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Elizabeth A. Clendinning

An amusement park is a commercially-operated, outdoor venue that offers games, rides, and other types of entertainment, including music. The amusement park concept originated in the pleasure gardens of 17th-century Europe, which were originally large landscaped outdoor spaces primary devoted to games with a few refreshment stands. Dances and social and instrumental concerts became commonly integrated into these pleasure gardens in the 18th century. (...


Joanne Sheehy Hoover and Suzanne L. Moulton-Gertig

Summer school for harpists. Carlos Salzedo established the school in 1931, and until his death in 1961 taught up to 40 students twice per week. He expected students to adhere to a strict dress code and spend most of their time practicing. He left his colony and house to a former student, Alice Chalifoux (...



Janis L. McKay

The word casino originally referred to small garden houses that were used for music and table games in Europe; over time, it came to mean any building in which gambling took place. Historically, hotel casino owners have used musical entertainment to draw tourists to their locations, in the hope that before and after the performance guests will spend time gambling. Casinos vary greatly in size and design, from small ones located on remote Native American reservations to large mega-resorts found in Las Vegas, Atlantic City, and on reservations located near major cities....


Linda Whitesitt

Voluntary associations of professional and amateur musicians. Music clubs have had a profound impact on the modern institutions and practices of American musical life that arose in the decades spanning the turn of the 20th century. Emerging after the Civil War and as part of the long tradition of 19th-century women’s organizations, most of these music clubs were founded by women to offer women musicians the opportunity to study music and perform for each other. By ...


Paul R. Laird

State-supported university founded in Lawrence in 1866. A Department of Music was established within the School of Fine Arts in 1884. Dance was part of the department from 1985 until 2009, when a free-standing School of Music was formed. In the fall of 2009, the School of Music had 300 undergraduates, 220 graduate students, and nearly 60 full- and part-time instructors. It offers the bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees in performance, theory, composition, music education, musicology, and music therapy, and a combined BFA degree in theatre and vocal music. The Department of Music founded the long-standing Midwestern Music Camp in the summer of ...


Robert Copeland

The oldest primarily choral music festival in the United States. Held on two weekends in May, the festival was established in 1873 under the direction of Theodore Thomas. German singing societies had earlier laid a strong foundation of choral singing in the city. In 1871...


Cathy Ragland

Theater and concert hall. The historic venue, located in the heart of San Antonio, Texas, opened to the public on 9 March 1949. It was originally built and owned by Sam Lucchese, who operated several other movie houses in the city. At the time, the 2500-seat theater was the nation’s largest to feature Spanish-language films and live entertainment. Lucchese recognized the earning potential of a business focusing on the city’s large Mexican American population. In its heyday, the Alameda featured top Mexican films often accompanied by live concerts by singing stars Pedro Infante, Lucha Reyes, and Jorge Negrete, popular comedians Cantinflas, Tin Tan, Resortes, and Piporro, such local artists as singer Rosita Fernández and Santiago Jiménez y su Conjunto, and many others. By the late 1960s, the Alameda’s popularity declined as the Mexican American population became more acculturated. It was forgotten until ...