Berlin and Leipzig, where he conducted several smaller choirs and orchestras. The advent of the Nazi regime in Germany forced his move to Paris, where he made his permanent home. At first he was associated with the RTF, notably as founder-director of the Loisirs Musicaux de la Jeunesse (...

Article

Ada Benediktovna Schnitke

(b Odessa, 18/Jan 31, 1906; d Leningrad, June 25, 1985). Russian musicologist, pianist and teacher. He studied the piano with G.M. Biber and composition with V.A. Zolotaryov at the Odessa Conservatory (1920–25) and mathematics at Odessa University (1922–5). He later completed his musical studies with F. Blumenfel′d at the Moscow Conservatory (1925–30). He taught in a music school in Odessa (1923–5), and worked at the Moscow Central School of Music from 1930 and in the Moscow Music Department of the Commissariat for Public Education (1930–31). Concurrently he was deputy chairman of the piano and methodology section of the State Institute for Musical Sciences in Moscow. From 1931 to 1939 he taught at the Moscow Conservatory, where he ran a class for the piano and the methodology of piano teaching. He was appointed senior scientific officer at the Science Research Institute for Music attached to the Moscow Conservatory in ...

Article

(b Tarnopol′, 8/Feb 20, 1888; d L′viv, June 9, 1963). Ukrainian composer, musicologist, pianist and teacher. He took piano lessons first at the K. Mikuli Music School (1895–1905) and with W. Kurtz (1905–06) at the conservatory in L′viv. During the same period he studied jurisprudence at Lemberg University, and from 1907, philosophy at the University of Prague. In Prague Barvyns′ky studied musicology with Z. Nejedly and O. Hostinsky, the piano with I. Holfeld and composition with Vítězsláv Novák (1908–14), who exerted a powerful influence on him. From 1915 to 1939 Barvyns′ky taught at, and was director of, the Lysenko Music Institute in L′viv, and also taught at the conservatory there (1939–41 and 1944–8). A prolific organizer, he initiated and took part in many musical activities in L′viv and became a member of the editorial board of the journal ...

Article

Howard Schott

( b Lausanne, May 5, 1944). Swiss clavichord player and musicologist . After piano studies in Lausanne (1963–7) and Vienna (1968–9), he became increasingly attracted to the clavichord and its repertory. He made his European début at Fribourg, Switzerland, in 1972 and his American début at Marlboro College, Vermont, in 1973. He studied musicology at the New England Conservatory with Julia Sutton (MMus 1976) and began research in early Iberian clavichord music with Macario Santiago Kastner in Lisbon in 1977. He regularly tours Europe and North America, performing and recording a wide repertory of Renaissance and Baroque clavichord music, with an emphasis on Iberian composers. He has won high praise as a sensitive and tasteful performer. In contrast to most other modern clavichord players, he restricts himself to the fretted form of the instrument. Brauchli has given summer courses in many European countries, has lectured at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, and was appointed professor of clavichord at the New England Conservatory in ...

Article

F.E. Sparshott

(Jeanne Marie Noémie)

(b Fontenay-le-Comte, Vendée, March 6, 1915; d Sèvres, June 21, 1973). French musicologist and pianist. She studied the piano at the conservatories of Nantes (under G. Arcouet) and Paris (under Lazare Lévy), and biology and philosophy at the Sorbonne (doctorat d'Etat in philosophy 1949). From 1950 she directed the Bibliothèque Internationale de Musicologie, and in 1952 was appointed solo pianist to the RTF for whom she also lectured and produced musical programmes. She published extensively in the aesthetics of music, with special emphasis on the status of music as the art of time and on the privileged role of the virtuoso performer.

Brelet's work elaborates the view of music borrowed from Pierre Souvtchinsky by Igor Stravinsky, to whom she assigns the central place in 20th-century music. Her three books develop a single argument. The first contrasts the traditional poetics of music, according to which a system of intervals forms the basis of harmonic and melodic structures, with an alternative poetics of temporal form. The second book elaborates this theme into an encomium on music. Since time is the form of the inner life, music must be the most perfect art, for it directly imparts formal perfection to experience itself. From this standpoint, modern non-tonal music appears as aberrant, since the absence of a tonal centre eliminates expectation and thus makes significant temporal form impossible. The third book uses this view of music to prove that the virtuoso performer is the only true musician. Music, being a form of temporal experience, can exist only as and when it is performed. The composer merely provides possibilities which he leaves to performers to actualize in various ways. It follows that performers should not strive to recreate the original effect of a work, or respect a composer's intentions: historical fidelity is not aesthetic fidelity....

Article

Keith Moore

(b Memphis, Jan 21, 1944). American composer, pianist, conductor and musicologist. He studied the piano with Roy McAllister at the University of Alabama (BM 1965), with Sophia Rosoff, and with Soulima Stravinsky at the University of Illinois (MM 1966), where he also studied composition with Ben Johnson (DMA, 1971) and had contact with Hamm, Hiller, Kessler and Brün. He served on the music faculty at Illinois (1968–74) before joining the staff at Wesleyan University. He was a member of the editorial committee of New World Records (1974–8), founding chairman of New England Sacred Harp Singing (1976) and has held visiting professorships at Middlebury College, Bucknell University and the University of Michigan. In 1980 he was Senior Research Fellow at the Institute for Studies in American Music at Brooklyn College.

In 1968 Bruce founded the American Music Group (AMG), an ensemble innovative in its dedication to American music of all eras. AMG recorded the music of Anthony Philip Heinrich for Vanguard, toured widely in the United States and, under Bruce’s direction, gave the 20th-century première of Bristow’s ...

Article

Trena Jordanoska

(b Skopje, Aug 8, 1952). Macedonian composer, pianist and scholar. He studied piano and composition at Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Faculty of Music, in Skopje before attending the Faculty of Music of Belgrade (MA in composition, 1976); he defended his doctoral dissertation on the aesthetics of music at UKIM Faculty of Philosophy in 1984. He has twice been a Fulbright Scholar in the USA (1985–6 and 1999–2000).

His catalogue includes symphonies, concertos, oratorios, operas, ballets, song cycles, and sonatas for different instruments. He defines his compositional approach as polystylistic: using mainly multi-movement orchestral forms in the manner of the European music tradition from the 17th century to the 20th and incorporating elements of folk, jazz, and rock. He is among Balkan pioneers in the use of electronic music instruments – live synthesizer performances (in the ballet Vozovi [Trains], 1984); music notation software (Third Piano Sonata, ...

Article

Gerald R. Benjamin

(Antonio)

(b Ahualulco, San Luis Potosí, Jan 28, 1875; d San Angél, Sept 9, 1965). Mexican composer, theorist, conductor, violinist, inventor and teacher. Born to an American family during a seemingly peaceful period of Mexico’s history, he received his early musical education at the National Conservatory in Mexico City, where he studied the violin with Pedro Manzano, composition with Melesio Morales and acoustics with Francisco Ortega y Fonseca. Between 1899 and 1905 he was in Europe, where he divided his time between the conservatories of Ghent and Leipzig; at Ghent he studied the violin with Albert Zimmer, and at Leipzig he was a pupil of Jadassohn (composition), Becker (violin) and Sitt (conducting), and led the Gewandhaus Orchestra under Nikisch. During these formative years he shaped his critical philosophy of the practical application and examination of all theoretical precepts. The results were revolutionary, and led him to a lifelong attempt at effecting greater accuracy among the discrepant postulates of physicists, mathematicians and music theorists, and at helping performers to apply, or at least understand, them (see his ...

Article

(b London, June 29, 1895; d Woking, March 3, 1984). English musicologist, composer and pianist. Her music studies were pursued privately with York Bowen and Fanny Davies for piano and with Benjamin Dale (whom she later married) for composition. Active as a pianist in the early part of her career, she broadcast frequently during the period 1927–31. From 1926 to 1928 she studied Swedish language and literature at University College, London, and later published translations from that and other languages (e.g. Redlich's Claudio Monteverdi and Reifling's Piano Pedalling). She taught theoretical subjects at the Matthay School (1925–31) and taught and lectured for the Workers' Educational Association (1945–50, 1957). She served on the council of the Society of Women Musicians (1920–25, 1946–9) and acted as Ethel Smyth's musical executor in 1944. Kathleen Dale's work was mainly in the field of keyboard music, though she also wrote a biography of Brahms and personal reminiscences of Ethel Smyth and Marion Scott. She edited Schubert's E minor Piano Sonata ...

Article

Michael Ellzey

(b East McKeesport, PA, Nov 8, 1948). American trumpeter and pedagogue. He attended San Diego State University (BA 1970, music education; MA, trumpet performance) and the University of California, San Diego (PhD 1980, music). He taught music at the State University of New York at Cortland from 1985 to 2012, and has served as instructor of trumpet at Colgate University in Hamilton, New York. He has also been a research consultant for the instrument museum in Schloss Kremsegg in Kremsmünster, Austria.

Considered one of the leading scholars and performers on the keyed bugle, he wrote the definitive volume on the instrument, The Keyed Bugle (Metuchen, NJ, 1993, 2/2004). His debut solo album, Music for Keyed Bugle, is the first full-length recording devoted to the keyed bugle. His Das Flügelhorn (Bergkirchen, Germany, 2004) was published in both English and German editions. His many other scholarly publications include contributions to the ...

Article

Martina Bratić

(b Krapinica, Croatia, Sept 11, 1874; d Zagreb, Croatia, Dec 12, 1948). Croatian composer, organist, music educator, theoretician, and writer. Dugan had his first musical experience during his choir lessons in an archiepiscopal secondary school. He then studied theology and took organ lessons with the principal organist of the Zagreb Cathedral, Vatroslav Kolander. In 1893 he started mathematics and physics studies but graduated from the Hochschule für Musik in Berlin in 1908 (composition with Robert Kahn, conducting with Max Bruch, and organ with H. Becker). He became a director of the Croatian Music Institute (1908) and was named Zagreb Cathedral’s principal organist in 1912 (the position which he held until his death). From 1897 to 1920 he also worked as a secondary school teacher, giving lessons in mathematics and physics. At the Zagreb Music Academy he taught music theory, composition, and the organ (1920–1941); here his most important contribution was amplifying the foundation of, and developing the curriculum for, the counterpoint and fugue courses. He was also active as a conductor of, among others, the Croatian Choral Society, Kolo, and he periodically wrote music reviews. He worked as an editor of the music section in the sacral music journal ...

Article

Paula Morgan

(b Minneapolis, Aug 2, 1941). American harpsichordist and musicologist. He graduated from Whittier College, California in 1963 and took the PhD in history of music in 1970 at Yale University, where he worked with Claude Palisca, William G. Waite and Lawrence Gushee. He studied the piano with Nadia Reisenberg and the harpsichord with Ralph Kirkpatrick and Albert Fuller. He also did post-doctoral research at the IBM Systems Research Institute, New York. In 1971 Erickson joined the faculty of Queens College, CUNY. From 1978 to 1981 he was music department chair and oversaw the transformation of the department into the Aaron Copland School of Music, of which he was the first director. In 1993 he was named dean of faculty for the Division of Arts and Humanities; he was also made a member of the doctoral faculty of the Graduate Centre, CUNY, in 1976. His work with Albert Fuller, with whom he studied for three years as a special student without fee, led to association with the Aston Magna Foundation beginning in ...

Article

Ada Benediktovna Schnitke

(b Leningrad, Jan 27, 1936). Russian musicologist, pianist and teacher. He entered the Kazan′ Music School in 1943 following the evacuation of his family to Kazan′ in 1941. After returning to Leningrad in 1945 he continued his musical education at the Special School for Gifted Children in the class of Ė.I. Shteynbok. He studied the piano with N.Ye. Perel′man at the Leningrad Conservatory from 1953 and, after graduating in 1958, undertook postgraduate research at the conservatory with Barenboym in the history and theory of pianism (1958–61). In 1946 he gained the Kandidat degree with a dissertation entitled Chertï fortepiannogo stilya i voprosï interpretatsii fortepiannoy muzïki rannego Prokof′yeva 1908–1918 (‘Features of the Piano Style and Questions Surrounding the Interpretation of Prokofiev's Early Piano Music, 1908–18’). He was appointed to teach at the Leningrad Conservatory in 1961, later becoming a senior lecturer (1967) and professor (...

Article

Victoria Eli Rodríguez

(b Havana, Jan 24, 1920; d Havana, Oct 3, 1999). Cuban composer, musicologist, pianist and teacher. He studied music in Cienfuegos then Havana, where he attended classes by Jascha Fishermann (piano) and Ardévol (composition). He was a member of the Grupo de Renovacion Musical founded by Ardévol at the Municipal Conservatory, and – together with Orbón – wrote the manifesto Presencia cubana en la musica universal (Havana, 1945). In the 1940s he was a notable music, film and theatre critic. He lived in Caracas (1947–60), were he taught the piano, directed the Coral de Venezuela, was musical adviser to the Teatro Ateneo of Caracas (1950–58) and provided incidental music for plays. On his return to Cuba he taught the piano and worked in the media. He was a musicologist at the National Museum of Music from its foundation in 1971, and researched the works of Salas y Castro and Caturla....

Article

Giselher Schubert

(b Hanau, nr Frankfurt, Nov 16, 1895; d Frankfurt, Dec 28, 1963). German composer, theorist, teacher, viola player and conductor. The foremost German composer of his generation, he was a figure central to both music composition and musical thought during the inter-war years.

Hindemith descended on his father’s side from shopkeepers and craftsmen who had settled primarily in the small Silesian community of Jauer (now Jawor, Poland), where the family can be traced back to the 17th century, and on his mother’s side from small farmers and shepherds in southern Lower Saxony. While no signs of musical interest can be found among the relatives of his mother, Maria Sophie Warnecke (1868–1949), his father, Robert Rudolf Emil Hindemith (1870–1915), came from a family of music lovers. Robert Rudolf supposedly ran away from home when his parents opposed his wish to become a musician; after arriving in Hesse, however, he became a painter and decorator. As he was never able to provide a secure income for his family, the Hindemiths were forced to move frequently. Paul spent three years of his childhood with his paternal grandfather in Naumburg. He was sincerely devoted to his mother, whom he is said to have resembled closely, even in similarity of gestures, and dedicated the first volume (...

Article

Paula Morgan

(b New York, March 18, 1905; d Ithaca, NY, Nov 8, 1991). American pianist and music scholar. After attending Princeton University he continued his musical studies with Nadia Boulanger at Fontainebleau during the summers from 1925 to 1928 and at the Ecole Normale de Musique in 1926 and 1927. From 1928 to 1931 he studied the piano with Louta Nouneberg. In 1942 he became chairman of the music department at Monticello College. He then taught at Mount Holyoke College from 1943 until 1946, when he was appointed to the music faculty of Cornell University; he served as chairman of the department there from 1949 to 1953 and as director of the chapel choir from 1953 to 1957. In 1968 he became curator of the Ives Collection at Yale University (Professor Emeritus from 1973).

Kirkpatrick gave first performances of many piano works by American composers, most notably Charles Ives's ...

Article

Stanley Sadie

(David)

( b Brooklyn, NY, Oct 13, 1947). American pianist and musicologist . He studied composition in New York with Stefan Wolpe, 1957–61, and the piano with Louis Martin, 1961–4. At Fontainebleau he was a pupil of Nadia Boulanger, 1960–64, studying the piano there under Alice Gaultier-Léon; he has also taken masterclasses with Clifford Curzon (piano) and Hans Swarowsky (conducting). He has pursued a dual career as pianist and teacher. His positions have included head of theory at the Curtis Institute (1968–73), director-in-residence and faculty member at the Conservatoire Américain, Fontainebleau (1979–83), professor at SUNY, Purchase (1972–86), professor of piano, Staatliche Hochschule für Musik, Freiburg (1986–93), and professor at Harvard University (from 1993). As a pianist, he has played in public since childhood; his formal New York recital début was at Alice Tully Hall in 1987 and in London at the Queen Elizabeth Hall in ...