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David Buckley

American record company. It was founded in Los Angeles in 1962 by the former US army trumpeter Herb Alpert and the promoter-producer Jerry Moss. For first few years, A&M depended largely on revenues from Alpert's own recordings. His easy-listening instrumental music recorded with the Tijuana brass had sold over 20 million copies by 1968, when the company's turnover was $50 million. In 1966 A&M also scored a big success with Sergio Mendes and the Sandpipers' single, Guantanamera. Moss, however, was keen to broaden the appeal of A&M, and began recording such West Coast artists as Captain Beefheart and Dr John. In 1969 the label opened its first British office and by the early 1970s A&M also signed American recording deals with such artists as Procol Harum, The Move, Joe Cocker, Jimmy Cliff and Cat Stevens.

By the 1970s A&M were established as the most successful independent record label in the USA. In ...


Jean M. Bonin

Firm of music publishers. It was founded in New Haven in 1962 by Gary J.N. Aamodt and Clyde Rykken to provide modern critical editions of music of historical interest and artistic integrity for scholars, students, and performers of Western art music. The “Recent Researches” series were launched in 1964 with volumes of music from the Renaissance and Baroque periods; it has since expanded to span the history of Western music. Another series is dedicated to oral traditions in music. The series Recent Researches in American Music was initiated in 1977 in collaboration with the Institute for Studies in American Music. In 1968 the firm moved to Madison, Wisconsin, and the same year took over the production and distribution of the Yale University Collegium Musicum series of historical editions. Starting in 1988, the company has served as publisher for Music of the United States of America (MUSA), a set of scholarly editions, in collaboration with the American Musicological Society and with support from the National Endowment for the Humanities. Other projects have included A-R Special Publications (for performers) and a three book series co-published with the Music Library Assocation....


Christopher Doll


Record company. Founded in 1955 in New York by American Broadcasting-Paramount Theaters, it was coeval with the birth of rock and roll, although a couple of years passed before the label produced hits in that genre, with such songs as Danny and the Juniors’ “At the Hop” (1957) and “Rock and roll is here to stay” (1958). It achieved sustained success with less boisterous pop music, particularly the work of Paul Anka (“Diana,” “Put your head on my shoulder,” and “Puppy Love”). The rest of the company’s output comprised children’s, spoken word, ethnic, jazz, and rhythm-and-blues records.

From the late 1950s the label attracted many successful African-American artists, including Fats Domino and B.B. King; after signing in 1959 Ray Charles scored his first number one pop single in 1960 with “Georgia on my Mind” and his first number one album in 1962 with Modern Sounds in Country and Western Music...



Andrew Flory

Record company. Brothers Edward and Leo Messner founded the company as Philo Records in 1945 and changed the name to Aladdin the next year. Aladdin’s records, which appeared on the Aladdin label and over a half-dozen subsidiaries, were among the most popular “race” (later rhythm-and-blues) records of the time, and represented many facets of African American popular music following World War II. Based in Los Angeles, the company released upbeat boogie by Amos Milburn, such as the 1948 hit “Chicken-Shack Boogie,” and group vocal music by artists like the Five Keys. Blues also appeared on Aladdin by artists such as Charles Brown and Lightnin’ Hopkins. Jazz saxophonist Lester Young also recorded extensively for Aladdin during the 1950s. Several songs released on Aladdin foreshadowed the development of rock and roll, such as Shirley and Lee’s 1956 classic “Let the Good Times Roll.” In 1962, the company was sold to Lew Chudd’s Imperial Records....


(b Meadow, TN, Oct 24, 1867; d Birmingham, England, Oct 13, 1920). American revivalist and publisher. He attended Maryville College, Tennessee, and the Moody Bible Institute, Chicago; in 1893 he assisted Moody in his revival at the World’s Colombian Exposition in Chicago. From 1908 he toured with J. Wilbur Champman through the USA, Great Britain, Australia and missionary areas of East Asia. He was noted for his skill in inspiring a congregation to sing enthusiastically and in conducting large choirs. He published a number of revival songbooks and owned the copyrights of several popular gospel hymns, such as Charles H. Gabriel’s ...


Raquel Bustos Valderrama

(b Breslau [now Wrocław], June 8, 1924; d Aug 7, 2005). Chilean composer and educator of German origin. She emigrated to Chile in 1939 and adopted Chilean nationality in 1951. She studied with Frè Focke (1949–53) in Chile and with René Leibowitz and Olivier Messiaen in France in 1954. Through several significant educational projects she contributed to a better public understanding of contemporary music in Chile; she also promoted Chilean musical culture in Europe. Her works won international prizes and she received commissions from patrons and organizations in Europe and the USA. Her music, modernist in style and sometimes using sounds generated by unconventional means, includes two ballets, Las tres caras de la luna (1966) and … a false alarm on the nightbell once answered cannot be made good, no ever (1977–8), and several works for full orchestra, including Cinco epigramas (...


Jonas Westover

Publishing company. Alfred is a family-owned publisher, started in 1922 and headquartered in Van Nuys, California. They are particularly known for their educational music, but since their acquisition of Warner Publishing in 2005, they now own copyrights estimated to be over one million songs. Created by Alfred Piantadosi, the composer and bandleader, to distribute his own songs, it did not take the publisher long to develop a catalog, which included hits such as “Waiting for the Robert E. Lee” and “Ragtime Cowboy Joe.” The New York-based company was sold in 1928 to Sam Manus, and he and his family significantly expanded the group’s holdings with a focus in educational materials. Soon after, they developed method books for violin, accordion, guitar, and piano. Alfred’s Basic Piano Library has been adopted worldwide as a fundamental piano text; other “Library” editions are likewise considered important contributions to music pedagogy. Their work for school ensembles is also substantial, with ...


Terence J. O’Grady

revised by Bryan Proksch

(b Los Angeles, CA, March 31, 1935). American trumpeter, composer, bandleader, and record company executive. He studied trumpet as a child and left college to play in the army for a two-year period. After three years of producing records on his own, he launched A&M Records with Jerry Moss in 1962. A&M’s first issue was also Alpert’s first recording as a trumpeter and bandleader, The Lonely Bull (A&M, 1962). The title track included sounds from the bullring in Tijuana, Mexico, so Alpert dubbed his band the Tijuana Brass. His music exploited a distinctive combination of Mexican mariachi-style brass with jazz rhythms, which was dubbed Ameriachi. A string of hits including “Mexican Shuffle” (A&M, 1964) and “Tijuana Taxi” (A&M, 1965) followed. In 1966 Alpert had five recordings simultaneously listed on the Billboard Top 20. His cover of “This guy’s in love with you” reached no.1 in ...


Disc jockey Dick Clark, at podium at upper left, is surrounded by teen-age fans on his nationally televised dance show "American Bandstand" in Philadelphia, Pa. on June 30, 1958. Clark, the show's 28-year-old host, plays rock and roll records during the show that features dancing.

(AP Photo)



David Mermelstein

American record company. It was created by EMI in 1953 to distribute its English Columbia label in the United States. Under the astute leadership of Dario Sario in New York, and with the full support of the powerful producer Walter Legge, the firm quickly established a reputation for excellent recorded sound and high standards of album packaging. The label augmented its catalogue with material from Pathé Marconi and Electrola, and in 1957 it acquired the HMV catalogue for North America, consolidating its vital position within EMI's international network. Later that year Angel moved its operations to Los Angeles, affiliating with Capitol Records, in which EMI had gained a controlling interest two years earlier. Angel expanded during the 1960s under the direction of Brown Meggs, acquiring Capitol's classical catalogue, distributing numerous Russian recordings under the Melodiya/Angel banner and (in 1966) introducing Seraphim, a low-priced reissue label. Angel also established its own contracts with artists, including André Watts, Christopher Parkening and Nadja Salerno-Sonnenberg. In ...


Repositories for the permanent retention, preservation, and access of sound recordings (e.g., CDs, LPs, audio cassettes, cylinders, digital audio files) and moving image media (e.g., motion-picture film, kinescope, videotape, digital video files); often included along side of these collections are the mechanical playback devices for such media. The history of archives of this kind in the United States reveals trends towards the amalgamation of sound and moving image materials into single units based either on format (e.g., Library of Congress’ Motion Picture Broadcasting and Recorded Sound Division) or academic discipline (UCLA Ethnomusicology Archive). Traditionally the distinction between a library and an archive is essentially one of purpose and a material’s publication status: whereas libraries collect published materials for use by general patrons within and outside the library, archives generally accession and preserve unpublished materials, allowing restricted access for research purposes. However, with the development of the Internet, digitization technologies, and online modes of distribution, the distinction between library and archive hosted sound recording and moving image collections has become more fluid with both kinds of institutions posting published and unpublished audio and video files online with varying degrees of accessibility. Parallel advances in preservation technologies have also enabled archivists to digitize analog sound recordings and moving image recordings that is thought to ensure long-term, if not permanent, access to the content housed on the original analog carriers....



Katherine K. Preston and Michael Mauskapf

[music management]

This article addresses the history of individuals and organizations devoted to the management of musical artists and their careers in the United States.

Musicians who toured the United States during the first half of the 19th century relied on individuals to manage their tours. Some of the most important early impresarios included William Brough, max Maretzek , bernard Ullman , and maurice Strakosch . These men travelled the musicians’ routes, sometimes with the performers and sometimes a week or two ahead, and were responsible for renting a performance venue, arranging publicity, and engaging supporting musicians and needed instruments. Managers also made travel arrangements, secured lodging, and negotiated terms with the managers of local theaters or halls. Some of these managers were themselves performers; the pianist Strakosch frequently toured with singers, and Maretzek was the conductor for his opera companies. This style of management essentially replicated the modus operandi of itinerant theatrical stars. (...



American firm of music publishers, active in New York. It was founded in 1927 by Paul Heinicke, originally as the sole American agency for leading European music publishing houses, including Bote & Bock, Breitkopf & Härtel, Doblinger, Eschig, Schott, Simrock, Union Musical Español and Universal Edition. The firm began publishing in its own right and has built up an important catalogue of American composers, including John Adams, Elliott Carter, Cowell, Dello Joio, John Harbison, Harris, Husa, Ives, Kirchner, Peter Lieberson, Piston, Riegger, Schuller, Surinach, Tower and Wilder. In ...


Sara Velez

revised by Tim Brooks


US-based organization, founded in 1966 to promote the preservation and study of historical recordings in all areas of music and the spoken word. ARSC is unusual among scholarly organizations in that it brings together private collectors and scholars interested in using historical sound materials with professional archivists and libraries charged with preserving those materials. Its membership is drawn about equally from the user and holder groups, represents 23 countries, and numbers approximately 1000. The association has local chapters and holds an annual national conference that provides a forum for presentations and panel discussions in all aspects of recorded sound research. ARSC also publishes a biannual journal which includes major research articles, technical developments, discographies, record and book reviews, and bibliographies; a newsletter which contains information about member activities, meetings and events; and a membership directory, which lists all ARSC members, their collecting interests and research projects. Among its major projects have been ...



Charles Hiroshi Garrett

Record company. David Geffen and partner Elliot Roberts founded Asylum in 1971, signing Jackson Browne as their first artist. With Atlantic handling distribution, Asylum focused on building a roster of singer-songwriters and country-rock artists, which eventually included artists such as Linda Ronstadt, Joni Mitchell, the Eagles, Tom Waits, Warren Zevon, and Bob Dylan. In ...


Bill C. Malone

revised by Barry Mazor

[Chester Burton ]

(b nr Luttrell, TN, June 20, 1924, d Nashville, TN, June 30, 2001). American country-music guitarist and recording company executive. Although the first instrument he played professionally was the fiddle, he became internationally famous as a guitarist. Developed while he was in high school, his guitar style was influenced by Merle Travis, Les Paul, Django Reinhardt, and George Barnes and was characterized by the use of the thumb to establish a rhythm on the lower strings and multiple fingers to play melodic or improvisational passages on the higher strings, sometimes with complex voicings. In the early 1940s Atkins toured with Archie Campbell and Bill Carlisle playing both fiddle and guitar, and appeared with them on WNOX radio in Knoxville. He then toured with the second generation Carter Family as a sideman and in 1946 joined Red Foley. After beginning his association with the “Grand Ole Opry” he settled in Nashville in ...


Barry Kernfeld, Howard Rye, and Dave Laing

American record company. It was founded in New York by Herb Abramson and Ahmet Ertegun (1923–2006), both jazz and blues enthusiasts, in 1947, primarily to issue African American music; it achieved considerable commercial success with recordings of musicians whose work encompassed jazz, blues, and rhythm-and-blues. Ertegun’s brother Nesuhi (1917–89) joined the organization in 1955, and supervised artists and repertory for the LP catalogue; around the same time the company established a new label, Atco, which was chiefly devoted to popular music. During the late 1950s and early 1960s the company made significant recordings marking the emergence of the free jazz style, but by the middle of the decade it was primarily known for soul music; in 1966, at the height of the company’s success in this field, it founded the Vortex label for the release of jazz records. During this period Atlantic and its subsidiaries recorded many significant artists: the singers Lavern Baker, Ray Charles, Ben E. King, Esther Phillips, Wilson Pickett and Otis Redding; the vocal groups the Coasters, and the Drifters; and the jazz musicians Lennie Tristano, Lee Konitz, Charles Mingus, the Modern Jazz Quartet, John Coltrane, Ornette Coleman, Keith Jarrett and Chick Corea. It also presented gospel groups and important white popular musicians, including Bobby Darin and Sonny and Cher....


Tracey E.W. Laird


American syndicated music television program. It is the longest-running music performance television program in broadcast history. Recorded at the public station KLRU in Austin, Texas, and housed at the University of Texas, ACL aired its pilot episode, featuring Willie Nelson, in 1975. Nelson’s rise to iconic status during the same era ensured the show’s auspicious beginning. During more than three decades ACL has evolved from its original focus on Austin’s progressive country scene to an eclectic mix of musical genres. In some ways its growing prominence mirrors that of Austin itself, particularly the reputation of its music scene.

The station executive Bill Arhos founded ACL and produced its first few seasons. In its fourth season he turned production over to Terry Lickona, whose musical vision has continued to shape each season. Under the latter’s guidance ACL has maintained an artful balance between local acts and musicians from further afield. High quality musicianship and production values have remained constant threads throughout changing trends in programming, notably mainstream country in the 1980s and Americana in the 1990s. Early seasons included performances by Taj Mahal and Tom Waits. Guests during the 1980s ranged from B.B. King to Bonnie Raitt, and Flaco Jimenez to Queen Ida. Los Lobos and the Dirty Dozen Brass Band appeared in the 1990s, as did Nanci Griffith and John Prine. In the 2010s ACL featured a wide variety of styles, from Coldplay to Damian Marley, the Gourds to Miranda Lambert, the Decemberists to K’Naan....