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Tully Potter

English string quartet. It was founded in 1926 as the Stratton Quartet by George Stratton, William Manuel, Lawrence Leonard and John Moore, and developed from the Wood Smith Quartet, in which Stratton and Moore played. It found fame after Carl Taylor and Watson Forbes took over the inner parts in 1932 and it was chosen to record Elgar's Quartet and Piano Quintet (with Harriet Cohen). The records were a great solace to the composer in his last illness. Moore remained with the ensemble until 1956 and Forbes until 1962; but Taylor was killed in the war and in all the quartet had 11 second violinists. The leadership also changed hands a few times after Stratton withdrew in 1944 and the title Aeolian Quartet was adopted. The later incumbents, all highly distinguished, were Max Salpeter (1944–6), Alfred Cave (1946–52), Sydney Humphreys (1952–70) and Emanuel Hurwitz. Many of the various formations were perpetuated on records. In particular the line-up of Humphreys, Trevor Williams, Forbes and Derek Simpson made beautiful recordings of Mozart's ‘Dissonance’ and Beethoven's last quartet in ...

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Tully Potter

Austrian string quartet . It was founded in 1970 by Günter Pichler (b Kufstein, Tyrol, 9 Sept 1940), Klaus Mätzl, Hatto Beyerle and Valentin Erben (b Pernitz, 14 March 1945). Mätzl was replaced in 1978 by Gerhard Schulz (b Linz, 23 Sept 1951) and Beyerle in 1981 by Thomas Kakuska (b Vienna, 25 Aug 1940; d 4 July 2005). In 1969 the original members heard the LaSalle Quartet play virtually all the quartet music of the Second Viennese School at the Vienna Festival; and for the 1970–71 season they studied in Cincinnati with the LaSalle. In the autumn of 1971 they made their joint début at the Konzerthaus in Vienna, becoming the first full-time string quartet in that city's history – previous ensembles had combined chamber music with orchestral playing. In 1972 Berg's widow gave them permission to use his name. From the start the Alban Berg Quartet tried to include a contemporary work in every recital: its premières have included works by Leitermeyer, Einem, Wimberger, Rihm, Schnittke and Berio, and two each by Urbanner and Haubenstock-Ramati. Its playing, combining warmth and precision in a recognizably Viennese manner, has consistently reached the highest level of accomplishment, although its style has altered slightly. A change of second violinist made little difference but the substitution of Kakuska for Beyerle caused a noticeable switch of emphasis; a fine Mozart ensemble became a fine Haydn ensemble instead. Its homogeneity of tone – partly attributable to the fact that all except the cellist studied with Franz Samohyl – has remained constant throughout. The group's recordings have won many prizes. Berg's Quartet and Lyric Suite have been documented twice, as have the mature works by Mozart and Schubert and the Beethoven cycle – the second Beethoven set was recorded live. The individual members are professors at the Vienna Hochschule für Musik und Darstellende Kunst and the Cologne Hochschule für Musik, and all have musical interests outside the quartet: Pichler is a conductor, Schulz plays in other ensembles such as the Waldstein Trio, and Kakuska and Erben are soloists. Their instruments include a ...

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Nicholas Anderson

Dutch period-instrument orchestra. Founded by Ton Koopman in 1979, it has toured widely and has made numerous recordings, notably of music by Bach (including a complete cycle of cantatas), Handel and Mozart. Koopman performs regularly with the orchestra both as conductor and as harpsichordist and organist. Under his directorship it has acquired a reputation for lively, warm-toned, stylistically distinctive playing....

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Harald Goertz

Austrian choir. It was founded in 1972 by Erwin Ortner, who in 1996 was appointed rector of the Hochschule für Musik in Vienna. The choir's name reflects three of its main emphases: Austrian music, new music, and a commitment to the works of Arnold Schoenberg. The choir is made up largely of students and former students of the Hochschule für Musik and expands or contracts according to the works it performs. For example, the choir was reduced to 12 voices for Messiaen's Cinq rechants and was augmented to 120 for his opera Saint François d'Assise (1992 and 1998, Salzburg Festival). Whatever the numbers, the Arnold Schoenberg Choir always aims for a chamber musical transparency of texture. The choir has recorded Schubert's complete choral music under Ortner and Harnoncourt, and has toured the USA with Harnoncourt (1997); it has recorded the major choral music of Mozart, Haydn and Beethoven under Harnoncourt. It has also given broadcasts of contemporary Austrian music. In ...

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Richard Wigmore

Austrian string quartet. It was founded in 1980 by Peter Schuhmayer and Manfred Honeck, violins, Herbert Kefer, viola, and Othmar Müller, cello, all of whom studied at the Vienna Musikhochschule with Hatto Beyerle and Alfred Staar. Johannes Meissl replaced Honeck in 1982. In 1984–5 the group studied with the La Salle Quartet in Cincinnati, after which they quickly established an international reputation with débuts in Paris (1985), Berlin (1987), Tokyo (1987), London (Wigmore Hall, 1988), New York (1988) and Amsterdam (1989). The Artis has also appeared at major international festivals, and since 1988 has given an annual concert series in the Vienna Musikverein. The quartet has given the premières of several works, including Eder's Quartet no.4 (1991) and von Einem's Quartet no.5 (1992), and is the dedicatee of Richard Dünser's Quartet no.2 and Thomas Pernes's Quartet no.4. The intensity and imagination of the Artis's playing, founded on a warm, characteristically Viennese sonority, can be heard on numerous recordings, ranging from Mozart, Schubert and a complete Mendelssohn cycle to the quartets of Magnard and Zemlinsky. Schuhmayer plays a Domenico Montagnana violin dated ...

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British organization, incorporated by royal charter in 1948 to take the place of the wartime Council for the Encouragement of Music and the Arts and to administer the subsidies granted by the state to artistic enterprises.

The Arts Council worked through panels, musical, literary, dramatic etc., independently of the government, though the government supplied its funds. It was not intended to represent an ‘establishment’ view of the arts and their place in society, and aimed for ‘patronage without control’. Regional arts associations working under its aegis and partly supported by the council, were free to form their own policies. The council’s care for music extended beyond professional orchestras and opera companies to amateur groups. London organizations (especially the Royal Opera House) took the greatest share of subsidies, but the policy from the 1960s and 1970s was to foster the arts in the regions by its support of small touring companies....

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Tully Potter

Hungarian string quartet. It was founded in 1960 by Péter Komlós (b Budapest, 25 Oct 1935), Sándor Devich (b Szeged, 19 Jan 1935), Géza Németh (b Beregszász [now Beregovo, Ukraine], 23 July 1936) and László Mező, all students in Leó Weiner's chamber music class at the Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest. At first they performed as the Komlós Quartet – making their Budapest début in 1958 – and played in orchestras, the leader and viola player as principals of the State Opera Orchestra and the second violinist in the Hungarian State Orchestra. In 1960 Károly Botvay (b Sopron, 29 Dec 1932) replaced Mező and in 1963 they were given permission by Bartók's family to use his name. The following year they won the international competition in Liège and commenced the tours which have taken them all over the world. In 1970 they performed in the United Nations General Assembly Hall; in ...

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Walter Everett

English pop group. George Harrison (b Liverpool, England, Feb 25, 1943; d Los Angeles, Nov 29, 2001), John Lennon (John Winston (Ono) Lennon; b Liverpool, Oct 9, 1940; d New York, Dec 8, 1980), Paul McCartney (James Paul McCartney; b Liverpool, June 18, 1942), and Ringo Starr (Richard Starkey; b July 7, 1940). They were the world’s most popular musical force from 1964 through their 1970 break-up, and their legacy has continued to be highly influential for subsequent artists, the entertainment industry, baby-boom culture and beyond. This article outlines the inspiration taken by the Beatles from American sources, and the group’s appearances and reception in America; for a general introduction to their career and extensive bibliography, see Grove7.

Whereas the Beatles’ early sound was partly based on British folk and popular forms—including skiffle and music-hall styles—American rock ’n’ roll was by far their dominant resource. The group began by covering, and then borrowing stylistic traits from American performers, principally Elvis Presley (particularly his expressive vocal embellishments), Chuck Berry (reciting-tone vocals with witty rhymes, extended guitar sonorities, rhythm chording, melodic blues riffs, and bass ostinati), Little Richard (vocal falsetto and bluesy pentatonicism), Bo Diddley (mixolydian chords, direct simplicity), Carl Perkins (rockabilly picking), Jerry Lee Lewis (keyboard pounding, raw energy), Buddy Holly (major-mode melody), and the Everly Brothers (descant vocal arrangements). In the few years surrounding the late-1962 launch of their recording career, the group drew variously from American male R&B figures (the Isley Brothers, the Coasters, the Drifters, Larry Williams, Arthur Alexander, Barrett Strong, the Miracles), female vocal groups (the Teddy Bears, the Shirelles, the Marvelettes, the Cookies) and pop singers (Del Shannon, Roy Orbison). Many traits taken from these sources remained at the musicians’ core even as they continued to borrow American ideas: the group used Caribbean models for their first two B-sides, and based their fourth single, “She Loves You”/“I’ll Get You,” (...

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Tully Potter

Russian string ensemble, founded in 1923 as the Moscow Conservatory Quartet by Dmitry Tsïganov, Vasily Shirinsky, Vadim Borisovsky and Sergey Shirinsky. In 1927 the group presented its first Beethoven cycle for the composer's centenary; and after another successful cycle in 1931 it took the name by which it became known throughout the world. It gave the first performance of Myaskovsky’s quartets from no.4 onwards. Its members taught with distinction at the Moscow Conservatory and were all well known in their own right – Vasily Shirinsky was a noted musicologist. In 1940 the Beethoven Quartet began a collaboration with Shostakovich which resulted in its giving the premières of almost all his major chamber compositions; a number of his quartets were dedicated to the ensemble or its individual members. The ‘Beethoveners’ appeared in concert with many celebrated colleagues but in the West were known mainly by their recordings which, apart from Shostakovich’s works, included quartets and quintets by Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Brahms. Glière, Taneyev, Myaskovsky and Prokofiev. Their style of playing, though underpinned by considerable virtuosity, was more direct and unvarnished than that of the contemporary Komitas Quartet or the younger Borodin Quartet; and even on record they achieved interpretations of the utmost intensity and profundity. In ...

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Richard Wigmore

English string quartet. The quartet, which is based in London, was formed by Corina Belcea and Laura Samuel (violins), Krzysztof Chorzelski (viola) and Matthew Talty (cello) in 1994, while all four were students at the RCM. Early mentors included the Chilingirian Quartet, Simon Rowland-Jones and the surviving members of the Amadeus Quartet. The group later studied with the Alban Berg Quartet in Cologne. In 1998, the year of the Belcea’s Wigmore Hall début, Alasdair Tait replaced Talty as cellist. The following year the group won first prize at both the Osaka and the Bordeaux International String Quartet competitions. In the 1999–2000 season the Belcea represented Great Britain in the European Concert Hall Organization’s ‘Rising Stars’ series (including a début in the Vienna Musikverein), and from 1999 to 2001 they took part in the BBC Radio Three New Generation Artists scheme. The group’s first recording, of quartets by Debussy, Ravel and Dutilleux, was widely praised for its polish, sensitivity and exquisitely observed detail, and won the ...

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Ian Mikyska

Czech chamber orchestra, founded in 1995 by Peter Vrábel. A leading large ensemble for contemporary music in the Czech Republic, the Berg Orchestra has commissioned over 100 new pieces, as well as finding a wide and diverse audience through innovative programming and inter-arts crossover projects.

The orchestra has been crucial in supporting younger generations of Czech composers, both through regular commissions and the NUBERG composition competition. Concerts often take place in unusual venues, such as a cave on the Slovak-Hungarian border, a vacant water cleaning plant, and the interior of the Vítkov National Monument. The list of collaborations the orchestra has undertaken over the years is remarkable, and includes directors such as Heiner Goebbels, Ondřej Havelka, and Jiří Adámek, the set designers Dragan Stojčevski and Antonín Šilar, the dance companies 420PEOPLE, Spitfire Company, and DekkaDancers, institutions like the National Gallery, National Theater, Czech Radio and Television, and a number of festivals both at home and abroad....

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Tully Potter

Russian string quartet. It was founded at the Moscow Conservatory in 1945 by the viola virtuoso Rudolf Barshay, with the violinists Rostislav Dubinsky and Vladimir Rabeiy and the cellist Mstislav Rostropovich (soon replaced by Valentin Berlinsky). The ensemble gave its first concert in October 1946 as the Moscow Philharmonic Quartet. Barshay developed a close connection with Shostakovich and the group quickly established itself among the finest interpreters of that composer’s chamber music. In 1947 Nina Barshay became the second violinist but in 1952 she was replaced by Yaroslav Aleksandrov; and two years later Rudolf Barshay joined the new Tchaikovsky Quartet, making way for Dmitry Shebalin. In 1955 the group took Borodin’s name. At first its activities were curbed by the Soviet regime but in 1955 it was allowed to visit East Germany and Czechoslovakia and in the late 1950s it began to tour widely. Its technical skill and tonal sheen were widely admired, although reservations were expressed about the almost narcissistic quality of some of its interpretations and its blatant use of such devices as ...

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Tully Potter

German string quartet . It was formed in 1976 by members of the Berlin PO: Thomas Brandis, Peter Brehm, Rainer Moog (soon replaced by Wilfried Strehle) and Wolfgang Boettcher. That year Boettcher left the Berlin PO to devote more time to solo work and teaching, and Brandis followed suit in 1983...

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Tully Potter

English string quartet. It was founded in 1972 by Michael Thomas, Ian Belton, A. Robertson and Jacqueline Thomas, who at the time were aged 11 to 13 and at school in north-east England. They studied at the RNCM in Manchester and named their ensemble after Adolph Brodsky. Their teachers included the cellist Terence Weil, members of the Vermeer and Amadeus Quartets, Zoltan Székely and Andras Mihály. The group won prizes at the Portsmouth competition in 1979 and at Evian in 1980 and 1981. With Paul Cassidy replacing Robertson as the viola player, it made its London début in 1982 and in 1985 became the first resident quartet at Cambridge University, remaining there for three years. In 1989 it played a Shostakovich cycle at the Queen Elizabeth Hall in London. Its début at Carnegie Hall, New York, followed two years later. It has been resident at the Dartington Summer School since ...

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Robert Philip

String quartet of Hungarian origin. The original members were Emil Hauser, Imre Poganyi, Istvan Ipolyi and Harry Son, all of whom played in the orchestra at the Royal Hungarian Opera House. They gave their first concert in 1917 at Kolozsvar (now Cluj-Napoca). Their European tours during the 1920s included visits to London, first in 1925 when their performances of Bartók’s First Quartet and Smetana’s Quartet in E minor were admired for their fine ensemble and depth of feeling. During the quartet’s subsequent history, the membership changed completely. In 1927 Joseph Roisman joined as second violin, becoming the leader within a few years, and during the early 1930s Ipolyi was replaced by Alexander Schneider, and Son by Schneider’s brother, Mischa. When Boris Kroyt joined as viola in 1936, the quartet became entirely Russian and Ukrainian, but its name remained the same. The character of its playing changed dramatically when the leadership passed from Hauser to Roisman. Hauser was a violinist of the old school, sparing in his use of vibrato, liberal in his use of portamento, and unhasty in his rhythms. Roisman, by contrast, was of the new generation of string players, with a faster and more continuous vibrato, and incisive in rhythm. The quartet reflected these qualities, being known for its expressive warmth under Hauser, and for its forthright brilliance and unanimity of style under Roisman – admittedly not without occasional suggestions of businesslike efficiency....

Article

Orchestra based in Sofia. This orchestra has held a leading position in Bulgarian musical culture. The principal conductor of the orchestra since 2008 has been Emil Tabakov. The orchestra was established in 1948 by violinist and conductor Vassil Stefanov (1913–91) as a chamber orchestra. In 1951 Vladi Simeonov held the position of principal conductor when it became a full symphony orchestra. Its profound and extensive development started when Vassil Stefanov resumed as a principal conductor in 1954, and continued working with the orchestra until 1990. During that time the BNR Symphony Orchestra turned into a leading cultural institution in Bulgaria.

Conductors who have made their own contributions to the development and artistic growth of the orchestra include Vassil Kazandjiev, Alexander Vladigerov, Milen Nachev, and Rossen Milanov. The activities of the orchestra include concerts (between 12 and 16 in each concert season) and recordings for Bulgarian National Radio. The orchestra has made it a priority to record the works of Bulgarian composers and prominent and young performers. The orchestra takes part in all international music festivals in Bulgaria as well as tours abroad in Germany, Spain, France, Brussel, the Netherlands, South Korea, Greece, and Cyprus....

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Tully Potter

French string quartet. It was founded in Paris in 1919 by Joseph Calvet (b Toulouse, 8 Oct 1897; d Paris, 4 May 1984), Georges Mignot, Léon Pascal and Paul Mas. Mignot and Pascal had previously played in Marcel Chailley's quartet. In 1928 the ensemble gave its first Beethoven cycle at the instigation of Nadia Boulanger. In 1929 Daniel Guilevitch replaced Mignot and during the 1930s the Calvet Quartet was considered to be among the world's finest, hailed for its performances and recordings of both the modern French and the Classical repertories. In 1940 it was disbanded and Guilevitch emigrated to the USA, where as Daniel Guilet he led the Guilet Quartet and (from 1952) Toscanini's NBC SO. In 1955 he founded the Beaux Arts Trio. In 1941 Pascal founded his eponymous quartet, which after the war became the official ensemble of the French Radio and made many records. In ...

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Tully Potter

Swiss string quartet. It was founded in Zürich in 1984 by Matthias Enderle, Karin Heeg, Wendy Champney and Stephan Goerner. The Swiss members met as students at the Winterthur Conservatory and Enderle got to know the American viola player Champney when they were studying at the International Menuhin Music Academy. The group's mentors included Sándor Végh and Nikolaus Harnoncourt. In 1987 it was at the centre of a controversy when it was awarded only second prize in the Paolo Borciani Competition at Reggio nell'Emilia. Almost half the jurors, including members of the Amadeus, Alban Berg, LaSalle, Smetana and Tokyo quartets, issued a minority verdict in its favour, declaring it to be ‘a first-rate quartet with sensitivity, refinement, virtuosity, musicianship and phenomenal ensemble’. The resulting publicity brought it a 50-concert tour of Europe, Israel and Japan. Heeg withdrew that summer, to be replaced by another former Winterthur student, Susanne Frank, and in October the group made an acclaimed British début at the Wigmore Hall, London. Since then it has been rated among the best European ensembles, capable of breathtakingly beautiful playing underpinned by the subtlest of responses to the music's rhythmic requirements. It has given the premières of works by Gottfried von Einem, Ernst Krenek, Peter Mieg and Peter Wettstein and has collaborated in the concert hall or the recording studio with the baritones Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau and Olaf Bär, the flautist Peter-Lukas Graf and the pianist Mitsuko Uchida. Its recordings include works by Mozart, Mendelssohn, Tchaikovsky, Debussy, Szymanowski, Ravel and Webern....

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CeBeDeM  

Henri Vanhulst

Founded in 1951, the Centre Belge de Documentation Musicale was a non-profit-making society dependent on the Belgian federal government. It was affiliated with the International Association of Music Libraries, Archives and Documentation Centres and was a member of the International Association of Music Information Centres. The aim of CeBeDeM was the propagation of contemporary Belgian music. Composers lodged a copy of each of their works in the centre’s library, which also published certain new compositions or assumed responsibility for preparing the orchestral parts. In 1998 the library contained some 26,000 works. CeBeDeM published over 2000 compositions and each year added about 200 works to its tally of publications. A detailed catalogue (Brussels, 1996, 3 vols.) gives a complete list of all the centre’s publications. CeBeDeM also kept a library of recordings of works by its members and was a centre of documentation on musical life in Belgium. The society took part in international contemporary music festivals and published ...