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Howard Goldstein

A style of popular, usually male, singing. The word is Scottish in origin: ‘croyne’, meaning a loud, deep roar, became ‘croon’, a low, murmuring sound. In the 19th century the term was associated with lullabies, and in America particularly with those of ‘black mammies’. Hence, the injunction to ‘croon a tune’ appears in Schwartz, Young and Lewis’s 1918 song, ...


Robert B. Winans

(b 1808; d New Orleans, 1861). American minstrel performer. He was most famous for his entr’acte performances of Coal Black Rose, the first blackface comic lovesong, and Long Tailed Blue, the first song of the black dandy; both of these song types later became standard in the minstrel show, and both songs are in a simple musical style that was thought (mistakenly) to represent African American music. Dixon claimed authorship of these songs (and, less credibly, of ...