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Article

Baschet  

Hugh Davies

revised by Laura Maes

French sound sculptors and instrument inventors. Bernard (b Paris, France, 24 Aug 1917) and his brother François (b Paris, France, 30 March 1920) developed a variety of sound sculptures and new instruments under the generic name Structures sonores. Bernard Baschet trained and originally worked as an engineer, and then (1962–5) directed a research team at the Groupe de Recherches Musicales of French Radio (ORTF), whose work resulted in Pierre Schaeffer’s Traité des objets musicaux (1966). François Baschet studied sculpture and worked as a furniture designer.

François Baschet began to concentrate on sound in 1952, when transportation problems urged him to rethink the concept of a guitar and to create an inflatable guitar using a plastic balloon as a sound box. (The first patent concerning string instruments that utilize as a resonance chamber a balloon, a bladder, or the like, inflated with air or any inert gas, was filed in France on ...

Article

Founded in 1935, the British Council promotes cultural co-operation between Britain and other countries with support from the Foreign and Commonwealth Office; it is represented in over 100 countries with offices in over 200 cities. It assists over 1500 arts events each year selected for their potential to reach key groups in individual countries, including the younger generation, and to gain recognition for British artistic achievement. In music (including jazz, traditional and rock music as well as British classical, early and contemporary music), tours are usually organized by overseas promoters. The Council has sponsored recordings and provides information and advice on British music and music education, as well as scores, to professional users overseas, including through the quarterly magazine ...

Article

The music department is a part of the Research Institute of the Arts, which also includes Fine Art Studies, Theatre Studies, Screen Arts Studies (after 1988), and Architectural Studies (since 2010). The music department existed independently until 1988 as an Institute of Music. The Institute of Music was established in 1948 as the Research Institute of Music with the Museum at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with two staff members: Petko Staynov (director) and Andrey Stoyanov. The task of the Institute of Music is to collect, preserve, and publish the Bulgarian folksong heritage. Subsequently the collectors and researchers of folk songs and traditions Ivan Kachulev, Andrey Andreev (1950), Rayna Katsarova, and Elena Stoin (1951) were appointed at the Institute. A separate section for folk music was established at the Institute, led by Rayna Katsarova (1952–67) and, since 1967, Prof. Kaufmann. In 1952 the first volume of the first research journal of the Institute, ...

Article

Peter Dickinson

A program for study, research, and performance of American music, based at Keele University, Staffordshire, England. It was founded in 1974 by Peter Dickinson, the first professor of music at the university’s newly established department of music. The center, which housed an excellent collection of American music materials, sponsored the Ives centenary concerts (1974) and three international conferences (1975, 1978, and 1983, the last in collaboration with the Society for American Music, then called the Sonneck Society); in 1975 it introduced an MA in American music. Dickinson departed in 1984 and David Nicholls taught at Keele from 1987 to 2000. The center is no longer active as a result of university restructuring.

P. Dickinson: “Recent Research on Musical Traditions of the United States: a View from Britain,” IMSCR XII: Berkeley 1977, ed. D. Heartz and B. Wade (Kassel, 1981) P. Dickinson: “British-American Interactions: Composers and Students,” MT...

Article

Michael H.S. van Eekeren

A non-profit organization promoting the work of Dutch composers and musicians. Although there are other promoters of Dutch music in the Netherlands, CNM is unique in the range of its support. It concerns itself with contemporary and older music, with improvised and amateur music; it produces CDs and books, organizes concerts in the Netherlands, stimulates educational projects and collaborates extensively with Dutch public radio stations.

CNM started its activities in the mid-1970s as Bumafonds (BFO), a subsidiary of the Dutch composers' rights organization BUMA. During a major reorganization in 1991 it acquired its present name. Since then its activities have become both more intense and more diverse. 1992 saw the introduction of the record label NM Classics, in close cooperation with Radio Netherlands, to release recordings of Dutch music of all periods, played mainly by Dutch musicians. In the same year the Bibliotheek Nederlandse Muziek (Netherlands Music Archives) was initiated. This series of books includes monographs on Ton de Leeuw and Unico Wilhelm van Wassenaer, and the correspondence (...

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Article

Alan L. Spurgeon

Professional organization for Dalcroze teachers. The organization promotes the artistic and pedagogical principles of Emile Jacques-Dalcroze (1865–1950), a Swiss composer and teacher whose approach to music education consists of three components: eurythmics, which teaches concepts of rhythm, structure, and musical expression through movement; solfége, which develops an understanding of pitch, scale, and tonality through activities emphasizing aural comprehension and vocal improvisation; and improvisation, which develops an understanding of form and meaning through spontaneous musical creation using movement, voice, and instruments. Dalcroze intended that the three subjects be intertwined so that the development of the inner ear, an internal muscular sense, and creative expression might work together to form the core of basic musicianship. The Dalcroze Society of America began to take shape in 1969 with informal gatherings in New Jersey and New York City, and was incorporated in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in 1978. It is affiliated with the Féderation Internationale des Enseignants de Rhythmique, headquartered at the Institut Jaques-Dalcroze in Geneva, Switzerland. The American society publishes the ...

Article

Denise M.M. Dalphond

Form of electronic music that originated in Detroit among African American youth in the early 1980s. Local black radio, house and block parties, DJ crews, and such musical influences as German electronic rock, Italo disco, electro funk, and electronic art music formed the foundation of what eventually became a globally recognized form of electronic dance music. Detroit techno is characterized by repeating, syncopated rhythms typically in common time (4/4) with tempos ranging from 120 to 150 beats per minute. The sounds produced by early analog synthesizers as well as the Roland TR-909 drum machine are also distinguishing features.

Juan Atkins, Derrick May, Kevin Saunderson, and Eddie Fowlkes, known as the Belleville Four, are considered the founders of Detroit techno. All four met in Belleville, Michigan, in the late 1970s as high school students and later moved to Detroit. They were strongly influenced by the Electrifying Mojo, a Detroit radio DJ known for his innovative, theatrical, and eclectic approach to radio and musical selection. In the early 1980s they began DJing and producing electronic music, collaborating with one another to create a network of musical creativity, production, distribution, and promotion, including the following influential record labels: Metroplex, founded by Atkins in ...

Article

Josef Häusler

Town in Germany. It was noted in the 20th century for its festival of contemporary music. It was the home of the Fürstenbergs from 1488; they maintained a court chapel and opera which achieved particularly high standards during the late 18th and early 19th centuries, and employed musicians such as J.W. Kalliwoda, J.A. Sixt, Joseph Fiala and Conradin Kreutzer. The works of Mozart, Dittersdorf, Umlauf and J.A. Hiller were particularly popular there and Italian works by Cimarosa, Gazzaniga, Piccinni, Sarti, Salieri and Paisiello were frequently heard. It became an internationally known centre for contemporary music between 1921 and 1926, and since 1950 has re-established its reputation.

The Donaueschingen Festival was the first to devote itself exclusively to contemporary music; it is organized by the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde Donaueschingen, in collaboration from 1950 with the Südwestfunk (SWF), Baden-Baden (which was renamed Südwestrundfunk in 1998 following its merger with the Süddeutsche Rundfunk in Stuttgart). The programmes between ...

Article

Johan Kolsteeg

Dutch organization based in Amsterdam. It was set up in 1947 with assistance from the Stichting Nederlandse Muziekbelangen (Foundation for Netherlands Musical Interests) and central government, with the aim of documenting and publishing modern Dutch music. This move was prompted by the loss of a number of scores, including some by Willem Pijper, in the bombing of Rotterdam in May 1940. The microfilm archives of Dutch works created at that time formed the basis of the Donemus collection after the war. The founders of Donemus (whose name is an abbreviation of ‘Documentatie in Nederland voor Muziek’) included C. Wiessing, H.E. Reeser and H. Reinink. The foundation grew under the directorship of André Jurres (1952–74), who in his various international posts did much to promote Dutch music. Around 10,000 works by some 550 Dutch composers are now available through Donemus, as well as biographical information on the composers, press releases and programme notes. Performance material of all the documented works is available on request, and scores of a limited number of works are issued. Donemus has published the journals ...

Article

Jean-Michel Nectoux

(Urbain)

(b Pamiers, Ariège, May 12, 1845; d Paris, Nov 4, 1924). French composer, teacher, pianist and organist. The most advanced composer of his generation in France, he developed a personal style that had considerable influence on many early 20th-century composers. His harmonic and melodic innovations also affected the teaching of harmony for later generations.

He was the youngest of six children (one a daughter), born to Toussaint-Honoré Fauré (1810–85) and Marie-Antoinette-Hélène Lalène-Laprade (1809–87), a member of the minor aristocracy. Gabriel was sent to a foster-nurse in the village of Verniolle for four years. In 1849 his father was appointed director of the Ecole Normale at Montgauzy, near Foix; Fauré later recalled that from his early childhood he spent hours playing the harmonium in the chapel adjoining the school. An old blind lady, who came to listen and give advice, told his father about his gift for music; a certain Bernard Delgay shares the honour of having been his first music teacher. During the summer of ...

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Article

Romanian orchestra founded in 1868 in Bucharest. Previously known as the Romanian Philharmonic Society Orchestra, since 1955 it has borne the name of Romania’s most prominent composer, George Enescu. It is the oldest orchestra in Eastern Europe and its headquarters is the Palace of the Romanian Athenaeum, a concert hall with a capacity of 800, and a symbol of Bucharest’s cultural richness.

The Romanian Philharmonic Society was founded on 7 May 1868, under the leadership of Eduard Wachmann, who conducted the first concert of the orchestra, on 15 December of the same year. The role of the orchestra was to educate the taste of the increasingly growing Bucharest audience for classical music; this is why Wachmann wanted to form a stable orchestra. On 5 March 1889, the orchestra gave the first concert in the freshly-built Atheneum (1888), which became the new home of the institution. Constructing such a concert hall for the Philharmonic Society was only possible with the support of cultural figures of the time, who understood the necessity of an adequate headquarters for an institution that promotes art, culture, and science. A public subscription was organized and together with other donations, sufficient funds were raised to build the Atheneum quite quickly, in two years....

Article

Romanian conservatory founded in 1919 in Cluj-Napoca in central Transylvania. It comprises today three main faculties: musical performance, music theory, and musical theatre. Since 1998, a fourth branch has been founded in the city of Piatra Neamţ, situated in a different region in northeast Romania. Initially founded as the Conservatory for Music and Dramatic Arts, the institution was also named the Academy of Music and Dramatic Arts (from 1931) and the Gheorghe Dima Music Conservatory (from 1950); since 1990 it has regained its title of academy in its current form—the Gheorghe Dima Music Academy. The institution has borne for 60 years the name of its first rector, the composer Gheorghe Dima, who is praised for his role in the founding of musical higher-education in Transylvania.

The history of the institution begins in an effervescent social and cultural period, shortly after the Union of Transylvania with Romania (1918...

Article

Friedrich W. Riedel

Benedictine abbey near Krems, Lower Austria. It was founded in 1083 by Bishop Altmann of Passau as a monastery for prebendaries. In 1094 it was taken over by Benedictines from St Blasien in the Black Forest, and rapidly became an important centre of religious and intellectual life. After a period of decline during the Reformation, Göttweig flourished in the Baroque era, particularly under the abbot Gottfried Bessel (1714–49), who, after a fire in 1718, instigated the rebuilding of the monastery in Baroque style. Despite the misfortunes which befell the monastery during the Enlightenment and the Napoleonic Wars, and the disruption caused by World War II, Göttweig remained an important religious and cultural centre. It has a long musical tradition; choral singing was fostered from the abbey’s foundation, and its choir school dates from the Middle Ages. By the 15th century an organist had been appointed, and polyphony was sung in the 16th century. An inventory of ...

Article

Oliver Strunk

Italian monastery and library. Some 19 km from Rome, among the Castelli Romani in the Alban hills at an altitude of well over 320 metres, stands the monastery (Badia Greca) of Grottaferrata, founded in 1004 by St Nilus the Younger, a monk of the Greek rite from Rossano in Calabria. The site had been donated by Gregory, Count of Tusculum, and it took its name, as did the little town that grew up around it, from a late Roman remain, a sort of tomb or oratory with barred windows, adjoining which the monks built their church, dedicated on 17 December 1024 to the Madonna.

Among those libraries of Western Europe that house extensive collections of Greek manuscripts, the library of the Badia occupies a special place, rivalled only by the smaller collection from the monastery of S Salvatore di Messina, today a part of the Messina University library. It is a genuinely monastic library, and as such reflects the needs and interests of a particular monastic community. The founders of that community had come from Calabria, bringing with them the tradition of the Greek-speaking settlements of southern Italy and Sicily. And that tradition, being peripheral, not only tended to lag behind the tradition of the Eastern Empire proper, it eventually lost all contact with it. The Latin occupation of Constantinople in ...

Article

Carlos de Pontes Leça

(Port. Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian)

Portuguese organization for supporting the arts, charity, education and sciences. It was founded on 18 July 1956, in accordance with the will of Calouste Sarkis Gulbenkian (b Istanbul, 29 March 1869; d Lisbon, 20 July 1955), a pioneer of the Middle Eastern oil industry, an enlightened amateur of the arts and philanthropist. The foundation's headquarters are in Lisbon, but its activities, though centred in Portugal, extend to many other countries.

The foundation supports music chiefly by granting subsidies or financing projects of its own to promote four main concerns: the musical education and professional improvement of musicians, the encouragement of contemporary music and musicians, the study and performance of lesser-known works including important musicological projects, and the growth of public interest in music and the creation of new audiences through its own resident groups: an orchestra, a choir and a dance company. Scholarships are granted for training professional musicians; conservatories and academies of music, concert societies, choral groups and other organizations have been subsidized....

Article

Danica Petrović

Serbian musicology institute founded by composer Petar Konjović in Belgrade within the SASA in 1948. As the first director, Konjović proposed three main fields of research: a) the history of Serbian music from the Middle Ages to the end of the 19th century; b) contemporary Serbian music and current musicological questions; and c) Serbian folk music. The first members of the Institute were well known Belgrade musicians. The first Belgrade musicologists and ethnomusicologists were only beginning their education at that time. The work of the institute was done by a small number of researchers during the first six decades of its existence. These researchers wrote the first history of Serbian music and the first monographs of Serbian composers; initiated the studies of the aesthetics of music in Serbia; established the Byzantine roots of the Serbian Chant and the continuity of its development over the previous two centuries; and worked on the dynamic developments in Serbian music in the 20th century. The ethnomusicological research focused on Serbian vocal, instrumental, and dance traditions....

Article

International organization. It was initiated in Belgium in 1940 by Marcel Cuvelier to propagate live music and related arts in schools, universities and among working youth, regardless of political or doctrinaire considerations. It has established an effective international network of artistic exchanges, bringing many young performers before the public through concert tours and competitions; it also encourages performance by young people by establishing music camps and forming international orchestras directed by outstanding conductors. In keeping with its broad humanitarian aims it was a founder-member of the International Music Council in 1949. The first Jeunesses Musicales concert was in the Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, on 17 October 1940. The movement spread to France in the following year through the efforts of René Nicoly, and in 1945 the Fédération Internationale des Jeunesses Musicales (FIJM) was founded; its first international congress was in 1946. The founders included Gilles Lefèbvre, Alicia de Larrocha, Robert Mayer (who later founded Youth and Music in London on the model of the Jeunesses Musicales), Joan Miró, Pierre A. Pillet, Henryk Szeryng and Nicanor Zabaleta, in addition to the Jeunesses Musicales of France, Belgium and Canada. The movement grew rapidly; its first music camp was at Orford in Canada in ...

Article

Altman Kellner

revised by Robert N. Freeman

Benedictine abbey in Upper Austria. It was founded in 777 by Duke Tassilo of Bavaria to provide a Christian mission and to protect the area from the neighbouring Slavs and Hungarians. Plainchant was sung according to the Beneventan rite, which, along with the educational system, was modified according to the rules of Benedikt von Aniane of Aachen in 828. From that time until the 17th century there was an inner and an outer school: the latter was enlarged in 1549 into an Öffentliches Gymnasium. The abbey library has a rich collection of manuscripts, one of the most important in Europe. The Millenarius Minor Manuscript, a collection of gospels dating from the end of the 9th century, contains one of the earliest examples of neumatic notation; a number of manuscripts containing sequences and tropes give evidence of musical practice from the 11th century to the 14th. Polyphonic music found acceptance under the abbot Friedrich von Aich (abbot from ...