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Croatia  

Ex.2 Two-part song, Vinkovci, Slavonia; rec. S. Jankovíc (Žganec-Sremec, eds., 1951: 185)

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Sean Hallowell

Originally, a poem in which the passing of an individual is announced and communities to which the departed belongs are called to mourn.

Pioneered by French poets in aristocratic service, the déploration qua literary genre enjoyed a modest lifespan, with eight known works surviving from the 16th century. Longstanding custom, however, recognizes a musical tradition by the same name, one numbering 30 known compositions spanning the late 14th to late 16th centuries. Among composers the déploration ramified from a French mainstream into Spanish, Netherlandish, German, Italian, and English tributaries. Accordingly, déplorations are variably designated in sources by such terms as apotheosis, epicedion, monodia, epitaphium, lamentation, complainte, naenia, madrigale, greghesca, and elegy.

Use of the term “déploration” to denote a musical work in which a composer is commemorated may be traced to Ockeghem (d 1497). This musician, who spent almost a half-century in service to the French royal court, was memorialized by literary counterpart Guillaume Crétin in a poem of 412 lines. A frame-narrative necrology featuring a syncretic cast of characters (among them Orpheus and King David), Crétin’s déploration charges all who held Ockeghem dear with the duty of honoring “celluy qui”—according to Lady Music (another ...

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Leeman L. Perkins and Patrick Macey

In 

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Malcolm Boyd

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Kurt von Fischer, Gianluca D’Agostino, James Haar, Anthony Newcomb, Massimo Ossi, Nigel Fortune, Joseph Kerman, and Jerome Roche

A poetic and musical form of 14th-century Italy; more importantly, a term in general use during the 16th century and much of the 17th for settings of various types and forms of secular verse. There is no connection between the 14th- and the 16th-century madrigal other than that of name; the former passed out of fashion a century before the term was revived. The later madrigal became the most popular form of secular polyphony in the second half of the 16th century, serving as a model for madrigals and madrigal-like compositions in languages other than Italian throughout Europe. It set the pace for stylistic developments that culminated in the Baroque period, particularly those involving the expressive relationship between text and music, and must be regarded as the most important genre of the late Renaissance.

Kurt von Fischer and Gianluca D’Agostino

The origin of the word ‘madrigal’, which appears in various forms in early sources (...

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Motet  

Example 1 Salve mater fons hortorum/[CAPTIVI]TA[TEM] (I-FL Plut. 29.1 fols. 401v–402r)

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Ex.8 Du Fay: Ave regina celorum (iii)

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Ex.5 Machaut tenors

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Ex.3 Pes of GB-Ob 20, no.10

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Ex.11 Josquin: Miserere mei, Deus

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Example 2 Viderunt, par pou/Viderunt, por peu/Viderunt, por peu/VIDERUNT OMNES (F-Mof H 196, fols. 40v–41r)

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Ex.7 Du Fay: Ave regina celorum (ii)

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Ex.9 Weerbeke: Ave regina caelorum

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Ex.6 Power: Ave regina celorum

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Ex.12 Gombert: Media vita

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Ex.10