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Laurence Libin

(fl 1670–80). English luthier, active in London. His only extant instrument, a bass viol, is labelled ‘William Addison in Long Alley Over Against Moorfields 1670’, near the workshops of the contemporary viol makers Richard Meares and George Miller. Addison’s viol bears elaborate geometric inlay, including on the back a stylized heart pierced by arrows, and on the carved soundtable a fleur-de-lis. The unusually large soundholes are closer to the middle than normal. The pegbox, ornamented with ivory studs, is surmounted by a carving of Hercules. A ‘William Addis’, presumably the same man, was recorded on the Strand in ...

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John Whenham

(b 1623–8; d Bologna, 1699, before 28 Jan). Italian singer, composer and instrument maker. He was an Augustinian monk who was employed from about 1649 as a soprano castrato at the Este court at Modena. On 13 November 1660 he was appointed to the choir of S Petronio, Bologna, with a stipend of 50 lire a month; he was discharged on 24 April 1662 but rejoined on 25 July 1663. In October 1665 he returned to Modena, where he succeeded Marco Uccellini as choirmaster of the cathedral. He vacated this post in November 1673 and by early 1674 was again living at Bologna. Between 1677 and 1681 he served as a singer in the cappella of Duke Francesco II of Modena. In 1685 he was made a member of the Accademia Filarmonica, Bologna, and seems to have spent his last years in or near that city. He wrote to the Duke of Modena in ...

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Charles Beare

revised by Patrizio Barbieri

(b St Nikolaus in Kaltern, March 28, 1621; d Bolzano [Bozen], Feb 7, 1712). Tyrolean violin maker, mainly active in Bolzano. In 1665–6 he worked in Rome for the luthiers Martin Artz (1665) and Andrea Portoghese (1666). Later he might have had his own workshop there, according to a violin labelled ‘Matthias Albano fece in Roma 1668’. In 1697 two Albani violins were inventoried among the four left by the Roman Carlo Mannelli (known as ‘del violino’); in the same year, again in Rome, the violinist and composer John Ravenscroft left five violins, all by ‘Mattheo Albon’.

Many violins, mostly of ordinary 18th-century German manufacture, bear false Albani labels, and his name was for a long time misused by unscrupulous dealers. Albani did not marry until 1671, and since after his death his two sons, Michael and Joseph, made instruments, it is possible that they were partly or almost entirely responsible for much of the work supposed to be by their father. In any case, the Albani influence was strong among 18th-century Tyrolean makers, especially on the Jais family of Bolzano and on Mayr and his fellow members of the Salzburg school. Albani in Bolzano, Joannes Tononi in Bologna, and Kaiser and Goffriller in Venice all emerged in northeastern Italy in the later 17th century, but it is not known who taught whom....

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Laurence Libin

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Laurence Libin

[Marchioni, Nicolo ]

(fl Bologna, Italy 1662–1752). Italian violin maker. He had no connection with the Cremonese Amati family, but is sometimes said to have been a pupil of Giovanni Guidanti; this has not been substantiated. He entered the priesthood in 1687 and apparently set up a workshop about 1718, the date of his earliest known label. His instruments, in some respects influenced by Guidanti’s teacher Tononi, are conservative in method and inconsistent in style, for example in the varied placement of their soundholes. Dom Nicolo’s fairly prolific workshop doubtless employed several assistants, most likely his brother and nephews, but the idiosyncratic carving of the scrolls and placement of large position pins appear characteristic of his hand. The best of his violins, while not equal to the finest Italian craftsmanship, are of high quality....

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Charles Beare

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John Dilworth

(d 1685). English violin maker. He worked in Oxford at the end of the 17th century. The baptismal record of his first child in 1672 refers to him as ‘Mr Baker the fidell maker’, possibly the earliest reference to the profession in England. A cello attributed to the same year is thought to be the earliest surviving English cello, and in addition a small viola still in virtually original condition, once in the possession of the Oxford Music School and bearing a facsimile label of 1685, the year of his death, tells us much about the working practices of early English violin makers. The form of the instruments reflects Brescian patterns of more than 50 years earlier, with full archings and occasionally double purfling, but is probably derived more directly from the work of the Tyrolean-born violin maker Jacob Rayman, who worked in London from 1620 to 1650...

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Edward Charles Pepe

(fl Mexico, early 17th century). Spanish organ builder working in New Spain (Mexico). Bal, a Franciscan who in 1603 had immigrated to Michoacán from Aragón, came to be held in such high regard throughout the vice-royalty that the capitular acts of Mexico City Cathedral dated 17 May 1610 state: ‘he is the most qualified … of [all] those in this kingdom’. In 1611 Bal was enlisted to repair the cathedral’s two organs (still in the ‘primitive’ building since the current cathedral building was not occupied until 1625). One Gaspar Sánchez was sub-contracted to construct 275 missing pipes—a good indication of prevailing conditions since the two organs together likely had only 14 to at most 20 registers, or 750 to 1050 pipes. (Agustín de Santiago built the small organ in 1599–1600 —no information about it survives—and repaired the large organ at the same time.) Bal planned to take two to three weeks to tune and repair the large organ and to tune the small organ, but had to return in ...

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Jeannie Campbell

(bap. Edinburgh, Scotland, Dec 5, 1680; d Edinburgh, Sept 1753). Highland Scottish turner, evidently a bagpipe maker. In 1712 he made billiard balls for the officer in charge of Edinburgh Castle. On all the birth records of children born to Barclay and his wife Elizabeth Arbuthnet in Edinburgh parish, 1712–24, he was described as a turner. He does not appear in any apprentice rolls or in the Edinburgh burgess rolls. In 1744 ‘Adam Barclay turner’ was listed with several other Edinburgh burgesses appointed as an assize for a trial. No instruments of his are known and nothing is known about his pipe making apart from the information contained in a receipt of 1748 found among the Clan Donald papers. This is a payment from Sir James McDonald to Adam Barclay of £3—3 on 19 Sept 1748 ‘To a sett of Hyland Pipes of cocawood mounted with ivory’.

J. Campbell...

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[Caspar Bartholin Secundus ]

(b Copenhagen, Sept 10, 1655; d ?Copenhagen, June 11, 1738). Danish anatomist, doctor of medicine, and polymath. Scion of a famous family of doctors and natural philosophers, he began medical studies with his father in 1671 and three years later was appointed professor of philosophy by King Christian IV. He then travelled for several years, and working in Paris with the anatomist Joseph Guichard Duverney, he first described ‘Bartholin’s glands’ in a cow. Returning to Copenhagen, he took up medical practice and taught medicine and anatomy. In 1678 his father conferred on him the doctorate in medicine. Among his writings on various scientific subjects, in De tibiis veterum, et earum antiquo usu libri tres (Amsterdam, 1677, 1679) he discussed the wind instruments of antiquity. Like many of his publications this one was based mostly on previous authors’ work rather than first-hand research, but it was influential, for example being cited uncritically by Filippo Bonanni (...

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Anne Beetem Acker

(bap. London, England, Jan 1, 1685; d London, England, by 1735). English spinet and harpsichord maker. His father, also Thomas, was a butcher. He was apprenticed to Stephen Keene from 1 Aug 1699 for seven years and his initials (TB) appear in a Keene spinet of 1705. Barton became a freeman of the Joiners’ Company in Aug 1706 and moved to the neighbouring parish of St Martin Outwich in 1708, the same year in which he became the master of John Ladyman, and in which his first son, also Thomas, was born. With Cawton Aston he made a bentside spinet dated 1709, indicating at least a brief partnership. Barton spinets seem normally to have had a continuously curved tail instead of the common mitred tail. Styles of keyboards (ebony naturals with either solid ivory or skunktail accidentals) vary. Based on surviving examples (e.g. spinet of 1730, US.W.si), Barton was apparently one of the first spinet makers, along with Hitchcock, to expand the compass to five octaves (...

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Charles Foster

Double-reed wind-cap aerophone, illustrated in M. Praetorius, Syntagma musicum, ii, Sciagraphia (Wolfenbüttel, 1620), pl.XIII, alongside a consort of crumhorns. No other description or example is known. The wind cap, turnings, and fingerholes resemble those of the extended bass crumhorn illustrated, while the lower section has four keys covered by a large fontanelle, as in the ‘Basset oder Tenor Pommer’ illustrated in pl.XI of Praetorius. Baines argued that the Bassett: Nicolo resembles the instrument referred to in the Cassel inventory of 1613 as ‘ein lang Strack basset zu den Krumbhörner’. Praetorius is known to have worked at Cassel both before and after the date of this inventory. A reconstruction by Charles Foster (1991) after the illustration produced an instrument with the same range as an extended bass crumhorn, fully diatonic for the range of a 12th from C. Unlike an extended-bass crumhorn, it does not require the presetting of sliders for its lowest notes and it provides a more resonant bass....

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Niall O’Loughlin

(fl London, 1643–80). English trumpet maker and court trumpeter. A medallion, dated by Byrne to 1643, shows ‘SIMON BEAL AET SVAE 28A’ holding a trumpet with a distinctive three-lobed ball on the bell pipe, possibly the earliest evidence of this English feature. Beale is known from two references in Pepys’s diary and other contemporary documents. He was said to work in Suffolk Street, London. In 1655 he supplied trumpets for a state occasion. His name appears in court records from the time of his appointment in June 1660 as a King’s Guard until February 1680, when his name appeared in a petition against one Joseph Wheeler, another trumpeter. His activities before 1660 are not clear, but Pepys stated that Beale had been one of Oliver Cromwell’s guards. He is reported to have made the tuba stentorphonica (‘speaking trumpet’), invented in 1670 by Sir Samuel Morland. In September 1675...

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Ugo Ravasio

(b Maclodio, nr Brescia, c1580; d Brescia, after 1661). Italian violin and cittern maker. He moved to Brescia late in the 16th century, and he is mentioned there as a cittern and violin maker in city records between 1634 and 1661. No extant instrument can definitely be attributed to him. A richly ornamented lute by Benti was reported by De Piccolellis (Liutai antichi e moderni, 1885) and others as existing in the collection of the museum of the Paris Conservatoire. This is in fact a cittern: Sacconi later attributed it to Stradivari, but it is now thought to be by Girolamo Virchi. Benti's instruments were highly prized by his contemporaries, and Tartini is said to have praised one of his violins for its remarkable sonority.

DBI (A.M. Monterosso Vacchelli) G. Livi: I liutai bresciani (Milan, 1896) U. Ravasio: ‘Il fenomeno cetera in area bresciana’, ...

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(b Reggio nell’Emilia, before 1675; d ?Ferrara, after 1694). Italian writer on wind instruments, cornettist and composer. A few biographical details are in his correspondence with the princes of Este, preserved in the Modena state archive. He was educated in Reggio nell’Emilia at the Servite convent and joined the Servite order; after studying away from home (possibly in Bologna, according to Cavicchi) he returned to Reggio nell’Emilia, then went to Ferrara in 1675 and lived in the Servite convent there. He was a musician at Ferrara Cathedral and a cornett virtuoso at the Accademia dello Spirito Santo. His Compendio musicale, its foreword dating from 1677, survives as a manuscript ( I-REm ). Dedicated to his patron, Abbot Ferrante Bentivoglio, it was probably intended for publication; a postscript of 1694 implies that it was not printed because of his patron’s death. It is mostly rather conservative; its significance lies in the detailed instructions on playing the recorder, the flageolet and especially the cornett, as practically no other wind instrument tutor is known from Italy or France for the period between ...

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Rob Van Acht

( b Kampen, 1666; d Amsterdam, 1715). Dutch maker of woodwind instruments . He was a pupil of Jan de Jager, whose son Frederik assisted him between 1694 and 1707, and whose niece he eventually married. Boekhout lived in Amsterdam, at first on Keizersgracht and from 1713 on Kerkstraat. He made recorders, flutes, oboes and bassoons, but was best known for his bass recorders. The ...

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Denzil Wraight

(fl Florence, Italy, 1626–41). Italian harpsichord and virginal maker. Son of Vincenzo, who was also an instrument maker, he came from Prato to Florence, where he worked in the via dei Servi. Two single-manual harpsichords and eight virginals are connected with his name, but the attribution of two of the virginals has not been confirmed. The 1627 harpsichord (GB.E.u) was crudely rebuilt by Franciolini with three manuals; the original compass was C/E–c″′ with F ♭, G ♭, d ♭, a ♭, d ♭′, a ♭′ as split sharps, and two unidentified naturals below C/E. The 1631 harpsichord (US.NH.y) was more conventional with a C/F–f″″ compass and two 8′ registers. Of the virginals, most were made in rectangular form, and have the common compass of C/E–f″′, but four were also provided with additional split sharps, similar to the 1627 harpsichord. Bolcioni is thus one of the significant sources for this type of keyboard in the early 17th century....

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(d 1641). Italian harpsichord maker. He originated in Cortona but spent all of his working life in Rome. He was employed at various times by three nephews of Pope Urban VIII to maintain and supply harpsichords, and also to work on chamber organs. His successor in these establishments was Girolamo Zenti. Five surviving harpsichords (only two of which are signed) can reliably be attributed to Boni. Of the two virginals bearing his name (both in the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC), only the 1602 instrument might be his work, the 1617 virginals having been made by Bolcioni (see Wraight, 1997). His instruments are chiefly of interest as examples of the Italian practice of using split sharps to provide enharmonically equivalent notes (see Enharmonic keyboard, esp.). One harpsichord of about 1619 (private collection) also has divided natural keys in the bass octave, being the earliest example of this....