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Ernest H. Sanders, Leeman L. Perkins, Patrick Macey, Christoph Wolff, Jerome Roche, Graham Dixon, James R. Anthony and Malcolm Boyd

In 

Article

Leeman L. Perkins and Patrick Macey

In 

Article

Ernest H. Sanders, Leeman L. Perkins, Patrick Macey, Christoph Wolff, Jerome Roche, Graham Dixon, James R. Anthony and Malcolm Boyd

In 

Article

Herbert Heyde

This article discusses trends in organizing the production of European instruments from the 15th century to the mid-19th.

During the 15th century European instrument making entered a new phase with the rise of polyphonic instrumental music. Previously, folk and minstrel instruments had been made mostly by the players themselves. The intricacies of polyphonic music and the social context in which sophisticated instruments such as clavichords, trombones, lutes, and viols were played demanded craft refinement and specialization. The professional traditions of organ building and bell founding provided precedents upon which the new branches of trade could build. While the production of folk instruments continued as it had previously, the new, commercial approach to instrument making gradually evolved into two major forms, which were first observable in the processes of both bell founding and organ building. These forms were small craft-workshops and entrepreneurial businesses. These two forms sometimes intersected; small workshops would sometimes grow and develop into entrepreneurial businesses....

Article

Malcolm Boyd

In 

Article

Jantar  

Philippe Bruguière and Genevieve Dournon

(Sanskrit yantra, Hindi jantar)

(1) Sanskrit word yantra means ‘any instrument or apparatus’. The musical term jantra appears in the 15th-century Kallināth’s commentary of Sangītaratnākara as the popular name of the tritantrī vīnā, a vīnā mentioned two centuries earlier by Sarngadeva and likely to belong to the tube zither family. The yantra is primarily mentioned and briefly described before the bīn among the stringed instruments listed in the Ā’n-i Akbarī of Abu’l-Fazl ‘Allami (1595–96). Made of a ‘hollow neck of wood a yard in length, at the end of which are attached the halves of two gourds’, the jantar had five metal strings while the bīn had three. Also quoted in the Kulliyāt-i-Tughrā written under the reign of Jahangir (1605–27) and in the Rāg Darpan (1665–6), it was once an important fretted tube zither in Mughal India. The jantar was not only appreciated in the Northern Mughal courts but also in Central India Deccani sultanates: it is recorded in Zuhurī’s ...

Article

Motet  

Ernest H. Sanders, Leeman L. Perkins, Patrick Macey, Christoph Wolff, Jerome Roche, Graham Dixon, James R. Anthony and Malcolm Boyd

revised by Peter M. Lefferts

One of the most important forms of polyphonic music from about 1220 to 1750. No single set of characteristics serves to define it generally, except in particular historical or regional contexts. It originated as a liturgical trope but soon developed into the pre-eminent form of secular art music during the late Middle Ages. The medieval motet was a polyphonic composition in which the fundamental voice (tenor) was usually arranged in a pattern of reiterated rhythmic configurations, while the upper voice or voices (up to three), nearly always with different Latin or French texts, generally moved at a faster rate. In the first half of the 15th century the motet's liturgical ties were restored, and it continued to evolve by adapting a number of forms and styles borrowed in part from the chanson, tenor mass and, later, the madrigal. In the 16th century the motet achieved its classical synthesis in the context of the Franco-Flemish style of Josquin and his successors. Important vernacular subspecies developed later, particularly in England (...