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Croatia  

Ex.2 Two-part song, Vinkovci, Slavonia; rec. S. Jankovíc (Žganec-Sremec, eds., 1951: 185)

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Sean Hallowell

Originally, a poem in which the passing of an individual is announced and communities to which the departed belongs are called to mourn.

Pioneered by French poets in aristocratic service, the déploration qua literary genre enjoyed a modest lifespan, with eight known works surviving from the 16th century. Longstanding custom, however, recognizes a musical tradition by the same name, one numbering 30 known compositions spanning the late 14th to late 16th centuries. Among composers the déploration ramified from a French mainstream into Spanish, Netherlandish, German, Italian, and English tributaries. Accordingly, déplorations are variably designated in sources by such terms as apotheosis, epicedion, monodia, epitaphium, lamentation, complainte, naenia, madrigale, greghesca, and elegy.

Use of the term “déploration” to denote a musical work in which a composer is commemorated may be traced to Ockeghem (d 1497). This musician, who spent almost a half-century in service to the French royal court, was memorialized by literary counterpart Guillaume Crétin in a poem of 412 lines. A frame-narrative necrology featuring a syncretic cast of characters (among them Orpheus and King David), Crétin’s déploration charges all who held Ockeghem dear with the duty of honoring “celluy qui”—according to Lady Music (another ...

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Article

Leeman L. Perkins and Patrick Macey

In 

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Herbert Heyde

This article discusses trends in organizing the production of European instruments from the 15th century to the mid-19th.

During the 15th century European instrument making entered a new phase with the rise of polyphonic instrumental music. Previously, folk and minstrel instruments had been made mostly by the players themselves. The intricacies of polyphonic music and the social context in which sophisticated instruments such as clavichords, trombones, lutes, and viols were played demanded craft refinement and specialization. The professional traditions of organ building and bell founding provided precedents upon which the new branches of trade could build. While the production of folk instruments continued as it had previously, the new, commercial approach to instrument making gradually evolved into two major forms, which were first observable in the processes of both bell founding and organ building. These forms were small craft-workshops and entrepreneurial businesses. These two forms sometimes intersected; small workshops would sometimes grow and develop into entrepreneurial businesses....

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Malcolm Boyd

In 

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Jantar  

Philippe Bruguière and Genevieve Dournon

(Sanskrit yantra, Hindi jantar)

(1) Sanskrit word yantra means ‘any instrument or apparatus’. The musical term jantra appears in the 15th-century Kallināth’s commentary of Sangītaratnākara as the popular name of the tritantrī vīnā, a vīnā mentioned two centuries earlier by Sarngadeva and likely to belong to the tube zither family. The yantra is primarily mentioned and briefly described before the bīn among the stringed instruments listed in the Ā’n-i Akbarī of Abu’l-Fazl ‘Allami (1595–96). Made of a ‘hollow neck of wood a yard in length, at the end of which are attached the halves of two gourds’, the jantar had five metal strings while the bīn had three. Also quoted in the Kulliyāt-i-Tughrā written under the reign of Jahangir (1605–27) and in the Rāg Darpan (1665–6), it was once an important fretted tube zither in Mughal India. The jantar was not only appreciated in the Northern Mughal courts but also in Central India Deccani sultanates: it is recorded in Zuhurī’s ...

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Motet  

Example 1 Salve mater fons hortorum/[CAPTIVI]TA[TEM] (I-FL Plut. 29.1 fols. 401v–402r)

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Ex.8 Du Fay: Ave regina celorum (iii)

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Ex.5 Machaut tenors

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Ex.3 Pes of GB-Ob 20, no.10

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Ex.11 Josquin: Miserere mei, Deus

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Example 2 Viderunt, par pou/Viderunt, por peu/Viderunt, por peu/VIDERUNT OMNES (F-Mof H 196, fols. 40v–41r)

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Ex.7 Du Fay: Ave regina celorum (ii)

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Ex.9 Weerbeke: Ave regina caelorum

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Ex.6 Power: Ave regina celorum

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Ex.12 Gombert: Media vita

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Ex.10

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Ex.4