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A perfect Cadence made up of a dominant chord followed by tonic chord (V–I), both normally in root position; the term is contrasted with ‘plagal cadence’, whose penultimate chord is a subdominant. The term is used mainly in American writings, which sometimes state that the uppermost note in the final chord should be the tonic....

Article

Murray Campbell

(Graham)

(b Portland, OR, April 29, 1911; d Los Angeles, Oct 28, 1988). American acoustician. After studying at Reed College, Portland (BA 1932), he undertook postgraduate study at the University of California in Berkeley (MA 1936, PhD 1940). His early research work was in nuclear physics, working under the supervision of Ernest Lawrence in the Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley. In 1945 he was appointed professor of physics at the University of Southern California, and he continued in that post until his retirement in 1980. An accomplished performer on the piano and the bassoon, Backus was awarded the degree of MMus in conducting by the University of Southern California in 1959. In the later stages of his research career he made major contributions to the study of the acoustics of woodwind instruments, brass instruments and organ pipes. In 1969 the first edition of The Acoustical Foundations of Music...

Article

Murray Campbell

(Henry)

(b Chicago, Jan 2, 1925; d Cleveland, Aug 4, 1987). American acoustician. His parents being missionaries, he spent much of his childhood in Lahore. After returning to the USA to study at Washington University, St Louis (AB 1948, PhD 1952), Benade was appointed in 1952 to the physics faculty at Case Institute of Technology, Cleveland, which later became Case Western Reserve University. Promoted to a full professorship in 1969, he continued in that post until shortly before his death. A skilled woodwind player, he had an exceptional ability to relate the results of acoustical research to the practical requirements of musicians and musical instrument makers. Benade established a research programme which made many fundamental contributions to the understanding of the operation of wind instruments. Also active in string instrument research, he was a founding member of the Catgut Acoustical Society and its president between 1969 and 1972...

Article

Gerhard Kubik

A concept used by jazz critics and musicians from the early decades of the 20th century onwards in black American music, notably in Blues and Jazz, to characterize pitch values perceived as deviating from the western diatonic scale.

It was already observed in the 1920s that blues and jazz singers, as well as instrumentalists tend to present the 3rd and 7th, sometimes also the 5th degree in a diatonic framework by pitch values a semitone lower, often with microtonal fluctuations. From this observation musicologists have tried to construct ‘blues scales’. The earliest proposition was that blues singers were using minor-3rd intonations or ‘blue 7ths’ such as E♭ and B♭ respectively over a C major triad. Although its origin is unknown, by 1925 the term ‘blue note’ was established in the literature (Niles, 1925–6). It is significant, however, that ‘downhome’ blues musicians do not use it, unless influenced by jazz critics. Generally, blues singers in the Deep South speak of ‘worrying’ or ‘bending’ the notes. Against the background of a strong central tonality, blues singers develop themes and melodic variations largely independently of the guitar chords used in the accompaniment. The intonation, often with glides and considerable melisma, sometimes deviates by microtonal values from the standard tunings of the guitar or the piano. Jessie Mae Hemphill, for example, was known for a pronounced melismatic style....

Article

Pauline Norton

(1) A black American folk and spectacular dance characterized by rhythmic patterns created by the feet hitting the floor. It became a theatrical dance in the middle of the 19th century principally through the influence of William Henry Lane, who performed under the name ‘Juba’. The dance often concluded the song-and-dance numbers in late 19th-century minstrel shows, and seems to be related to the ‘break’ sections in these numbers, which consisted of short, two- or four-bar interludes of danced rhythmic patterns between the solo verse and the chorus. Both the dance itself and the idea of performing dance between the sections of a song influenced tap dance in the 20th century.

(2) A riotus dance or gathering (see also Hoedown). The fiddle or banjo music accompanying such dances, particularly in the white-American folk tradition from the late 19th century, often has rapid figurations, arpeggios, and triplets added to vary the melody, suggesting something like the 16th- and 17th-century English practice of ...

Article

Clive Greated

(b Cleveland, July 19, 1915). American physicist and acoustician. After studying physics at the Case School of Applied Science (BS 1937) he obtained the PhD from the University of Illinois. From 1941 to 1980 he held various research and management positions at the Westinghouse Corp. His research into the acoustics of the flute, carried out in a small laboratory at his home, has contributed significantly to what is known today about the behaviour of flutes and organ pipes. Several of his papers are recognised as standard reference material. His theory of feedback and how this relates to the means by which the flautist produces the desired frequencies and loudness is particularly relevant to performance. He also studied the significance of mouth resonance and the effect of mode stretching on harmonic generation. His work on the intonation of both antique and modern flutes and his critical assessment of Theobald Boehm's methods have helped in shaping current views on the historical development of the instrument....

Article

Murray Campbell

(b Cleveland, OH, July 19, 1915; d Pittsburgh, PA, Feb 10, 2010). American scientist and acoustician. After studying physics at Case Institute of Technology (BS 1937), he carried out research in nuclear physics at the University of Illinois (PhD 1941). He then joined the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, remaining with the firm for the rest of his professional life; he retired in 1980 after a distinguished career culminating in six years as Director of Research and Development. In his youth he had become an accomplished flute player, and during his undergraduate studies at Case he encountered the notable acoustician Dayton C. Miller. This meeting led to a lifelong interest in the acoustics of the flute, and Coltman developed a laboratory at his home in which he conducted many important and illuminating experiments on flutes and flute playing. Particularly significant was his contribution to the understanding of the subtle interaction between the air jet blown across the flute embouchure hole by the player and the resonances of the air column within the flute pipe. Over four decades, starting in the mid-1960s, he published more than 40 papers on the acoustics of flutes and organ pipes. He was a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a Fellow of the American Physical Society and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers....

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Article

Charles Garrett

Music associated with the Creole people, of mixed European and African descent, in the gulf region of the United States, particularly Louisiana. For further discussion see articles on Jazz , New orleans , New orleans music , Swamp pop , and Zydeco . louis moreau Gottschalk integrated Creole folk music into his compositions. Well-known Creole musicians include ...

Article

Décima  

William Gradante

(Sp.)

A verse form, commonly sung, comprising ten lines (rhyme scheme abbaaccddc), which develops a theme introduced by a quatrain (rhymed abab). Textual material may be set or improvised, religious or secular. In Venezuela décimas are sung in parallel 3rds and accompanied by the cuatro (small four-string guitar) in primary triad harmony to either ...

Article

William Brooks and George L. Frow

(Alva)

(b Milan, OH, Feb 11, 1847; d West Orange, NJ, Oct 18, 1931). American inventor. He had only a few months of formal schooling before becoming successively a newsboy, a food hawker on trains and a telegraph operator. In 1870, with money received from the sale of telegraphic inventions, he founded a research laboratory. There he constructed the carbon telephone transmitter (1876), the cylinder phonograph (1877) and the first practical electric light (1879). These devices brought him instant fame, and he spent much of the rest of his life in their improvement; he also aided the creation of the myth that surrounds his achievements. The phonograph was a badly flawed novelty when it was first introduced, and Edison abandoned it until the late 1880s when, challenged by Charles Tainter’s graphophone, he organized his own recording company. Although he portrayed himself as financially naive, Edison displayed ruthlessness and skill in the subsequent battles between companies. He clung stubbornly to his original ideas, accepting such innovations as disc records and spring-driven machines only under the pressure of competition. He also held strong opinions about music, despite his congenital deafness, and these sometimes adversely affected his choice of artists. Although his vision of the phonograph as a viable recording device for music was largely realized by others, Edison continues to be regarded, in the public mind, as the creator of the recording industry....

Article

Murray Campbell

(b Provo, UT, Sept 11, 1884; d Provo, July 23, 1981). American acoustician. He studied at Brigham Young University in Provo (BS 1907), then at the University of Chicago, where he gained his doctorate in 1911 for research into the charge of the electron. In 1916 he joined the staff of Bell Telephone Laboratories in New York; he remained there for 33 years, becoming director of acoustical research in 1928 and of physical research in 1935. In 1949 Fletcher was appointed professor of electrical engineering at Columbia University, and in 1952 he returned to Brigham Young University as director of research. He became professor emeritus in 1974, and continued his research activity until his death. Fletcher was one of the great pioneers of the science of psychoacoustics, and his work on the human perception of sound was of fundamental importance. Responsible for the first public demonstration of stereophonic sound reproduction in ...

Article

(Ger. Funktion)

A term used in harmonic theory, especially by Riemann, to denote the relationship of a chord to tonal centre. The relationship is defined in his Vereinfachte Harmonielehre oder die Lehre von der tonalen Funktionen der Akkorde (London and New York, 1893, 2/1903; Eng. trans., 1896) in terms of subdominant, dominant and tonic harmonies only, and chord progressions are seen there as being made up of these three functions in varying guises. Thus, for example, the chord of the supertonic is seen as having the function of subdominant, and this is rationalized by reference to its being the relative minor of the chord of the subdominant. In this way, even a complex dissonant chord can be ‘reduced’ to one of the three basic functions....

Article

(b Detroit, MI, June 20, 1917; d New York, NY, Jan 4, 2011). American acoustician. At UCLA he studied mathematics and physics (BA 1938, MA 1940), then went to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to study acoustics under Philip McCord Morse (PhD 1945). In posts at Bell Telephone Laboratories (1945–51) and Columbia University (from 1952), where he taught in the engineering school as well as the graduate school of architecture and planning, he researched the acoustical properties of building materials, airborne sound, and musical instruments. He was acoustical consultant for more than 100 halls, including the Metropolitan Opera House (1966); Powell Symphony Hall, St. Louis (renovation 1968); Great Hall, Krannert Center for the Performing Arts, University of Illinois (1969); the concert hall and opera house at the John F. Kennedy Center (1971); Orchestra Hall, Minneapolis (...

Article

Alex U. Case

Form factors for loudspeakers designed for proximity to the ear. Ear buds and in-ear headphones are inserted into the ear canal, circum-aural headphones fit over the entire outer ear, and supra-aural headphones are placed against the outer ear. The addition of a microphone near the mouth produces a headset useful for two-way communication.

Two important implications of the closeness of the loudspeaker drivers to the ears are binaural listening and electro-acoustic efficiency. Binaural listening, in which each ear receives a dedicated signal without inter-aural crosstalk and devoid of the acoustic signature of the actual listening space, is essential to some forms of audio research and opens the door to the creation of new perceived environments through a range of signal processing techniques focused on the localization and spatialization of sound. Headphones need only a small fraction of the sound power required by traditional loudspeaker enclosures placed at a distance, and this efficiency is crucial for the portability of battery-powered devices....

Article

Giselher Schubert

(b Hanau, nr Frankfurt, Nov 16, 1895; d Frankfurt, Dec 28, 1963). German composer, theorist, teacher, viola player and conductor. The foremost German composer of his generation, he was a figure central to both music composition and musical thought during the inter-war years.

Hindemith descended on his father’s side from shopkeepers and craftsmen who had settled primarily in the small Silesian community of Jauer (now Jawor, Poland), where the family can be traced back to the 17th century, and on his mother’s side from small farmers and shepherds in southern Lower Saxony. While no signs of musical interest can be found among the relatives of his mother, Maria Sophie Warnecke (1868–1949), his father, Robert Rudolf Emil Hindemith (1870–1915), came from a family of music lovers. Robert Rudolf supposedly ran away from home when his parents opposed his wish to become a musician; after arriving in Hesse, however, he became a painter and decorator. As he was never able to provide a secure income for his family, the Hindemiths were forced to move frequently. Paul spent three years of his childhood with his paternal grandfather in Naumburg. He was sincerely devoted to his mother, whom he is said to have resembled closely, even in similarity of gestures, and dedicated the first volume (...

Article

D. Quincy Whitney

(b Springfield, MA, May 24, 1911; d Wolfeboro, NH, Aug 7, 2009). American violinmaker, acoustician, and writer. A trumpeter and biology graduate of Cornell University (AB 1933) and New York University (MA 1942), she left both disciplines to embrace string instruments and acoustical physics. While teaching science and woodworking at the Brearley School, chamber music colleagues convinced her to take up viola. A woodcarver since childhood, Hutchins, at age 35, decided to make a viola. Hutchins then studied luthiery with Karl A. Berger (1949–59) and Stradivari expert Fernando Sacconi. While she and Harvard physicist Frederick A. Saunders performed more than 100 acoustical experiments (1949–63), Hutchins taught herself acoustical physics by making string instruments. In 1963 Hutchins and colleagues Robert Fryxell and John Schelleng founded the Catgut Acoustical Society. She published the CAS journal for more than 30 years, helping bridge the gap between violin makers and acoustical physicists. Hutchins made more than 500 instruments, authored more than 100 technical papers on violin acoustics, and edited ...

Article

Article

Brooke Bryant

Record company. Based in Portland, Oregon, and Olympia, Washington, Kill Rock Stars (KRS) was started by Slim Moon in 1991. Moon ran the label until 2006, when his wife, Portia Sabin, took over as president. KRS primarily promotes music by local artists and has remained unaffiliated with a major label. The label describes itself as “queer-positive, feminist and artist friendly.” KRS and many of its artists have been closely associated with Riot grrrl, an underground feminist punk movement.

KRS’s first release was a spoken word split single entitled KRS-101 (1991), featuring Moon and Kathleen Hanna, lead vocalist of the band Bikini Kill. Later that year, KRS released a compilation album featuring Olympia-area bands including Bikini Kill, Bratmobile, and The Melvins. Singles, compilations, and LPs by riot grrrl bands such as Bikini Kill, Huggy Bear, and Team Dresch were released by KRS throughout the early 1990s. Subsequent artists of note included Sleater-Kinney and The Gossip. In ...

Article

Alex U. Case

A transducer that converts a signal from the electrical domain into the acoustical, transforming a pattern of changing electrical voltages into a similar pattern of changing air pressures.

Whenever electricity flows, it is accompanied by a magnetic field. Play an audio signal through a wire, and a changing magnetic field forms around it, a magnetic analogy for the electrical variations within. Let that wire’s changing magnetism interact with a fixed magnetic field and it will be pushed and pulled back and forth, a mechanical realization of the electrical signal. When that conductor has a flat ribbon shape, it can energize the air directly and is the basis for a ribbon loudspeaker. Make the conductor a coil of wire and attach it to a piston light enough to vibrate quickly, yet rigid enough to move the air around it, and a moving coil loudspeaker is born.

The loudspeaker driver is often enclosed in a box, with the practical benefit of protecting the components and the acoustical effect of influencing its spectral resonance. Multiple loudspeakers, each optimized for performance in a specific frequency range, may be assembled into a single loudspeaker system whose total output is the sum of the behaviors of the individual speakers—woofers for low frequencies, tweeters for high frequencies, and midrange drivers in between. Subwoofers are systems designed specifically for the lowest frequencies. The electronic crossover circuitry spectrally divides the signal among the specific drivers in a multi-way loudspeaker system. Horns may be fitted on a driver for more efficient and more directional sound radiation. Very small loudspeakers placed over the ear or in the ear canal make-up headphones and ear buds. The loudspeaker is an essential element of some of the most important musical instruments in contemporary popular music styles: DJ mixers, synthesizers, and electric guitars. In addition to material science and manufacturing innovations, loudspeaker development relies increasingly on digital signal processing for detailed measurements, high quality filtering, and room correction....