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(Lat.).

A term used in the 16th century (e.g. Ornithoparchus, Musicae activae micrologus, 1517) for the simple forms of plainchant based on recitation tones as used in the Epistle, Gospel, prayers etc.; for a general survey of such forms see Inflection. Accentus forms are contrasted with concentus forms, or with the more developed forms such as antiphons or responsories....

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Margaret Murata

(b Cupramontana, Jan 11, 1596; d Rome, Oct 16, 1653). Italian librettist. After studying at the Collegio Romano he was active in Roman literary circles from the 1620s. He was secretary to Francesco Peretti (later Cardinal Montalto) by 1630 and to Camillo Pamphili (1644–7), before serving Pope Innocent X as ...

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Leigh H. Edwards

[John R. ]

(b Kingsland, AR, Feb 26, 1932; d Nashville, TN, Sept 12, 2003). American country singer and songwriter. A dominant force in country music during his almost 50-year career, Johnny Cash recorded more than 1500 songs, often about southern rural and working-class life. Singing in his distinctive bass-baritone voice, Cash also tapped into gospel, folk, rockabilly, rock, blues, and bluegrass. He sold more than fifty million albums, won more than a dozen Grammys, had 14 number-one country hits, and enjoyed the rare distinction of being inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, the Country Music Hall of Fame, and the Songwriters Hall of Fame. He is most famous for his “Man in Black” persona, which he created as a voice for the impoverished and disenfranchised on his song and album of the same name (Columbia, 1971).

One of seven children, Cash was the son of sharecroppers and would later sing about working the cotton fields with his family in Dyess, Arkansas, a Depression-era New Deal cooperative agricultural colony. During his four years in the Air Force as a radio operator stationed in Germany, Cash played in a guitar and string band with buddies on the airbase. Returning home in ...

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Cigoli  

Marinella Pigozzi

[Cardi, Ludovico]

(b Castelvecchio di Cigoli, nr Pisa, Sept 21, 1559; d Rome, June 8, 1613). Italian scene designer and deviser of displays. A pupil of B. Morellone in Empoli, he went to Florence in about 1568 to study ‘lettere umane’. He matriculated in 1578 at the Accademia del Disegno and collaborated with A. Allori and B. Buontalenti in displays for the festive Medici entertainments. Most of his drawings are at the Uffizi, among them the preparatory study for the figure of Lucifer which appeared in the fourth intermedio of Pellegrina, the commedia by G. Bargagli performed on 2 May 1589 for the marriage of the Grand Duke Ferdinando I and Christine of Lorraine. Cigoli collaborated with Buontalenti, who was commissioned to re-equip the Medici theatre at the Uffizi, creating scenery, costumes and machinery for the intermezzos.

At the turn of the century, Cigoli was one of the most important Florentine artists and intellectuals and a member of several academies. In ...

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Barry Kernfeld

(bert Lloyd )

(b New York, Aug 23, 1928; d New York, Feb 15, 2004). American pianist . In the early 1950s he performed and made recordings with Miles Davis (including Yesterdays/How Deep is the Ocean, 1952, BN 1597) and Lester Young, and in 1957 he played on the album Ray Draper with John Coltrane...

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Colin Timms

(b Genoa, ?1581; d after in or 1656). Italian composer . He spent his working life at Genoa, where he appears to have been organist of the cathedral in the late 16th century and at the convent of S Brigida from 1601. According to the title-page of his Primo libro de madrigali (Venice, 1640) he was maestro di cappella to the republic of Genoa. When over 70 he composed the opera Ariodante (G. A. Pisani [G. A. Spinola], after L. Ariosto; lib. I-Nc , Rc ) and the intermezzo Gl’incanti di Ismeno (Spinola), which were performed together at the Teatro del Falcone, Genoa, in 1655–6. Giazotto says that Costa also set Spinola’s Aspasia in 1656 and/or 1660; the drama was certainly performed at Genoa in 1695, but the music may have been by Geronimo Maria Costa (b Genoa, 1655).

AllacciD R. Giazotto: La musica a Genova nella vita pubblica e privata dal XIII al XVIII secolo...

Article

Barbara Russano Hanning

[Daphne]

Opera in a prologue and six scenes by Jacopo Peri, with assistance from Jacopo Corsi, to a libretto by Ottavio Rinuccini after Ovid’s Metamorphoses (book 1); Florence, Corsi’s palace, pre-Lenten Carnival season, 1598 (1597 old Florentine style), 1599, 1600.

This experimental musico-dramatic work, for which the music survives only partially in manuscript, and which its creators called a favola in musica (musical tale), is generally considered the first opera. The complete libretto exists in a printed edition from 1598. The characters’ vocal ranges given here are those assigned in Gagliano’s 1608 version (see Dafne (ii)). (The scene settings are inferred from the action.)

Prologue Ovid explains the cautionary nature of his tale: never underestimate the power of Love.

Scene 1 [A secluded grove] The resident nymphs and shepherds entreat Jove to send a saviour to deliver them from the monstrous dragon, which has been terrorizing their land, and are answered by Apollo in the form of an echo (‘Ebra di sangue in questo oscuro bosco’), after which the god descends and slays the python with bow and arrow. (This scene is a reworking of Rinuccini’s third ...

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(fl Russia, mid-16th century). Russian bell and cannon founder. Of unknown origin, Ganusov might have come from Germany or the Grand Duchy of Lithuania to Moscow, where in the mid-16th century he worked at the court of Ivan the Terrible. A very large bell cast at the Moscow cannon foundry in 1550 has been tentatively credited to him; it has not survived. Presumably before 1564 he moved to Smolensk, where a cannon bearing his name or names of his apprentices survived into the 19th century. Ganusov is not named in documents after the late 1560s. His apprentices included Bogdan Andreytokhov, Yuri Bochkaryov, Semyon Dubinin (who moved to Pskov), Nikita Tupitsyn, and most famously Andrei Chokhov (Chekhov) (c1545–1629), whose castings in Moscow included many famous pieces of artillery and other massive bronze armaments as well as bells. Boris Godunov donated two of Chokov’s bells, cast in ...

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Ernest H. Sanders, Leeman L. Perkins, Patrick Macey, Christoph Wolff, Jerome Roche, Graham Dixon, James R. Anthony and Malcolm Boyd

In 

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Leeman L. Perkins and Patrick Macey

In 

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Ernest H. Sanders, Leeman L. Perkins, Patrick Macey, Christoph Wolff, Jerome Roche, Graham Dixon, James R. Anthony and Malcolm Boyd

In 

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Herbert Heyde

This article discusses trends in organizing the production of European instruments from the 15th century to the mid-19th.

During the 15th century European instrument making entered a new phase with the rise of polyphonic instrumental music. Previously, folk and minstrel instruments had been made mostly by the players themselves. The intricacies of polyphonic music and the social context in which sophisticated instruments such as clavichords, trombones, lutes, and viols were played demanded craft refinement and specialization. The professional traditions of organ building and bell founding provided precedents upon which the new branches of trade could build. While the production of folk instruments continued as it had previously, the new, commercial approach to instrument making gradually evolved into two major forms, which were first observable in the processes of both bell founding and organ building. These forms were small craft-workshops and entrepreneurial businesses. These two forms sometimes intersected; small workshops would sometimes grow and develop into entrepreneurial businesses....

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Malcolm Boyd

In 

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(b Madrid, Nov 25, 1562; d Madrid, Aug 27, 1635). Spanish dramatist, virtual founder of the Spanish theatre and the first Spanish opera librettist. His Selva sin amor, La , performed at court before Philip IV on 18 December 1627, was a one-act ‘pastoral eclogue’, wholly sung to music (now lost) by Filippo Piccinini (a Bolognese musician in the employ of the Spanish royal chapel) and Bernardo Monanni (secretary of the Tuscan embassy in Madrid), staged in spectacular style by Cosimo Lotti. This is the earliest record of a wholly-sung drama in Spain, but Lope seems not to have written other such librettos, nor is there any record of any further such operas before the performance of Púrpura de la rosa, La by Hidalgo and Calderón de la Barca in Madrid in 1660. Since the composers and the stage designer of La selva were all Italian, Calderón’s claim that ...

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Kurt von Fischer, Gianluca D’Agostino, James Haar, Anthony Newcomb, Massimo Ossi, Nigel Fortune, Joseph Kerman and Jerome Roche

A poetic and musical form of 14th-century Italy; more importantly, a term in general use during the 16th century and much of the 17th for settings of various types and forms of secular verse. There is no connection between the 14th- and the 16th-century madrigal other than that of name; the former passed out of fashion a century before the term was revived. The later madrigal became the most popular form of secular polyphony in the second half of the 16th century, serving as a model for madrigals and madrigal-like compositions in languages other than Italian throughout Europe. It set the pace for stylistic developments that culminated in the Baroque period, particularly those involving the expressive relationship between text and music, and must be regarded as the most important genre of the late Renaissance.

Kurt von Fischer and Gianluca D’Agostino

The origin of the word ‘madrigal’, which appears in various forms in early sources (...

Article

Margaret Murata

(b Civita Castellana, bap. Nov 8, 1592; d Rome, Jan 21, 1665). Italian composer. He became a Roman citizen in 1614 and by 1619 was both priest and Doctor of Laws; he entered the household of Cardinal Ippolito Aldobrandini in 1621, though not specifically as a musician. The cardinal’s brother Giovanni Giorgio, prince of Rossano, commissioned Mazzocchi’s only surviving opera, La catena d’Adone (favola boscareccia, prol., 5, O. Tronsarelli), performed in Rome at the Palazzo Conti on 12 February 1626. After the cardinal’s death in 1638, Mazzocchi stayed in the service of his niece and sole heir, Olimpia Aldobrandini Borghese (later Pamfili).

Nothing is known of Mazzocchi’s musical training, nor is he ever mentioned as musico or maestro. His only known compositions before his opera are two canzonettas and a motet. If the composer Sigismondo d’India is to be believed, Mazzocchi was given the opera commission only after he himself fell ill and could not fulfil it (see Reiner). In fact d’India derided Mazzocchi’s inexperience and suggested that ...

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Motet  

Ernest H. Sanders, Leeman L. Perkins, Patrick Macey, Christoph Wolff, Jerome Roche, Graham Dixon, James R. Anthony and Malcolm Boyd

revised by Peter M. Lefferts

One of the most important forms of polyphonic music from about 1220 to 1750. No single set of characteristics serves to define it generally, except in particular historical or regional contexts. It originated as a liturgical trope but soon developed into the pre-eminent form of secular art music during the late Middle Ages. The medieval motet was a polyphonic composition in which the fundamental voice (tenor) was usually arranged in a pattern of reiterated rhythmic configurations, while the upper voice or voices (up to three), nearly always with different Latin or French texts, generally moved at a faster rate. In the first half of the 15th century the motet's liturgical ties were restored, and it continued to evolve by adapting a number of forms and styles borrowed in part from the chanson, tenor mass and, later, the madrigal. In the 16th century the motet achieved its classical synthesis in the context of the Franco-Flemish style of Josquin and his successors. Important vernacular subspecies developed later, particularly in England (...

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Lewis Lockwood, Noel O’Regan and Jessie Ann Owens

[‘Giannetto’]

(b probably at Palestrina, almost certainly between Feb 3, 1525 and Feb 2, 1526; d Rome, Feb 2, 1594). Italian composer. He ranks with Lassus and Byrd as one of the towering figures in the music of the late 16th century. He was primarily a prolific composer of masses and motets but was also an important madrigalist. Among the native Italian musicians of the 16th century who sought to assimilate the richly developed polyphonic techniques of their French and Flemish predecessors, none mastered these techniques more completely or subordinated them more effectively to the requirements of musical cogency. His success in reconciling the functional and aesthetic aims of Catholic church music in the post-Tridentine period earned him an enduring reputation as the ideal Catholic composer, as well as giving his style (or, more precisely, later generations’ selective view of it) an iconic stature as a model of perfect achievement....

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Marinella Pigozzi

(b Florence, April 6, 1571; d Florence, July 13, 1635). Italian architect, engineer and scene designer. After initial training from his father, the architect Alfonso Parigi (the elder), he entered the service of Bernardo Buontalenti in 1589, succeeding him in 1608 as architect and engineer to the Medici court, though he was already on the payroll from 1599. He oversaw all the works and surveying in the grand duchy, including the festive and dynastic displays, and so captured the interest of the Medici princes. His innovatory mastery of scene design soon acquired a European scope and reputation, thanks to contact with Inigo Jones, Joseph Furttenbach, Cosimo Lotti and Jacques Callot. In addition to designing displays, spectacles and entertainments in Florence, Parigi was also involved in operatic design, providing machines and ‘cloud’ for Rinuccini’s Festa dell’Agnolo Gabriello (1620). He was responsible for the machines and scenic perspectives for Marco da Gagliano’s ...