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Clive Brown

[Stossen].

The normal German equivalent of the Italian verb staccare (‘to separate or detach; to play staccato’); the noun Stoss was used to mean staccato. Like its Italian counterpart it implies not only separation but also, in many cases, accent. Stoss means literally a blow or shove and the verb means to push, shove or jab. The prefix ab- indicates ‘off’. J.G. Walther, in his Musicalisches Lexicon, 1732, made a distinction between staccato and stoccato deriving the one from staccare (Ger. entkleben, ablösen), and the other from stocco (‘a stick’; Ger. Stock), which he considered to imply that the note was pushed or jabbed (gestossen). Walther's etymology, whether accurate or not, emphasizes the dual meaning of the term staccato in German usage. It was often, especially in the context of keyboard playing, used merely to indicate that notes were to be shortened; thus Türk equated the noun ...

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James Tyler

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Robert E. Seletsky

(It.; Fr. pincé étouffé; Ger. Zusammenschlag).

A ‘crushed note’. C.P.E. Bach (1753) and F.W. Marpurg (1755), who provided the German translation Zusammenschlag, defined the acciaccatura as a non-harmonic note played a tone or semitone below any of the main notes in arpeggiated chords, and immediately released. In 18th-century German sources such as C.P.E. Bach's treatise, it was frequently indicated with an upward diagonal stroke through the stem between the harmonic members of the chord. In melodic usage, the same writers classed the unprepared, simultaneously struck dissonant 2nd followed by the release of the lower note as a form of mordent. The Italian theorists Francesco Gasparini (1708) and Francesco Geminiani (1749) reserved the term acciaccatura for dissonances a whole tone below the harmonic notes played during arpeggiation, but used the terms mordente (Gasparini) or tatto (Geminiani) when the dissonant note was a semitone below the main note. These writers were unclear about the necessity of releasing the non-harmonic notes of whole tone interval; but Geminiani stated that the ...

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Amoroso  

David Fallows

(It.: ‘loving’, ‘affectionate’, ‘amorous’)

A performance direction found throughout the 18th century. Rousseau (1768) equated it with the French tendrement, with the qualification that amoroso had ‘plus d'accent, et respire je ne sais pas quoi de moins fade et de plus passionné’ (‘more emphasis and is perhaps a little less insipid and more impassioned’). Other forms encountered include ...

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Bewegt  

David Fallows

(Ger.: ‘agitated’, ‘moved’; past participle of bewegen, ‘to move’)

A tempo mark sometimes used in the same sense as the Italian Agitato but also having further shades of meaning. For although etwas bewegt means ‘somewhat agitated’, Wagner gave the extremely steady Bridal Chorus in Lohengrin the tempo mark mässig bewegt, meaning simply ‘at a moderate speed’, and the exaggeratedly formal opening to ...

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Bruce Haynes

(Ger.: ‘chamber pitch’)

A general pitch standard in Germany. Although in modern usage ‘Kammerton’ implies a pitch of a′ = 440, the frequency of Cammerton has varied throughout history. Calling it ‘CammerThon’, Praetorius (Syntagma musicum, ii, 1618) used it as his reference pitch (‘rechte Thon’). In that period the Cammerton standard was about a′ = 465 (about a semitone higher than a′= 440), and it was common to most instruments of his time. With the arrival of new woodwind instruments from France during the second half of the 17th century, Cammerton descended a whole tone or more (see Pitch §I 2., (iii)). By about 1700 there were three general levels of Cammerton, at about a′ = 415, a′ = 403 and a′ = 390 (‘tief-Cammerton’ or ‘Opera-Ton’).

18th-century organists naturally tended to identify the level of Cammerton in relation to the pitch of the organs on which they played, which were generally tuned much higher (i.e. in ...

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Cédez  

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Cheute  

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Con  

Article

The Fingering of keyboard music with figures 1 to 5 for each hand, 1 standing for the thumb, a system in general use throughout the world today. The term was used in Britain in the 19th century in contrast to so-called English fingering (not, however, exclusively English), which provided for four fingers (marked 1 to 4) and a thumb (marked +)....

Article

David Hiley

[daseian]

A Western system of notation used in the 9th and 10th centuries. It was based on a set of signs deriving from the daseia of ancient Greek prosody, a symbol that indicated the rough breathing (‘h’ at the start of a word) and was originally written as, and later as a round sign '. The signs of dasian notation (the full set contains 18) are used in a group of treatises of the late 9th and 10th centuries, principally the Musica enchiriadis, Scholica enchiriadis and the Commemoratio brevis de tonis et psalmis modulandis (ed. Schmid). The spelling ‘dasia’ is used in these treatises. The intervals between the signs are clearly defined so that the musical examples in these treatises may be transcribed accurately. (For illustration, see Notation, §III, 1, ex.4; see also Notation, §II, 7 and Organum, §2.

H. Schmid, ed.: Musica et Scolica enchiriadis una cum aliquibus tractatulis adiunctis...

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Eilend  

David Fallows

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Bernarr Rainbow

An extremely elaborate solmization system, originally named the ‘Tonwort’ method. It was devised in 1892 by Carl Andreas Eitz (b Wehrstedt, nr Halberstadt, 25 June 1848; d Eisleben, 18 April 1924), a German mathematician and teacher of music at Eisleben. Designed to accommodate the chromatic idiom of the late 19th century, the method provided a separate syllabic note name for each diatonic, chromatic and enharmonic degree of the untempered scale. Using these names, the pupil was taught to identify and sing the notes concerned according to just intonation.

The basis of the system was a series of seven note names: bi, to, gu, su, la, fe and ni, permanently associated with the rising scale of C major. To these syllabic names were added two separate series of related names for the intervening semitones and enharmonic degrees. Diatonic semitones were allotted names which retained the vowel of the parent note (...

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The Fingering of keyboard music with figures 1 to 4 representing four fingers, and + the thumb, of each hand, a system used in England and elsewhere in the 19th century and now obsolete. The term contrasted with Continental fingering, which provides the figures 1 to 5 for each hand, 1 standing for the thumb, a system in general use throughout the world today....

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