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Founded in 1981 by New York-based composer, theorist, bassoonist, and author Johnny Reinhard (b 1956), the American Festival of Microtonal Music, otherwise referred to as AFMM (http://www.afmm.org) provides an international forum for composers, theorists, and performers whose work is concerned with just intonation and microtonality. Originally founded as an outlet for Reinhard’s in-depth studies in microtonality, the AFMM has gone on to produce an ongoing concert series that presents a vast array of music from contemporary composers. Programming has broadened to include works of composers such as Partch, Cage, Varèse, and Charles Ives. The AFMM also presents works of J.S. Bach, Andreas Werckmeister and others performed in historical tunings and temperaments. The AFMM has produced many significant and successful premieres including a realization of Ives’s Universe Symphony (1996). Their concerts have featured solo and chamber works, including the loosely connected American Festival of Microtonal Music ensemble. The AFMM has archived these concerts since around ...

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Areíto  

Sean Bellaviti

[areyto]

The term variously refers to a large-scale ceremonial/celebratory event, the music-dance practices performed on these occasions, and a “song” based on the recitation or singing of ancient histories (e.g., genealogies), laws, and possibly specific song lyrics. The tradition was practiced by the Taíno (Arawak) peoples living in the Greater Antilles prior to and shortly after the Spanish Conquista (Conquest). Our knowledge of areíto is very limited, based primarily on the accounts of early European chroniclers (namely Pané, Las Casas, and Oviedo) and archaeological evidence. While no documentation of the specific poetic and musical practices exist today, areíto likely involved the use of specific musical instruments and sound makers (such as the mayohuacán [a slit-drum], rattles, and perhaps maraca), musical techniques (e.g., antiphonal singing) and dance routines. As a community-based group activity, areíto is variously described as a ceremony, celebration, funerary rite, or form of recreation, or as serving specific pedagogical functions....

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Katherine K. Preston and Michael Mauskapf

[music management]

This article addresses the history of individuals and organizations devoted to the management of musical artists and their careers in the United States.

Musicians who toured the United States during the first half of the 19th century relied on individuals to manage their tours. Some of the most important early impresarios included William Brough, max Maretzek , bernard Ullman , and maurice Strakosch . These men travelled the musicians’ routes, sometimes with the performers and sometimes a week or two ahead, and were responsible for renting a performance venue, arranging publicity, and engaging supporting musicians and needed instruments. Managers also made travel arrangements, secured lodging, and negotiated terms with the managers of local theaters or halls. Some of these managers were themselves performers; the pianist Strakosch frequently toured with singers, and Maretzek was the conductor for his opera companies. This style of management essentially replicated the modus operandi of itinerant theatrical stars. (...

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Sara Velez

revised by Megan E. Hill

International festival of orchestral and chamber music, solo recitals, and staged works, established in 1963 in Aptos, California. It was founded by Lou Harrison, the bassoonist Robert Hughes, and Ted Toews, an instructor at Cabrillo College. Held for two weeks in August in the Santa Cruz Civic Auditorium and at various other locations, such as the Mission San Juan Bautista, the festival is noted for its innovative programming and emphasis on the works of living composers: it has staged at least 120 world premieres and over 60 US premieres. The first music director, Gerhard Samuel, was succeeded by Richard Williams in 1969, Carlos Chávez in 1970, Dennis Russell Davies in 1974, John Adams in 1991, and Marin Alsop in 1992. The directors have stressed making the artists accessible to their audiences through workshops and “Meet the Composer” sessions, open rehearsals, and a composer-in-residence program, in which John Adams, William Bolcom, John Cage, Elliott Carter, Carlos Chávez, Aaron Copland, John Corigliano, Michael Daugherty, Philip Glass, Osvaldo Golijov, Lou Harrison, Jennifer Higdon, Keith Jarrett, Aaron Jay Kernis, Libby Larsen, Tania León, Pauline Oliveros, Arvo Pärt, Christopher Rouse, Joseph Schwantner, Virgil Thomson, and Joan Tower have participated. The festival orchestra consists of about 65 musicians from leading orchestras in the United States and Canada....

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Sara Velez

revised by Megan E. Hill

Annual summer concert series established in Katonah, New York, in 1946. Caramoor was once the elaborate Mediterranean-style country estate of Walter and Lucie Rosen, who began arranging musicales for invited audiences in the 1930s. Still held on those grounds, the festival today includes operas, orchestral concerts, chamber-music and solo recitals, dance, lectures, and special events for children, held in two open-air sites on the estate: the Venetian Theater (capacity 1500) and the Spanish Courtyard (capacity 500). In addition, concerts are staged year-round in the villa’s Music Room. While Caramoor hosts musical performances from classical, opera, and jazz, to Latin American dance and global fusion, the core of the festival’s activities center on performances by members of the St. Luke’s Chamber Ensemble. Internationally renowned soloists and ensembles as Beverly Sills, Jessye Norman, Alicia de Larrocha, Garrick Ohlsson, the Beaux Arts Trio, the Tokyo String Quartet, and the Waverly Consort have appeared as guest artists. The festival added the Bel Canto at Caramoor opera series in ...

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Dee Baily and Nathan Platte

Music festivals, or musical events presented in the context of an arts festival, are held for many purposes: to mark anniversaries; to celebrate religious, ritual, or ethnic traditions; or simply to offer a concentrated program of music by a particular composer or group of composers, of a particular genre or period, or for particular instrumental or vocal forces. They range in scope from a single occasion to regular series. Festivals treated more fully elsewhere in this dictionary are indicated in §3; for further discussion of competitive music festivals, especially vocal and instrumental ones, see Awards.

The origins of the music festival in the United States can be traced back to the colonial Singing-schools active between 1720 and 1840; besides their religious and social functions, these served to improve the level of musical literacy in the churches. In the 1820s the schools began to offer short “conventions” where singing masters could receive instruction and discuss and practice choral singing. These generally culminated with a formal concert in which all the participants performed the music studied over the course of the convention. Between ...

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Sarah Suhadolnik

Jazz division of Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in New York. In 1987 Lincoln Center launched Classical Jazz, its first concert series devoted solely to jazz. In 1996 JALC became an autonomous jazz division with wynton Marsalis at the helm. Marsalis has continued to work as the artistic director of JALC and the music director of the Jazz at Lincoln Center Orchestra. This ensemble maintains an extensive repertoire of classic jazz works while continuing to commission and premiere new pieces. It tours extensively, frequently collaborating with guest artists, and participates in JALC programs, such as the annual Essentially Ellington High School Jazz Band Competition & Festival. JALC also maintains a busy schedule of concerts by visiting artists, lectures, and jazz education initiatives....

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Charles Garrett

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