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Article

Oliver Strunk

Italian monastery and library. Some 19 km from Rome, among the Castelli Romani in the Alban hills at an altitude of well over 320 metres, stands the monastery (Badia Greca) of Grottaferrata, founded in 1004 by St Nilus the Younger, a monk of the Greek rite from Rossano in Calabria. The site had been donated by Gregory, Count of Tusculum, and it took its name, as did the little town that grew up around it, from a late Roman remain, a sort of tomb or oratory with barred windows, adjoining which the monks built their church, dedicated on 17 December 1024 to the Madonna.

Among those libraries of Western Europe that house extensive collections of Greek manuscripts, the library of the Badia occupies a special place, rivalled only by the smaller collection from the monastery of S Salvatore di Messina, today a part of the Messina University library. It is a genuinely monastic library, and as such reflects the needs and interests of a particular monastic community. The founders of that community had come from Calabria, bringing with them the tradition of the Greek-speaking settlements of southern Italy and Sicily. And that tradition, being peripheral, not only tended to lag behind the tradition of the Eastern Empire proper, it eventually lost all contact with it. The Latin occupation of Constantinople in ...

Article

John A. Emerson

revised by David Hiley

Site of the former Benedictine monastery of S Silvestro in the Lombard kingdom outside Modena. With Monte Cassino, it was one of the most important monastic centres of medieval Italy.

Nonantola was founded about 752 by St Anselm of Nonantola, formerly Duke of Friuli, and endowed by Aistulf, King of the Lombards (reigned 749–56). In 753 the oratory and altar were consecrated to SS Peter and Paul by Sergius, Archbishop of Ravenna, and shortly afterwards Anselm was appointed the first abbot by Pope Stephen II. In 756 the relics of Pope Sylvester I (reigned 314–35) were transferred from Rome to Nonantola, and the abbey received its present dedication.

Anselm spent the period from 760/61 to 773, during the reign of Desiderius, Aistulf’s successor, in exile at Monte Cassino. In 774 he returned with a number of manuscripts which formed the nucleus of the important medieval library at Nonantola. Anselm died in 803 and was buried in the church; he was succeeded by a number of Lombard abbots with Germanic names. In 885 the body of Pope Adrian III (reigned 884–5) was buried at the abbey. After a major fire, a reconstruction of the church of S Silvestro was begun in ...

Article

Putna  

Adriana Şirli

Monastery in the former Romanian principality of Moldavia (Moldova). Founded in 1466 by Stephen the Great, prince of Moldavia (1457–1504), it quickly became a renowned cultural centre on account of its school of liturgical chant, its scriptorium for illuminated manuscripts and its embroidery workshops. The following musical manuscripts, each the work of a different scribe, originated in Putna and are characteristic of its scriptorium: (1) The songbook of Evstatie of Putna (1511), RUS-Mim Shchiukin 350 and SPan 13.3.16; (2, 3) RO-Putna monastery, 56/576/544, A: ff.1–84 (? first decade of 16th century) and B: ff.85–160 (? last quarter of 15th century); (4) RO-J I–26 (1545); (5) RO-Dragomirna monastery, 52/1886; (6) RO-Ba sl.283 (c1550); (7) Ba sl.284 (3rd quarter of 16th century); (8) BG-Sofia, Nacionalen Čarkoven Istoriko-Archeologičeski Muzej, 816 (?mid-15th century); (9) D-LEu sl.12 (3rd quarter of 16th century); (10) ...

Article

Karl-Heinz Schlager

Benedictine abbey in Regensburg, Germany. It was an important centre of musical activity during the Middle Ages. Founded in the late 7th century, the abbey was dedicated to Emmeram, an itinerant Frankish bishop and saint martyred in about 685; his burial place on the ‘Mons martyrum’ outside Regensburg became a notable place of pilgrimage during the 9th century. In the late 10th century the monastery was the centre of Cluniac reform in Bavaria and became independent of the bishopric of Regensburg in 975. In 1030 the abbot placed Otloh (see Otloh of St Emmeram) in charge of the monastery school, which, during the 11th and 12th centuries, was to be a significant source of didactic and speculative works on music; among the names associated with the school are Otker of Regensburg (author of Mensura quadripartite figure), Wilhelm and Aribo. From 1731 until 1803 St Emmeram enjoyed baronial status and became once more a great cultural centre, known especially for painting and science. After this date control of the abbey passed first to the principality of Regensburg and subsequently, at the monastery’s dissolution in ...