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Gabriel Banciu and Cristina Şuteu

[Angi István]

(b Ojdula, 16 Oct 1933) Romanian music aesthetician and musicologist. He is considered the founder of musical aesthetics in Romania. Ştefan Angi studied at Cluj-Napoca Conservatory (1953–8) where his teachers included Márkos Albert (music theory), Jodál Gabor (harmony), Max Eisikovits (counterpoint), Jagamas János (forms), Földes László (aesthetics), Lakatos István and Benkő András (music history), Zsurka Péter (violin), Ana Voileanu-Nicoară (chamber music), Antonin Ciolan (orchestral ensemble), and Szenik Ilona (folklore). He then studied at Lomonosov Moscow State University (1963–5), with the philosopher Valentin Ferdinandovich Asmus, where he graduated with a dissertation on Music and Affectivity and took the PhD in Romania in 1966. In 1958 he joined the academic staff of Cluj-Napoca Conservatory and between 1976 and 1986 was the dean of the Theoretic Faculty. He was awarded the ‘Cultural Merit’ medal (1970) and the ‘Romanian Academy Award’ (1977). Angi is a permanent correspondent on serial radio broadcasts, has published more than 100 articles, and has attended 70 conferences – on musicology, philosophy, and aesthetics....


C. Matthew Balensuela

This article focusses on anonymous music theory texts written during the Western Middle Ages and early Renaissance (to about 1600), currently assumed to be anonymous and not closely associated with a known person, which have been edited and published in modern times.

Numerous artefacts of music have survived to modern times without clearly identifying their author. These include musical works, pictures, court records, theoretical treatises, and other documents. The corpus of anonymous theoretical works, therefore, comprises only a portion of all anonymous works in the history of music. In music theory, anonymous sources primarily span the time from antiquity to the early Renaissance, when texts were copied by hand. After the advent of printing, few theoretical works were transmitted anonymously.

Several groups of anonymous treatises are excluded from this article, such as works of ancient Greek, Byzantine, or Arabic music theory, works closely associated with named writers, and unpublished anonymous works. In addition, several significant anonymous works, such as the ...



John Stevens

A French 13th-century chante-fable. The only surviving example of the genre, its sole source is F-Pn fr.2168. It tells, in prose, the romantic story of the love of a count’s son for a foreign girl-captive. Interspersed in the narrative are verse sections (laisses) written in lines with equal numbers of syllables, all sung to the same double phrase of melody (a relic of narrative singing; ...


Cristina Şuteu

(b Sibiu, 4 Nov 1956) Romanian musicologist and music aesthetician. He studied at Cluj-Napoca Conservatory (1976–81) where he joined the academic staff (in 1996), earned a doctorate on music aesthetics (1999), was pro-rector (2008–12), and became president of the Senate in 2012.

Owing to his multiple interests Banciu has been recognized as a member of several professional music associations (starting in 2002), an evaluator on many national committees and music competitions (starting in 2006), a member of the board of directors at the Union of Romanian Composers and Musicologists (starting in 2014), the vice-president of the ‘Performing Arts Commission’ within the National Council for the Certification of University Titles, Diplomas, and Certificates (C.N.A.T.D.C.U., starting in 2016), a peer reviewer on journals (Musicology Papers, Musicology Today, Studia Musica), and an organizer of international conferences (The International Congress on Musical Signification in ...


Petr Macek

(b Šternberk, 22 April 1964). Czech musicologist. He studied musicology with Jiří Vysloužil, Jiří Fukač, and Miloš Štědroň at Brno University. Then he worked at the Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague where he taught and researched until 1999. Between 1991 and 2002 he also taught at the Palacký University, Olomouc. In 1998 he started working at the Masaryk University, Brno (head of the Institute of Musicology, 1999–2004; vice-rector 2004–11; rector starting in 2011).

Bek’s scholarly specializations include music sociology, history of music after 1750, and music analysis. He is a co-director of the online Český hudební slovník osob a institucí (‘Czech Music Dictionary of Persons and Institutions’), and co-ordinator of RIPM for the Czech Republic (2001–3). He also participates actively in the international musicological colloquia that form part of the international music festival, Moravian Autumn, each year in Brno.

(selective list)...




Peter Manuel

A music and dance genre of the Punjab. The term is also used for loosely related modern popular music styles based in South Asia and Great Britain. Traditional bhangra (bhāgṛā), associated in particular with the vernal Vaiśākhī festival, features vigorous male dancing accompanied by ḍhol (barrel drum) and occasional sung verses (boliyā). In India the term bhangra also came to denote syncretic popular Punjabi songs disseminated initially via films, but subsequently on cassettes, fusing traditional Punjabi modes, melodies, and rhythms with modern Western-influenced ones. In the mid-1980s bhangra emerged as a parallel popular music and dance phenomenon among South Asians, especially people of Punjabi descent, in Great Britain. Stylistically UK-based bhangra de-emphasizes lyrics and often reflects a greater degree of syncretization. It combines characteristically Punjabi elements with sampling techniques, drum machines and influences drawn from electronic dance music and, most prominently, Jamaican dance-hall reggae. By the early 1990s the innovative ...


Lodewijk Muns

(b Nijmegen, Netherlands, Aug 4, 1812; d Delft, Netherlands, Nov 1, 1896). Dutch musician, music historian, and instrument collector. The son of a musician and instrument seller, he studied flute and violin at the conservatory of The Hague. After positions as an orchestra musician in the Court Chapel and the French Opera of The Hague, with the Casino Paganini in Paris, and as a conductor at the opera of Metz, he returned in 1841 to his native city, where he conducted several choral societies. In 1853 he was appointed city music director in Delft.

Boers was a pioneer of the study of early music in the Netherlands. He started collecting musical instruments about 1870, with an emphasis on the work of Dutch builders. Most of his research on organology has remained sketchy and is unpublished. In 1899 the major part of his collection of some 130 instruments (including a Couchet harpsichord of ...


Thomas B. Payne

(Lat.: ‘songs of Beuren’)

The title given by Johann Andreas Schmeller to his complete edition (1847) of the poems in an early 13th-century German manuscript (now D-Mbs Clm 4660) that had come in 1803 from the Benedictine abbey of Benediktbeuern, about 50 km south of Munich. Since then the manuscript has been known by that title even though it is now generally agreed that it probably did not originate in Benediktbeuren and may have come from Seckau in Carinthia or the Tyrol. The manuscript is perhaps the most important source for Latin secular poetry of the 12th century; there are in addition some Latin sacred lyrics, German poems, liturgical plays and a satirical ‘Gamblers' Mass’. Several of the poems have music in unheighted neumes – a style of notation that is relatively rare at so late a date. The melodies must, for the most part, be reconstructed from concordances in the St Martial and Notre Dame repertories. Orff's cantata ...


Howard Mayer Brown

A manuscript or printed book containing principally chansons (i.e. lyric poetry in French) or monophonic or polyphonic settings of such poetry. The most important medieval chansonniers date from the 13th century and contain the monophonic songs of the troubadours and trouvères (for summary list of principal monophonic chansonniers, and illustration, see Sources, MS, §III). Apart from Machaut’s complete works, secular music was mixed with sacred music in 14th-century manuscripts. From about 1420 the two genres began to appear in separate sources, sacred music in large choirbooks and secular music in small chansonniers, many of them prepared for princes, courtiers, or other well-born music lovers or bibliophiles. Chansonniers, some of them elegantly decorated, were compiled in Italy and Germany as well as in France and the Low Countries during the 15th century, but no matter where they were written, they contain mostly French polyphonic chansons. Obviously French culture was foremost in courtly circles everywhere in western Europe at the time, at least as far as secular music was concerned. The chansonniers are true miscellanies, however, and also reflect local tastes and customs. Along with chansons they include song motets in Latin, compositions with Italian, German, Spanish, English or Dutch texts, and even a few compositions apparently originally conceived for instruments. Summary lists of the principal 15th-century chansonniers appear in a number of studies (see Droz and Piaget, Atlas, and Fallows), and in various modern editions of complete chansonniers (e.g. Perkins and Garey, and Brown)....


Marie-Barbara Le Gonidec

(b Grenoble, France, 29 Feb 1928). French ethnomusicologist and organologist. She holds a doctorate from the University of Paris X Nanterre and was assistant professor at the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle in Paris. In 1964 Dournon co-founded the Barthélémy Boganda National Museum in Bangui, Central African Republic, where she conducted research until 1967. In charge of the department of ethnomusicology at the Musée de l’Homme from 1967 to 1993, she administered a collection of nearly 8000 instruments; in 1985 she renovated its permanent exhibition hall dedicated to music. Her principal research dealt with organology and instrument classification, resulting in various exhibitions and programs. Her numerous publications include the catalogue of jew’s harps at the Musée de l’Homme (1978) and the Guide pour la collecte des instruments de musique traditionnels for UNESCO (1981), translated into English and Spanish. Dournon participated in or produced numerous recordings, such as one on the flutes of Rajasthan that won the Grand prix du disque of the Charles Cros Academy in ...


Nigel Simeone

(Ger.: ‘festival-writing’)

A publication of essays and other contributions usually issued to celebrate the birthday of a distinguished scholar, as a memorial volume, or on the occasion of an important anniversary. While Festschriften are described by a German word (and the custom of publishing them began in Germany), the phenomenon of producing such collections is an international one, with numerous series or individual volumes in English, French, Italian, and, indeed, in almost every other language used for scholarly writing. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the earliest use of the word in an English-language publication was An English Miscellany (Oxford, 1901), a collection of essays presented to the literary scholar F.J. Furnivall on his 75th birthday, which was subtitled ‘a Festschrift’.

The Festschrift has been a feature of music literature since the 19th century and in addition to honouring academics, Festschriften have also been dedicated to the work of composers, performers and others involved in music such as librarians and publishers. The scope and usefulness of such publications varies widely, and the contents are sometimes too disparate to make a satisfying whole. But in many cases Festschriften contain a coherent group of contributions (sometimes in more than one language) on, for example, a particular aspect of music or musicology, or a particular composer. Others are affectionate but usually less enduring collections of short tributes from friends and colleagues, more in the tradition of the Birthday Book....



Wesley K. Morgan

(Ger.: ‘songbook’)

A term applied to certain 15th- and 16th-century German collections of polyphonic songs or short lyric poems that were usually sung. F.W. Arnold was perhaps the first to use it in an article, ‘Das Locheimer Liederbuch nebst der Ars organisandi von Conrad Paumann’ (Jahrbücher für musikalische Wissenschaft, ii, 1867, pp.1–234), although the term ‘Liederhandschrift’ was more common, particularly when referring to the sources of Minnesang. It is not at all clear, however, the extent to which the term ‘Liederbuch’ was used during or before the 19th century. It does not appear in the manuscripts of those collections most commonly associated with it such as the Lochamer Liederbuch and the Glogauer Liederbuch; moreover, 15th- and 16th-century manuscripts and publications frequently use in their titles ‘Lied’, ‘Liedlein’, ‘Gesänge’, ‘geistliche Gesänge’ etc., but not ‘Liederbuch’.

The term is also applied to collections of poetry that could be sung or were likely to have been sung (e.g. Das Liederbuch des Jakob Kebitz) or collections that contained some poetry with music and some without (e.g. Das Liederbuch des Hartman Schedel)....


Rita Benton

revised by Jennifer A. Ward

[RISM; International Inventory of Musical Sources; Internationales Quellenlexikon der Musik]

An international project to document the locations of musical sources worldwide. The inventory, generally known as RISM from its French title, is jointly sponsored by the International Musicological Society and the International Association of Music Libraries, Archives and Documentation Centres. RISM was founded in 1952 and was the first of such cooperative international music bibliography projects, joined later by Répertoire International de Littérature Musicale (founded in 1966), Répertoire International d’Iconographie Musicale (1971), and Répertoire International de la Presse Musicale (1980). The sources catalogued include manuscript and printed music, libretti, and writings about music, divided into two categories, Series A and B. Series C is a directory of music repositories, some of whose material is listed in Series A and B. RISM’s publications are in print and online and serve musicologists, librarians, students, performers, and music antiquarians.

The project had its beginnings in Robert Eitner’s fundamental publications for the location of musical source material: ...