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E. Eugene Helm

revised by Darrell Berg

(b Dobitschen, Saxe-Altenburg, Jan 4, 1720; d Berlin, Dec 2, 1774). German musicographer, composer, organist, singing master and conductor. His father occupied an important post as government agent and jurist in Dobitschen. Burney, who visited the Agricolas in 1772, reported that Johann Friedrich’s mother, born Maria Magdalena Manke, ‘was a near relation of the late Mr Handel, and in correspondence with him till the time of his death’; but later Handel research has failed to substantiate this claim.

Agricola began his study of music as a young child. In 1738 he entered the University of Leipzig, where he studied law; during this time he was a pupil of J.S. Bach and visited Dresden, where he heard performances of Passion oratorios and Easter music by Hasse. In 1741 he moved to Berlin, became a pupil of Quantz, made the acquaintance of C.P.E. Bach, C.H. Graun and other musicians, and embarked on a career that touched many aspects of Berlin’s musical life. He became keenly interested in music criticism and theoretical speculation in Berlin, and his work as a musicographer has proved to be his most lasting accomplishment. In ...


(b Comber, Co. Down, Aug 10, 1904; d Oxford, Oct 10, 1965). Northern Irish music scholar, teacher, organist, composer and editor. He went to Bedford School, and studied at the RCM in London, Trinity College, Dublin, and New College, Oxford, gaining doctorates of music at both universities. In 1938, after four years as organist and choirmaster at Beverley Minster, he moved to a similar position at New College. Thereafter, he lived and worked in Oxford, where he was a university lecturer in music and a Fellow of New College, and later of Balliol. He also taught at the RCM.

Andrews's published work consists of three books, various articles (including contributions to the fifth edition of Grove's Dictionary of Music), reviews, and several motets, services and songs. The Oxford Harmony, vol.ii, traces the development of chromatic harmony through standard repertory works and relates this to techniques of composition. The opening chapters of ...


Laurie J. Sampsel

(b Milton, MA, Feb 18, 1760; d French Mills, NY, Nov 23, 1813). American composer, singing master, singer, and tunebook compiler. Babcock lived most of his life in Watertown, MA, where he worked as a hatter. As a teenager he fought in the Revolutionary War, and he died while enlisted in the Army during the War of 1812. He was active primarily as a psalmodist during the period from 1790 to 1810. Babcock was the choir leader at the Watertown Congregational church, sang at and composed music for town events, and taught singing schools there in 1798 and 1804. He may also have been an itinerant singing master in the Boston area. Babcock composed 75 extant pieces, including anthems, set pieces, fuging tunes, psalm, and hymn tunes. Most of his music was first published in his own tunebook, Middlesex Harmony, which was published in two editions (1795...


David Tunley

(b c1720; d Paris, c1798). French publisher, composer and teacher. On 27 April 1765 he took over the music publishing house known as A la Règle d’Or, which comprised businesses once owned by Boivin, Ballard and Bayard. During some 30 years he issued many works by both French and foreign composers, the latter including not only early masters like Corelli and Vivaldi, but also some of those who were influential in the development of the emerging Classical school: Carl Stamitz, Haydn, Piccinni, Paisiello, Cimarosa, Boccherini and Clementi. French composers included Gossec, Davaux, Monsigny and Brassac, and some of the earlier generation, Lully, Lalande and Campra. One of his major publications was the Journal d’ariettes des plus célèbres compositeurs, comprising 240 works issued in 63 volumes (scores and parts) from 1779 to 1788. Bailleux’s adoption of the royal privilege granted to the Ballard family led to his imprisonment during the Terror. He was released after the coup d'état of 9 Thermidor (...


H.C. Colles

revised by Malcolm Turner


(b London, March 25, 1871; d London, Oct 3, 1947). English writer on music, music editor, teacher, organist and composer. He studied at the Royal College of Music under Parratt, C.H. Lloyd and Parry (1888–92). He held posts as organist of Worcester College, Oxford (1891–4), Wells Cathedral (1896–9) and Bristol Cathedral (1899–1901), and was then appointed director of music at Harrow School, a post that he held until 1927. In 1910 he succeeded Prout as professor of music at Trinity College, Dublin, occupying the chair until 1920. In 1925 he was appointed King Edward Professor of Music in the University of London and had meanwhile begun to teach at the RCM. When he left Harrow he became music adviser to the London County Council (1927–36). In August 1937, on his retirement from the London professorship, he received a knighthood....


Michael Fend

(Carlo Zanobi Salvadore Maria )

(b Florence, 8/Sept 14, 1760; d Paris, March 15, 1842). Italian, composer, conductor, teacher, administrator, theorist, and music publisher, active in France. He took French citizenship, probably in 1794, and was a dominant figure in Parisian musical life for half a century. He was a successful opera composer during the Revolutionary period, and had comparable success with religious music from the beginning of the Restoration. He was made director of the Paris Conservatoire and consolidated its pre-eminent position in music education in Europe.

In the biographical preface to his work catalogue, compiled in 1831, Cherubini gave 8 and 14 September as his dates of birth, but the records of the baptistery of S Giovanni state that he was born on 14 September (and baptized the following day). He was the tenth of 12 children. It has been claimed that his mother died when he was four years old (Pougin, ...


Leon Plantinga

revised by Luca Lévi Sala

[Clementi, Mutius Philippus Vincentius Franciscus Xaverius]

(b Rome, Jan 23, 1752; d Evesham, Worcs., March 10, 1832). English composer, keyboard player and virtuoso, teacher, music publisher, entrepreneur, and piano manufacturer of Italian birth.

The oldest of seven children of Nicola Clementi (1720–89), a silversmith, and Magdalena (née Kaiser), Clementi began studies in music in Rome at a very early age; his teachers were Antonio Boroni (1738–92), an organist named Cordicelli, Giuseppi Santarelli (1710–90), and possibly Gaetano Carpani. In January 1766, at the age of 13, he secured the post of organist at his home church, S Lorenzo in Damaso. In that year, however, his playing attracted the attention of an English traveller, Peter Beckford (1740–1811), cousin of the novelist William Beckford (1760–1844) and nephew of William Beckford (1709–70), twice Lord Mayor of London. According to Peter Beckford’s own forthright explanation, he ‘bought Clementi of his father for seven years’, and in late ...


Argia Bertini

revised by Giulia Anna Romana Veneziano

(b Florence, July 8, 1638; d Florence, Jan 16, 1703). Italian composer, teacher, music editor, theorist, organist and singer. He spent his entire life as a priest in Florence. On 1 August 1663 he was appointed chaplain at the cathedral, S Maria del Fiore, where he was also active as an organist and singer. He was particularly admired as a teacher, and it was this above all that determined the nature of his publications; the numerous reprints particularly of Il cantore addottrinato and Scolare addottrinato bear witness to the popularity of his methods. In these two manuals he sought to establish rules for the effective composition and performance of church music, contributing, according to his contemporaries, to the codification of the ‘true rule of ecclesiastical singing’. However, he is better remembered for his Corona di sacre canzoni and Colletta di laude spirituali, which have great importance for the final phase in the history of the ...


Jerome Roche


(b Veringenstadt, nr Sigmaringen, 1585; d Rottenburg am Neckar, 1654). German music editor, singer, teacher and composer. He studied at the University of Dillingen, one of the main cultural centres of south-west Germany, and in 1610 took a post as singer at St Martin, Rottenburg. This carried with it duties as a schoolteacher: in this capacity he became Rektor of the school in 1622 and in his musical capacity Kapellmeister of the church in 1627.

Donfrid is chiefly interesting as an editor who saw it as his task to propagate in Catholic southern Germany the best and most popular church music by Italian composers of his day. To this end he published five large anthologies at Strasbourg in the 1620s: the tripartite Promptuarii musici, consisting of motets arranged in a liturgical cycle, as had been done by other editors, such as Schadaeus, before him; the Viridarium, devoted to Marian pieces; and the ...


Gaynor G. Jones and Michael Musgrave

(b Wetzlar, Jan 6, 1807; d Berlin, Nov 25, 1883). German editor of folksongs, teacher, choral director and composer. He received his first musical training from his father, Adam Wilhelm Erk, who was Kantor, cathedral organist and teacher at Wetzlar. In 1813 the family moved to Dreieichenhain in Hesse-Darmstadt where Erk took piano, organ and violin lessons. After his father’s death in 1820, he went to Offenbach, where he entered J.B. Spiess’s educational institute (at which he taught from 1824). His music teachers at Offenbach were the composer Johann Anton André, the violinist C. Reinwald and the organist J.C.H. Rinck. In 1826 he was offered a temporary appointment at the teachers’ seminary at Moers on the lower Rhine; he founded and directed many music festivals in this area (including the Remscheid, Ruhrort and Duisburg festivals), and also performed as a piano soloist and in ensembles. He accepted a teaching appointment at the Royal Seminary in Berlin in ...


(b Burlada, Navarre, Oct 21, 1807; d Madrid, July 23, 1878). Spanish writer on music, editor, teacher and composer. He entered Pamplona Cathedral as a choirboy at the age of nine, and at 17 served as a violinist. He studied the piano, organ and violin with Julián Prieto and composition with Francisco Secanilla. In 1828 he became maestro de capilla at Burgo de Osma. In 1829 his appointment as maestro de capilla was frustrated at Seville Cathedral apparently by local intrigues, and at the royal chapel in Madrid by his youth. However, he was called to the post at Seville in 1832 and at the royal chapel in 1844. At Seville he took holy orders and soon met with ecclesiastical opposition to his secular operas. These three opere serie (all lost) were all written to Italian librettos and in the Italian style. Nevertheless, Eslava founded with Arrieta, Barbieri, Basili, Gaztambide, Salas and Saldoni La España Musical, a group whose aim was to foster Spanish opera. In ...


Richard Crawford

(b Stoughton, MA, July 15, 1754; d Simsbury, CT, May 1817). American composer, tunebook compiler, and singing master. He was an older brother of Edward French (1761–1845), a miller by trade, who was noted as a singer and also composed. Jacob was a member of a singing-school taught by William Billings at Stoughton in 1774. Between 1775 and 1781 he served in the Continental Army, and his military records describe him as a soldier, a Stoughton resident, and a “husbandman” (farmer). He presumably became a singing master after the Revolutionary War. He lived in Medway, Massachusetts, in 1789, and in July 1795 a legal document described him as a “Teacher of Musick” living in Uxbridge, Massachusetts. He is also known to have organized a singing-school in Providence (1795–6), and Genuchi reports (without documentation) that after the turn of the century he taught singing-schools in the wintertime (...


Robert Pascall

(b Frauental, Styria, May 5, 1842; d Vöslau, nr Vienna, Oct 5, 1899). Austrian conductor, teacher, editor and composer, brother of Robert Fuchs. He studied theory with Simon Sechter in Vienna and was appointed Kapellmeister of the Bratislava Opera in 1864. He then worked as an opera conductor in Brno (where his only opera, Zingara, was first produced in 1872), Kassel, Cologne, Hamburg, Leipzig and finally, from 1880, at the Vienna Hofoper. In 1873 he married the singer Anthonie Exner in Kassel. Fuchs became a professor of composition at the Vienna Conservatory in 1888 and succeeded Hellmesberger as its director in 1893; the next year he received the title of assistant Hofkapellmeister for his work at the court opera. He played an important part in preparing the Schubert Gesamtausgabe, editing the dramatic works and some of the orchestral music. He also edited operas by Handel, Gluck and Mozart and wrote songs and piano pieces....


Milton Sutter

revised by Carlida Steffan

(b Friuli, ?1770; d Venice, early 1830). Italian music lexicographer, teacher and composer. He studied music in Padua with Jacopo Agnola and then went to Venice, where he taught theory and composition. There, in 1801, he published his Dizionario della musica sacra e profana, the first music dictionary in Italian, which he described as modelled on the French works by Brossard and Rousseau, and Grammatica ragionata della musica, an introduction to the elements of music and musical instruments, which included an annotated bibliography of writers on the theory and practice of music from 1500 to the end of the 18th century. Second editions of both works, the Dizionario revised and much enlarged, appeared in 1820. A reprint of this edition of the Dizionario appeared in 1830 (called the third edition on its title-page). Although much of the material in both editions of the Dizionario is superficial and incorrect, a few of the entries are useful, providing information not easily found elsewhere. In ...


Andrew Thomson

(b Boulogne-sur-Mer, March 12, 1837; d Meudon, March 29, 1911). French organist, teacher, composer and editor. He was the son of Jean-Baptiste Guilmant, organist of St Nicolas, Boulogne, who was his first teacher; he also received harmony lessons from Gustav Carulli. Devoted to the organ from an early age, he set himself an unremitting regime of practice, composition and studying treatises. At 16 he had become organist of St Joseph, and two years later his first Messe solemnelle in F was performed at St Nicolas. Soon his musical activities broadened to include teaching solfège at the Ecole Communale de Musique, playing the viola in the Société Philharmonique, and establishing an Orphéon that won a number of prizes. In 1860 he went to Brussels to study with the organist J.N. Lemmens, purportedly the inheritor of the authentic tradition of J.S. Bach. Numerous opportunities to inaugurate new organs followed, above all those of Aristide Cavaillé-Coll in Paris at St Sulpice in ...


Franz Krautwurst

[Hellerus Leucopetraeus]

(b Weissenfels, c1518; d Eisleben, c1590). German mathematician, astronomer, teacher, printer, composer and poet. He studied at the University of Wittenberg from 1536. In 1543, on Melanchthon's recommendation, he succeeded Wilhelm Breitengraser as Rektor of the St Egidien grammar school, Nuremberg. In 1546 he also became professor of mathematics at the St Egidien Gymnasium. He frequently staged school comedies. From 1551 he ran his own printing works. He was forced to leave Nuremberg in 1563 because of his controversial religious activities. He subsequently worked as astronomer to the electorate of Saxony in central Germany, mainly at Mansfeld and Eisleben. Three bicinia by him are known, a song in praise of music (in RISM 154916) and two settings of hymns by Luther (in 155120; one of the latter in K. Ameln, ed.: Luthers Kirchenlieder in Tonsätzen seiner Zeit, Kassel, 1934). Two pieces signed ‘J.H.’ in Caspar Othmayr’s ...


Stephen A. Marini

(b Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England, Oct 4, 1730; d Cashaway, SC, cAug 1771). American singing master, compiler, and composer. He was the compiler of The Cashaway Psalmody (1770), a South Carolina manuscript that is the earliest surviving collection of sacred music from the colonial South. Born into poverty and orphaned by the age of 10, Hills acquired enough education to become a schoolmaster in Newcastle before 1751. In that year he was arrested for stealing books, tried, and banished to South Carolina for a term of seven years. He settled in the province’s remote Pee Dee River country, where he worked as a secretary, accountant, and tutor for local indigo planters. Hills served in the Cherokee War of 1759 and was appointed clerk of St. David’s Anglican parish at Cheraw Hill ten years later.

Hills became a singing master during an extended visit to Newcastle in the mid-1760s. By ...


Michael Kassler

[Karl Friedrich]

(b Nordhausen, Saxony, Feb 1762; d Windsor, Aug 3, 1830). English teacher, editor, organist and composer of German birth. According to memoirs by his son Charles Edward (MS Yomiuri Symphony Orchestra, Japan), Horn defied his father’s opposition to a career in music by taking lessons secretly from the Nordhausen organist Christoph Gottlieb Schröter and by leaving home in 1782 to become a musician in Paris. On his way, a stranger persuaded him to travel to London instead and after accompanying him there stole most of his money. When Horn confessed his plight to a German-speaking passer-by he was taken into a music shop, whose proprietor introduced him to the Saxon ambassador. Through this contact he was subsequently employed as a music master in the household of the 1st Marquess of Stafford. There he met Diana Dupont, a governess, whom he married on 28 September 1785; in consequence of her pregnancy, the couple moved to London where in ...


Robert Orledge and Andrew Thomson

(b Paris, Mar 27, 1851; d Paris, Dec 2, 1931). French composer, teacher, conductor and editor of early music. His famed veneration for Beethoven and Franck has unfortunately obscured the individual character of his own compositions, particularly his fine orchestral pieces descriptive of southern France. As a teacher his influence was enormous and wideranging, with benefits for French music far outweighing the charges of dogmatism and political intolerance.

Andrew Thomson

D’Indy came from a military aristocratic family from the Ardèche region, a fact of the greatest importance in understanding his lifelong nationalist and right-wing political position. His mother died in childbirth, and he was brought up by his paternal grandmother, Thérèse (née de Chorier). Her strict regime, however, was mitigated by deep affection: she was not the tyrannical ogress of received opinion. D’Indy took lessons in piano from Louis Diémer and theory from Albert Lavignac; while showing definite promise, he showed more interest as a boy in military matters and the life of his hero Napoleon. At 18, having passed his ...


Kristina Yapova

(b Stara Zagora, June 30, 1873; d Sofia, March 19, 1932). Bulgarian composer, pedagogue, and publisher . Khadjigeorgiev finished the Bulgarian Catholic Secondary School in Odrin in 1890. In 1892 he entered the Prague Conservatory where he studied flute and composition. Here Khadjigeorgiev wrote his first works: Jubileen marsh [Anniversary March] for piano, devoted to the Bulgarian poet Ivan Vazov (1894), Konzertna polka [Concert-Polka] for two flutes and piano (1896), and Bulgarski tanz [Bulgarian Dance] no.1 for piano (1897). After his return to Bulgaria in 1897, Khadjigeorgiev engaged in cultural activities: he was a founder, together with Georgi Baidanov, of the Musical Society Kaval (1897), and initiator, publisher, and editor of the Musical Newspaper (1904). Khadjigeorgiev was a winner of the first prize in the competition for a composition in honour of Alexander II on the occasion of the opening of the Emperor’s monument in Sofia (...