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Article

Baschet  

Hugh Davies

revised by Laura Maes

French sound sculptors and instrument inventors. Bernard (b Paris, France, 24 Aug 1917) and his brother François (b Paris, France, 30 March 1920) developed a variety of sound sculptures and new instruments under the generic name Structures sonores. Bernard Baschet trained and originally worked as an engineer, and then (1962–5) directed a research team at the Groupe de Recherches Musicales of French Radio (ORTF), whose work resulted in Pierre Schaeffer’s Traité des objets musicaux (1966). François Baschet studied sculpture and worked as a furniture designer.

François Baschet began to concentrate on sound in 1952, when transportation problems urged him to rethink the concept of a guitar and to create an inflatable guitar using a plastic balloon as a sound box. (The first patent concerning string instruments that utilize as a resonance chamber a balloon, a bladder, or the like, inflated with air or any inert gas, was filed in France on ...

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Hugh Davies

(b Kansas City, MO, Jan 23, 1940). American artist and educator, co-founder in 1989 and artistic director of Inner-City Arts in Los Angeles. He holds a BA from the Kansas City Art Institute and an MFA from the University of Cincinnati. Working in Los Angeles since 1976 he has built several instruments, based on the hurdy-gurdy principle, which he plays in solo performances and in duets with his wife, Gail Bates. The first was a drone instrument (1976), in which a bow operated by a pendulum moves across a string. The Fuser (1978) uses a similar idea: each note on its two 40-note keyboards operates a ‘finger’ at a different point along the length of one of two strings, which are bowed by treadle-operated, rosined wheels. The hollow tubing of the framework adds to the effect of two dome-shaped resonators, one at each end of the instrument. Two people play the Fuser, which measures about 3.5 × 1 × 1.25 metres. The Converter (prototype ...

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The music department is a part of the Research Institute of the Arts, which also includes Fine Art Studies, Theatre Studies, Screen Arts Studies (after 1988), and Architectural Studies (since 2010). The music department existed independently until 1988 as an Institute of Music. The Institute of Music was established in 1948 as the Research Institute of Music with the Museum at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with two staff members: Petko Staynov (director) and Andrey Stoyanov. The task of the Institute of Music is to collect, preserve, and publish the Bulgarian folksong heritage. Subsequently the collectors and researchers of folk songs and traditions Ivan Kachulev, Andrey Andreev (1950), Rayna Katsarova, and Elena Stoin (1951) were appointed at the Institute. A separate section for folk music was established at the Institute, led by Rayna Katsarova (1952–67) and, since 1967, Prof. Kaufmann. In 1952 the first volume of the first research journal of the Institute, ...

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Suzanne Flandreau

[CBMR]

The Center for Black Music Research (CBMR) was founded in 1983 at Columbia College Chicago by Samuel A. Floyd, Jr. Its mission has remained the same since its inception: to document, preserve, and promote the music of the African Diaspora. This mission is accomplished through publications, conferences and symposia, performances, research fellowships, and the Library and Archives, housing books and research collections.

The Center’s flagship publication, Black Music Research Journal (1980–), antedates Floyd’s move to Columbia College. The Center has also published Lenox Avenue (1995–1999), the scholarly journal for a grant-funded project which explored music’s role in the arts of the African Diaspora. Various newsletters, including Black Music Research Newsletter/CBMR Bulletin (1977–1990), and CBMR Digest (1990–) informed members about the Center’s activities. Kalinda! (1994–1997), Stop-Time (1998–2000), and Cariso! (2003–2006) were published for specific grant-funded projects. The Center’s publications also include a bibliographic and reference series consisting of five CBMR monographs, ...

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John M. Geringer

Article

Peter Dickinson

A program for study, research, and performance of American music, based at Keele University, Staffordshire, England. It was founded in 1974 by Peter Dickinson, the first professor of music at the university’s newly established department of music. The center, which housed an excellent collection of American music materials, sponsored the Ives centenary concerts (1974) and three international conferences (1975, 1978, and 1983, the last in collaboration with the Society for American Music, then called the Sonneck Society); in 1975 it introduced an MA in American music. Dickinson departed in 1984 and David Nicholls taught at Keele from 1987 to 2000. The center is no longer active as a result of university restructuring.

P. Dickinson: “Recent Research on Musical Traditions of the United States: a View from Britain,” IMSCR XII: Berkeley 1977, ed. D. Heartz and B. Wade (Kassel, 1981) P. Dickinson: “British-American Interactions: Composers and Students,” MT...

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Chamber music society. Resident in New York at Alice Tully Hall, the society is a constituent of Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts. It was conceived by William Schuman, the president of Lincoln Center, who appointed the pianist charles Wadsworth as the society’s first artistic director (1969–89). Among the musicians Wadsworth assembled to perform for the opening season (1969–70) were Charles Treger (violin), Walter Trampler (viola), Leslie Parnas (cello), Paula Robison (flute), Leonard Arner (oboe), Gervase de Peyer (clarinet), Loren Glickman (bassoon), and Richard Goode (piano). In 2010, led by artistic directors cellist David Finckel and pianist Wu Han, the society numbered around 35 members, joined by guest artists for its annual concert series, educational programs, and national and international tours. Many concerts are broadcast on radio and television, and in 2007 the society started its own recording label.

Following its premiere performance on 11 September 1969...

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Jean-Michel Nectoux

(Urbain)

(b Pamiers, Ariège, May 12, 1845; d Paris, Nov 4, 1924). French composer, teacher, pianist and organist. The most advanced composer of his generation in France, he developed a personal style that had considerable influence on many early 20th-century composers. His harmonic and melodic innovations also affected the teaching of harmony for later generations.

He was the youngest of six children (one a daughter), born to Toussaint-Honoré Fauré (1810–85) and Marie-Antoinette-Hélène Lalène-Laprade (1809–87), a member of the minor aristocracy. Gabriel was sent to a foster-nurse in the village of Verniolle for four years. In 1849 his father was appointed director of the Ecole Normale at Montgauzy, near Foix; Fauré later recalled that from his early childhood he spent hours playing the harmonium in the chapel adjoining the school. An old blind lady, who came to listen and give advice, told his father about his gift for music; a certain Bernard Delgay shares the honour of having been his first music teacher. During the summer of ...

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Amra Bosnić

(b Mostar, 1946). Bosnian and Herzegovinian musicologist. She gained the Masters in Pedagogical Sciences in the Faculty of Philosophy (1977), and the Doctorate in Pedagogical Sciences at the Academy of Music in Sarajevo (1984). She worked at the Academy of Music in Sarajevo from 1971 until her retirement in 2011. She was employed at various levels from teaching assistant to full professor at the Academy, teaching subjects including methods in music education, and pedagogy with the basics of psychology, and was appointed Dean of the Academy from 2003 until 2007. She was also engaged as a professor of Music Culture and Methods at the Pedagogical Academy in Sarajevo (1992–2009).

Ferović was actively involved in establishing and leading the most important music institutions in Sarajevo: the Musicological Society of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Institute of Musicology (2007–9) at the Academy of Music in Sarajevo, the Sarajevo vocal octet Preporod, and the academic female vocal ensemble, also called Preporod. She was an editor and reviewer of the collection of papers of the International Symposium, ...

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Romanian orchestra founded in 1868 in Bucharest. Previously known as the Romanian Philharmonic Society Orchestra, since 1955 it has borne the name of Romania’s most prominent composer, George Enescu. It is the oldest orchestra in Eastern Europe and its headquarters is the Palace of the Romanian Athenaeum, a concert hall with a capacity of 800, and a symbol of Bucharest’s cultural richness.

The Romanian Philharmonic Society was founded on 7 May 1868, under the leadership of Eduard Wachmann, who conducted the first concert of the orchestra, on 15 December of the same year. The role of the orchestra was to educate the taste of the increasingly growing Bucharest audience for classical music; this is why Wachmann wanted to form a stable orchestra. On 5 March 1889, the orchestra gave the first concert in the freshly-built Atheneum (1888), which became the new home of the institution. Constructing such a concert hall for the Philharmonic Society was only possible with the support of cultural figures of the time, who understood the necessity of an adequate headquarters for an institution that promotes art, culture, and science. A public subscription was organized and together with other donations, sufficient funds were raised to build the Atheneum quite quickly, in two years....

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Romanian conservatory founded in 1919 in Cluj-Napoca in central Transylvania. It comprises today three main faculties: musical performance, music theory, and musical theatre. Since 1998, a fourth branch has been founded in the city of Piatra Neamţ, situated in a different region in northeast Romania. Initially founded as the Conservatory for Music and Dramatic Arts, the institution was also named the Academy of Music and Dramatic Arts (from 1931) and the Gheorghe Dima Music Conservatory (from 1950); since 1990 it has regained its title of academy in its current form—the Gheorghe Dima Music Academy. The institution has borne for 60 years the name of its first rector, the composer Gheorghe Dima, who is praised for his role in the founding of musical higher-education in Transylvania.

The history of the institution begins in an effervescent social and cultural period, shortly after the Union of Transylvania with Romania (1918...

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American music research institute. Founded in 1971 as The Institute for Studies in American Music, the Institute was renamed in 2008 to honor its founding director. It is a research center at Brooklyn College, CUNY, New York, and is also affiliated with CUNY’s Graduate Center. As Hitchcock stated, the Institute was established “to provide a suitable academic framework in which to encourage, support, propagate, and evaluate research projects in American music.” Hitchcock led the Institute until his retirement in 1993; during this time the center also functioned as the world headquarters of the Charles Ives Society. The Institute has been directed by Carol J. Oja (1993–7), Ellie M. Hisama (1997–2005), and Jeffrey Taylor (2007–present). Hitchcock’s extensive files at the Institute and materials related to Henry Cowell were bequeathed to the Performing Arts Division of the New York Public Library upon his death in December 2007...

Article

Frances Barulich

revised by Leah Barnstetter

Firm of music publishers and dealers in musical instruments. It was founded in New York in 1941 by Harold Newman, then president of the American Recorder Society. The firm’s first publication was Gail Kubik’s Suite for Three Recorders, and Newman used his own and Kubik’s forenames to form that of the company. Hargail specialized in recorder music, and though its early output was for the adult amateur, much of its later music was intended for schools; it also published music for Orff instruments and contemporary American music. In addition to its publishing activities, the firm dealt in recorders (it manufactured the plastic Harvard model) and sold guitar kits. Newman remained president of Hargail until his death in 1989. In 1991 CPP/Belwin acquired the catalog of Hargail Music Press. CPP/Belwin itself became a subsidiary of Warner/Chappell in 1994; the company’s publications have been distributed by Alfred Music Publishing.

K. Wollitz: “An Interview with Harold Newman, Music Publisher,” ...