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Article

Stephen D. Winick

Government agency and archive. The American Folklife Center at the Library of Congress was created by the US Congress in 1976 to “preserve and present American Folklife,” the first time US federal law mandated the conservation of folk culture. The Center soon acquired the Archive of Folk Culture, which had been established by the Library of Congress’s music division in ...

Article

Katherine Meizel

American television show. Developed by the music executive Simon Fuller of 19 Entertainment, American Idol is one of more than 40 “Idol” programs that have been televised around the world, each designed for a particular nation or region. The show was first broadcast on British television as ...

Article

Katherine K. Preston and Michael Mauskapf

This article addresses the history of individuals and organizations devoted to the management of musical artists and their careers in the United States.

Musicians who toured the United States during the first half of the 19th century relied on individuals to manage their tours. Some of the most important early impresarios included William Brough, ...

Article

Loren Kajikawa

Record label based in San Francisco, California. Founded by Jon Jang and Francis Wong in 1987, it was inspired by African American musicians, including Charles Mingus, Max Roach, Sun Ra, and members of Chicago’s AACM, who turned to self-production as a way to maintain creative control of their work. With its name derived from the phrase “Asian American Improvised Music,” the label initially functioned as an outlet for recordings by Jang and pianist Glenn Horiuchi, two early leaders in ASIAN AMERICAN JAZZ. In ...

Article

Name adopted by various ballet companies in the early 20th century. See Ballet, §3, (i).

Ballet, §3(i): 20th century: Diaghilev and the Russian exiles to 1930

Benois, Alexandre

Debussy, Claude, §9: Theatre works and projects

Article

Banda  

Helena Simonett

Banda (band) is a generic Spanish term for a variety of ensembles consisting of brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments found throughout Latin America. Introduced in the mid-1800s, brass bands were a fixture of Mexico’s musical life in the late 19th century and flourished in both rural and urban areas. With the revolutionary movement (...

Article

Gerald Bordman and Stephanie Jensen-Moulton

American opera company. In 1878 a Boston newspaper, critical of the performances of Gilbert and Sullivan’s H.M.S. Pinafore that had been staged in the city, called for an “ideal” production. The singers’ agent Effie H. Ober responded by forming the “Ideals,” and staging a highly successful version of ...

Article

Cancon  

Scott Henderson

Canadian content regulations for commercial radio that were enacted in 1971. These introduced a requirement for commercial AM stations to play a percentage of Canadian songs each day, including set percentages for prime listening hours to prevent stations from limiting Canadian tracks to less lucrative overnight hours. Subsequent regulations have been put in place for FM stations with some flexibility on the established percentages based on the mandate of each licensee. For mainstream, commercial radio, the percentage was established at 25% in ...

Article

Nancy Yunwha Rao

Sponsored by the Chinese Six Companies Association, it was formed in 1911 by 13 Chinese teenagers in San Francisco and was the first Chinese Western-style marching band in America. Later its members created the Cathay Club, or Cathay Music Society, which fostered multiple bands and social activities, including a small Chinese instrument ensemble. Bookings ranged from the Orpheum Circuit, which involved tours to the Midwest and South under such names as the Chinese Military Band and the Chinese Jazz Band, to various world fairs, including the Panama Pacific International Exposition (...

Article

M. Montgomery Wolf

Nightclub founded by Hilly Kristal in New York in December 1973. It was located below the Palace Hotel, a flophouse on the Bowery in a rough and rundown section of the city. Following his own tastes, Kristal intended to host mostly acoustic Americana, but a few months later, the guitarist Tom Verlaine convinced Kristal to let his band Television play there. The club became a rare site of original rock in an era favoring either folk clubs or arena rock. It also became the physical center for the New York punk scene, which was emerging at the time, allowing Patti Smith, Blondie, the Ramones, and Talking Heads, among others, to hone their craft. Despite its dark, dirty interior, famously squalid bathrooms, and dangerous neighborhood, musicians loved CBGB for its fabulous sound system. By ...

Article

Sara Velez, Sanford A. Linscome and Stephanie Jensen-Moulton

An annual summer opera festival established in Central City, Colorado, in 1932. It is the second oldest such festival in the United States, with Chautauqua’s festival being the oldest. Most festival events are held in the beautifully restored Victorian jewel-box opera house (capacity 800) inaugurated in ...

Article

Tammy L. Kernodle

Although African American music has contained an undercurrent of resistance and transcendence from its beginnings, most associate these ideals with the manner in which black song traditions were used during the Civil Rights Movement, c1954–76. Freedom songs, or civil rights songs, were drawn from different genres and were used in myriad ways as movement activities diversified and spread....

Article

Jonas Westover

US organization formed in 1964 to promote and support Gospel music. As of 2011, the Gospel Music Association (GMA) comprises more than 4000 members, including performers, agents, church leaders, managers, retailers, and songwriters, among others. The association organizes the annual Dove Awards. Established in 1969...

Article

Bill C. Malone and Travis D. Stimeling

Country music variety show. Begun in November 1925, just weeks after Nashville radio station WSM began broadcasting, the program began as a noncommercial show called the WSM Barn Dance. It was renamed Grand Ole Opry in 1927, a reference to the grand opera often broadcast in Walter Damrosch’s program that preceded it. It is broadcast weekly and has become the longest continuously running radio show in the United States. It was the brain-child of announcer ...

Article

Carolyn Bryant

Founded in 1972, the organization seeks to facilitate learning about the art, craft, and science of lutherie. It was organized by a group of craftsmen to provide a forum for sharing information about building string instruments, including guitars of all types, mandolins, lutes, violins, and others. In ...

Article

Carolyn Bryant

Organizations devoted to a particular musical instrument or group of instruments. Groups state their purpose and goals in many different ways, but common ideas include fostering communication between members, providing a forum for the exchange of information and ideas, and promoting interest in and study of the instrument(s) to which the society is dedicated. Some societies emphasize the history of instruments, disseminating information about them, and preserving historic instruments. Others emphasize collecting or making instruments. A common theme is bringing together amateur and professional players or instrument makers of all experience levels....

Article

Sarah Deters Richardson

International organization established in 1971, dedicated to double reed players, instrument manufacturers, and enthusiasts. The society aims to enhance the art of double reed playing; encourage the performance of double reed literature; improve instruments, tools, and reed-making material; encourage the composition and arranging of music for double reeds; act as a resource for performers; assist teachers and students of double reed instruments; encourage cooperation and an exchange of ideas between the music industry and the society; and foster a world-wide communication between double reed musicians (IDRS Constitution, ...

Article

Sarah Deters Richardson

International organization dedicated to horn performance, teaching, composition, and research, and the preservation and promotion of the horn as a musical instrument. The society was formed in June 1970 at the Second International Horn Workshop, in Tallahassee, Florida. It began publishing a refereed journal, The Horn Call...

Article

Colette Simonot

North American concert tour and music festival for female artists. It was founded in 1996 by Canadian musician Sarah McLachlan, along with Dan Fraser and Terry McBride of Nettwerk Music and agent Marty Diamond. McLachlan had become increasingly frustrated by concert promoter and radio station policies which rarely featured two female musicians in a row. In response, she booked a North American tour with Paula Cole in ...

Article

Colette Simonot

Annual North American music festival. Lollapalooza was created by Perry Farrell, who aimed to assemble a musical roadshow in 1991 as a farewell tour for his band, Jane’s Addiction. Although Lollapalooza was closely tied to alternative music, from the beginning the festival featured a variety of genres, including punk, hip hop, and heavy metal. The ...