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Article

H. Wiley Hitchcock

revised by Katherine K. Preston

(b Chicago, Dec 9, 1850; d Salt Lake City, Jan 5, 1891). American soprano and impresario. She studied first with her father and by the age of nine was performing professionally. She joined an itinerant concert troup in 1866 and after it disbanded went to New York to study with Achille Errani; her concert début there was in December 1871. In 1872 she went abroad to study with Sangiovanni in Milan and Marchesi, Wartel and Delle Sedie in Paris. Her operatic début at Covent Garden was as Marie in La fille du régiment (2 May 1876), but her contract was cancelled when she refused to sing Violetta on moral grounds.

Abbott secretly married Eugene Wetherell (d 1889); in 1876 they returned to the USA, where she gave concerts. Her American operatic début was in New York on 23 February 1877, again as Marie. In ...

Article

C.F. Pohl

revised by John D. Drake and Stephan Hörner

(b Bayreuth, Feb 20, 1761; d Stuttgart, March 2, 1838). German composer, pianist and organist. In 1771 he became a pupil of A. Boroni at the Hohe Karlsschule in Stuttgart, where in 1782 he joined the private band of the Duke of Württemberg as a harpsichordist. On Zumsteeg's death in 1802 he succeeded him as Konzertmeister, and took over the direction of the ensemble until the appointment of J.F. Kranz. By 1815 he held the position of organist at court and director of the official music. In 1832, having completed 50 years' service with the court, he was given a gold medal and a pension.

Most of Abeille's compositions date from the first 30 years of his service at Stuttgart. Besides two sonatas for keyboard with accompanying violin (1783), his published instrumental works include sonatas and other pieces for both piano solo and piano duet, a piano trio, a piano concerto and a concerto for piano duet, which was favourably mentioned by Gerber (...

Article

Alfred E. Lemmon

(fl 1890–95). Guatemalan musical educator and band director. He was the first director of the Guatemalan banda marcial and was appointed director of the National Conservatory of Music in 1890. His initial task in this post was the upgrading of the conservatory's facilities. He acquired a variety of musical instruments and enlarged the institution's library with music primarily from Germany. His tenure as director was marked by particular emphasis on the teaching of stringed instruments, especially the violin. Aberle also worked to establish a new plan of studies, which was accredited by the secretary of public education. If a student failed a course, he or she was given only one opportunity to repeat it successfully, while advanced students were excused courses where appropriate. Scholarships were awarded to exceptional students between the ages of nine and 15, and from 1893 select students were eligible for government scholarships for further studies in Europe....

Article

Richard Crawford

revised by Nym Cooke

(b Dalkeith, c1746; d Philadelphia, Sept 8, 1831). American music engraver, publisher and dealer of Scottish birth. He also worked as a metalsmith for much of his life. Arriving in Philadelphia by 1785, he began his career as a music publisher in 1787 with three large works: Alexander Reinagle’s A Selection of the most Favorite Scots Tunes, William Brown’s Three Rondos for the Piano Forte or Harpsichord, and his own A Compilation of the Litanies and Vespers Hymns and Anthems (2/1791), the only 18th-century American collection of music for the Roman Catholic Church. In 1788 he issued another anthology by Reinagle and also probably Francis Hopkinson’s Seven Songs; a few pieces of sheet music and more of Reinagle’s song collections followed in 1789. By 1793 he had brought out at least 20 titles, but between then and 1806 he published only the compendious Scots Musical Museum...

Article

Bonnie Elizabeth Fleming

(b Prague, Bohemia [now Czech Republic], 1844; d New York, NY, May 22, 1921). American theater manager and producer of Czech Republic birth. He immigrated at the age of 20 to the United States, in the midst of the Civil War, and within two years was managing German-language theaters in Detroit and Cincinnati. In 1879, along with Mathilde Cottrelly and Heinrich Conried, Amberg refurbished the historic old Bowery Theatre in New York, renamed it the Thalia, and presented there what George C. Odell one historian has called “the most brilliant sequence of stars and plays ever given here in German” (Annals of the New York Stage, xiv, 319). Amberg made regular trips to Europe in the 1880s and early 1890s in search of the best actors and musicians. His theaters gave the American premieres of many contemporary Berlin and Viennese operettas and also presented such great German performers as Marie Geistinger, Antoine Janisch, Heinrich Bötel, Ernst Possart, and Gertrud Giers. In ...

Article

Dominic Symonds

(b St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada, Sept 20, 1886; d New York, NY, Jan 30, 1954). American impresario, producer, and director of Canadian birth. Rivalled only by Florenz Ziegfeld for his lavish revues, Murray Anderson produced The Ziegfeld Follies in 1934, 1936, and 1943, Life Begins at 8:40 (1934), and eponymous Almanac revues in 1929 and 1953. His Greenwich Village Follies (1919–24) were billed as offering “intellectual beauty,” though they showcased nudity on a reduced budget from non-Equity performers (complemented by a handful of class acts). Still, their popularity and quality (of Murray Anderson’s sketches, if not the music) propelled them on to Broadway by 1921. He also produced or directed other key shows, including Dearest Enemy (1925) and Billy Rose’s Jumbo (1935). In Hollywood he was involved with King of Jazz (1930), Bathing Beauty (1944), The Great Ziegfeld...

Article

Harry B. Soria

(b Honolulu, HI, June 6, 1894; d Honolulu, HI, May 30, 1995). American composer, musician, and record producer. Anderson’s parents were socially prominent in Honolulu, and he was educated in Honolulu and at Cornell University. Soon after graduation, he joined the Air Force and was sent into air combat in France during World War I. Shot down and captured, he led a daring escape across German lines into Holland by speaking the limited French and German he had learned in high school. Eventually, his exploits were turned into The Dawn Patrol (1930), a film starring Richard Barthelmess. Anderson married Peggy Center, a high school classmate, and began a successful Hawaii-based career in business and service to the community. Although he had no formal musical training, and played the piano by ear, his talent for clever lyrics and songwriting flourished as well.

Anderson wrote more than 200 songs during his lifetime, which spanned most of the 20th century. Anderson lived to see not only the birth of hapa haole music, but witnessed every step in its evolution through ragtime, big band swing, and Hawaiian style hula, earning him the title of “The Godfather of Hapa Haole Music.” Anderson’s hapa haole compositions (songs with predominantly English lyrics with some references to Hawaii and the Hawaiian language) may be among the most distinctively Hawaiian music ever recorded. His songs collectively share the Hawaii of his birth, with its unique people, places, and elements. Among his most famous compositions, which have been recorded countless times, are “Haole Hula,” “Lovely Hula Hands,” “White Ginger Blossoms,” “On a Coconut Island,” “Malihini Mele,” “The Cockeyed Mayor of Kaunakai,” “I’ll weave a lei of stars for you,” and the premiere Hawaiian Christmas song, “Mele Kalikimaka.”...

Article

Kornel Michałowski

(b Lublin, Dec 31, 1840; d Warsaw, Feb 15, 1916). Polish bookseller and music publisher. He served his apprenticeship in the bookshop of his uncle Stanisław Arct in Warsaw, then at Behr & Bock in Berlin. In 1862 he took over the management of Stanisław Arct’s bookshop, becoming its proprietor in 1881. In 1900 he founded his own printing house, and devoted himself almost completely to publishing, especially dictionaries, encyclopedias, school and children’s literature, and music. As a distinguished authority on music publishing he developed considerably the retailing of scores, as well as introducing a system of lending music for the students of the Warsaw Conservatory. He increased his number of publications to 100 titles yearly, mainly for teaching purposes. The publishing firm M. Arct existed until 1939 and, as the firm S. Arct, from 1946 to 1949.

Music series published by M. Arct include Etudes et exercises, Sonates et sonatines...

Article

Roland J. Vázquez

(de)

(b Portugal, 1836; d Madrid, May 21, 1886). Spanish impresario, actor and singer. He first became popular in comic roles at theTeatro de la Zarzuela in Madrid. In 1866 he formed his own company, the Bufos Madrileños, modelled on Offenbach’s Bouffes-Parisiens. It was an instant success. By 1870 he had begun a second company in Barcelona. In addition to operettas by Offenbach and Lecocq, Arderíus staged new works by Spanish composers, including F. A. Barbieri and P. J. E. Arrieta.The dance routines and brief costumes of the female chorus were indispensable to the appeal of the Bufos, and were among the features that incited critics to condemn the genre as frivolous and a hindrance to the development of serious opera in Spanish. By the beginning of 1873 the company’s popularity had ended, and Arderíus had become director at the Teatro de la Zarzuela. Thereafter he championed the cause of national opera, attempting, without success, to launch a Spanish opera series in ...

Article

Leanne Langley

(bap. London, Dec 28, 1774; d Walton upon Thames, Aug 16, 1852). English librettist and impresario, son of Samuel Arnold. Though trained as an artist, from the mid-1790s he worked with his father at the Little Theatre in the Haymarket, writing afterpieces set by the elder Arnold. He himself wrote the words and music for one such work there, Foul Deeds Will Rise (18 July 1804). In 1809, when Drury Lane burnt down and its company moved to the Lyceum in Wellington Street off the Strand, Arnold then became associated with that theatre and began to stage his own plays with music. The Drury Lane company left in 1812 and Arnold retained the Lyceum, naming it the English Opera House during summer seasons. In 1815 he obtained the lease and had the theatre almost completely rebuilt; it was formally opened as the English Opera House on ...

Article

Blake Howe

(b New York, April 8, 1856; d New York, Feb 4, 1919). American theater manager, conductor, and composer. After studying harmony and composition with Emile Durand at the Paris Conservatoire (1874–7), Aronson returned to New York as a young manager and conductor at the Metropolitan Hall. He encountered his greatest success as founder of the Casino Theatre in Manhattan, a building celebrated for its “Moorish” architecture and its roof garden (the first of its kind). Opening on 21 October 1882 with a performance of The Queen’s Lace Handkerchief, the Casino quickly became the major venue for comic opera performances in New York, featuring sumptuously designed performances of the works of J. Strauss, Sullivan, Offenbach, and Millöcker, among others. Though he considered the production inferior to his other work, Aronson’s most successful run at the Casino was Jakobowski’s Erminie (1256 performances). Throughout his career, Aronson maintained strong European connections, managing theater houses abroad and contracting American tours of major European musicians, including Leoncavallo....

Article

Jonas Westover

(b Chicago, IL, 1887; d Lynbrook, NY, Jan 15, 1938). American librettist, lyricist, and producer. He was the driving force behind many musicals that took place under the auspices of the Shubert brothers in New York from 1911 until his death in 1938. He was born and educated in Chicago, where he first honed his theatrical skills as a scriptwriter and lyricist. After moving to New York (September 1910) he worked first at the Folies Bergere and a year later was hired by the Shuberts to write the script and the lyrics for Vera Violetta (1911), which starred Al Jolson. Atteridge and Jolson continued to work together closely for many years thereafter. Atteridge shaped what became known as Winter Garden revues, musicals that took place seasonally at the Winter Garden theater well into the 1930s. The most significant of these was The Passing Show...

Article

Barbara Turchin

revised by Meredith M. Eliassen

(b Boston, MA, June 4, 1811; d Oakland, CA, Nov 29, 1891). American proprietor of music stores and sheet music publisher. From 1833 to 1849, Atwill operated a “Music Saloon” music store and publishing business on Broadway in New York City, using printing plates of the Thomas Birch Company. He married Eliza Dugliss in 1834. After suffering financial setbacks, the business was taken over by Samuel C. Jollie, and Atwill left his family to travel to San Francisco. He arrived penniless on 28 October 1849 but hit paydirt in the gold fields. Unlike many miners who sent paper money drafts home, Atwill sent about $75,000 in gold dust to New York. He brought his wife and daughters to California in 1854. Atwill moved his East Coast stock to California and established California’s first music store, a tiny metal-constructed building at 158 Washington Street that withstood San Francisco’s many firestorms. In New York, Atwill published Vincenzo Belini’s ...

Article

Anna-Lise P. Santella

[Atwood-Grant, Lizzie Ethel]

(b Fairfield, ME, Sept 12, 1866; d Los Angeles, CA, April 9, 1948). American violinist and co-founder and business manager of the Fadette Ladies’ Orchestra. Atwood, the daughter of a farmer/merchant father and a milliner mother, began violin lessons at age eight in Fairfield, Maine, but moved to Boston as a teenager to further her study. In October 1888 she and Caroline B. Nichols (1864–1939) founded the Fadette Ladies’ Orchestra, which became one of the best-known women’s orchestras in the country. Atwood became the organization’s principal second violin and its first business manager; she played with the Fadettes from 1888 to 1895. In 1895 the Fadettes incorporated, but Atwood copyrighted the group’s name. When Atwood left the Fadettes shortly before her 1896 marriage, she sold the name to Mary Messer, who attempted to use it to start another ladies’ orchestra. Messer sued the Fadettes for continuing to perform under a name she had purchased, but the Massachusetts Supreme Court sided with the Fadettes. Beginning in the 1890s, Atwood also worked as a prompter and was, reportedly, the only woman prompter in the United States. By ...

Article

Elizabeth Forbes

(Francis)

(b London, Sept 24, 1888; d London, July 9, 1981). English baritone and director. He studied at Oxford, making his début in 1919 with the Carl Rosa Opera Company, then sang with the O’Mara Opera Company and at the Old Vic. For Oxford University Opera Club (1925–31...

Article

Leanne Langley

(b London, Feb 22, 1777; d London, May 8, 1858). English editor, critic and impresario, youngest son of Edmund Ayrton. He was baptized at St Margaret's, Westminster, and probably studied music with his father. In 1794 he was a bass chorus singer at the Ancient Concerts, and by 1803, when he married Marianne Arnold (daughter of Samuel Arnold), a piano teacher. Through the Chapel Royal connections of his father and father-in-law, and the friendship of Frederick Nicolay (Queen Charlotte's music librarian), he had easy access to court circles. But it was his membership in the Society of Antiquaries (1807) that stimulated his serious interest in music history. In 1808 he began collecting materials for a historical music dictionary (never completed), eventually assembling one of the most remarkable music collections of the mid-19th century. Among his circle of acquaintances around this time, mostly journalists and barristers, Henry Crabb Robinson, Martin Burney (the music historian's grandson), Charles Lamb and William Hazlitt were prominent; T.M. Alsager, the ...

Article

Thomas Kaufman

(b Ravenna, 1863; d Atlantic City, NJ, July 1907). Italian conductor, composer and impresario. His career was largely spent in touring Latin America and the Caribbean, mostly as the conductor for other impresarios, sometimes as both conductor and impresario of his own company.

His four-act opera Ermengarda, to a libretto by P. Martini, had its première at the Teatro Andreani in Mantua on 27 November 1886. Azzali embarked for Colombia in 1891. A six-month season in Bogotá as conductor and musical director for the Zenardo-Lambardi company was followed by an extended tour of the country and another season in the capital in 1893. During that season his Lhidiak (2, V. Fontana), based on an Indian legend, the first opera to be written for Colombia, had its première at the Teatro Colón (12 August). In April 1895 he started another tour that included Guatemala City, Quezaltenango, Bogotá and Medellin. In ...

Article

Margaret Cranmer

(b 1770; bur. London, Oct 7, 1833). English piano maker, music seller, publisher, printer and organ builder. He worked in Duke Street, Grosvenor Square, London, from 1787 until his death. Domenico Motta joined him briefly to form Motta & Ball about 1794; in 1818 the Post Office London Directory lists the firm as J. Ball and Son. The son must be the Edward Ball who is listed as a piano maker at Duke Street in an 1824 jury roll preserved at Westminster City Archives. James Ball is listed in the 1827 Post Office London Directory as ‘Grand cabinet & square Piano Forte maker to his Majesty’. Ball’s early five-octave square pianos with the English single action had two hand stops, one for raising the dampers and the other a ‘lute’ stop. He is best known for his square pianos, but also made cabinet pianos and grands, some of them for the Prince Regent. In ...

Article

(b Vercelli, 1770; d Milan, 1850). Italian impresario . He began as a croupier, and in later life deceived Berlioz and others by saying that he had been a tailleur (‘tailor’, but less obviously ‘card-cutter’). Gambling threw him together with Domenico Barbaia, whose assistant he became in his manifold enterprises as a gambling promoter and opera impresario, first in Venice from 1807, where he managed La Fenice, then in Naples, Palermo and Milan. When Barbaia withdrew from Milan in 1828, Balochino stayed on at La Scala, working again as assistant to leading impresarios, in particular Bartolomeo Merelli. From 1835 to 1848 he was Merelli’s partner and representative in charge of the Kärntnertortheater, Vienna, besides sharing in Merelli’s operatic agency business. Balochino therefore dealt, through the heyday of early 19th-century Italian opera, with some of the most notable artists of the time. He seems, however, to have been a canny, stubborn businessman without much artistic flair; late in his career he rejected a work by his own musical director, Otto Nicolai – ...

Article

Ferenc Bónis

(b Kolozsvár [now Cluj-Napoca], Dec 30, 1874; d Budapest, June 6, 1950). Hungarian opera director, designer and writer. After studying law at the universities of Kolozsvár and Budapest he entered the service of the state. From 1912 to 1917 he was director of the Hungarian State Theatres (the Royal Opera House and the National Theatre), and in 1917–18 was general director of the Budapest opera house, where he undertook the renewal of the outmoded repertory and 19th-century traditions of staging. Although World War I thwarted some of his plans, he succeeded in bringing new life to the repertory by introducing works such as Salome (1912), Boris Godunov, Die Entführung and L’enfant prodigue (all 1913), Handel’s Judas Maccabaeus (1914), Franz Schmidt’s Notre Dame (1916), Bartók’s Bluebeard’s Castle (1918) and many ballets. Bánffy smoothed Bartók’s path to the stage, and not just as director: his set, reminiscent of naive folk art, for the ballet ...