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Joseph Dyer

Benedictine monks and nuns live in communities guided by the Rule of Benedict (c530) as interpreted by the customs of each monastery and under the authority of the abbot or abbess. They make vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, but they also vow ‘stability’ – that they will reside in the abbey of their profession until death. Monasteries also founded priories, which have a lower judicial status. In the Middle Ages, male Benedictines were also known as ‘black monks’ from the colour of their tunic, scapular, and choir robe (cuculla).

It is improper to speak of a Benedictine ‘order’, especially in the Middle Ages, since each monastery that followed the Rule of Benedict maintained a degree of independence, based on specific customs (consuetudines) that varied from house to house. When monastic confederations like Cluny came to be established, they were often based on similarity of observance as much as on geographical contiguity. Benedictines ...

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Cloch  

Peter Crossley-Holland

Clapper-bell of ancient and medieval Wales. Several types were known, all with suspension loops. They include one quadrangular and one circular bell of Romano-British (La Tène) type, found in the Vale of Neath, and Celtic ‘saints’ bells’, including a long quadrangular bell now in the National Museum of Wales. Historical references to the cloch date from the 12th century, but the traditional performing practice has not survived....

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Croatia  

Ex.2 Two-part song, Vinkovci, Slavonia; rec. S. Jankovíc (Žganec-Sremec, eds., 1951: 185)

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Sean Hallowell

Originally, a poem in which the passing of an individual is announced and communities to which the departed belongs are called to mourn.

Pioneered by French poets in aristocratic service, the déploration qua literary genre enjoyed a modest lifespan, with eight known works surviving from the 16th century. Longstanding custom, however, recognizes a musical tradition by the same name, one numbering 30 known compositions spanning the late 14th to late 16th centuries. Among composers the déploration ramified from a French mainstream into Spanish, Netherlandish, German, Italian, and English tributaries. Accordingly, déplorations are variably designated in sources by such terms as apotheosis, epicedion, monodia, epitaphium, lamentation, complainte, naenia, madrigale, greghesca, and elegy.

Use of the term “déploration” to denote a musical work in which a composer is commemorated may be traced to Ockeghem (d 1497). This musician, who spent almost a half-century in service to the French royal court, was memorialized by literary counterpart Guillaume Crétin in a poem of 412 lines. A frame-narrative necrology featuring a syncretic cast of characters (among them Orpheus and King David), Crétin’s déploration charges all who held Ockeghem dear with the duty of honoring “celluy qui”—according to Lady Music (another ...

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Alastair Dick

Medieval double-headed cylindrical drum of India. In the 13th-century Sa ṅgītaratnākara it is described as about 48 cm long and 25 cm in diameter. The heads are stretched on creeper hoops which have seven holes for tension cords. The drum is carried on a shoulder strap and played on the left side with the hand and on the right with a crook-stick. As the description is very similar to that of the medieval Arab ...

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Djnar  

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Hana Vlhová-Wörner

[Domazlaus Predicator]

(b Bohemia, c. 1300; d c. 1350). Dominican friar and a leading author of liturgical poetry during the period of rising patriotic feelings in Bohemia. Several sequences to Bohemian patron saints appearing after 1300 are attributed to his authorship, among them De superna hierarchia to Corpus Christi (with acrostic ...

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Alastair Dick

(from Sanskrit gharsa: ‘rubbing’). Medieval barrel drum of India, played partly by friction. It is described as similar to the hu ḍukkā. It was played with much ‘booming’ (go ṃkāra): the thumb and middle fingertips of the right hand, smeared with beeswax, rubbed the skin; the left-hand fingers struck the skin and the thumb pressed it. The modern ...

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Ghanon  

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Harold S. Powers

revised by Frans Wiering

In 

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Harold S. Powers

revised by Frans Wiering

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Leeman L. Perkins and Patrick Macey

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Harold S. Powers

revised by Frans Wiering

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Malcolm Boyd

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