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Article

Howard Schott

(Leslie )

(b Kingston-on-Thames, May 30, 1938). English maker of fortepianos, clavichords, and harpsichords. He was educated at the Guildhall School of Music, London, where he specialized in keyboard instruments, studying the piano with Frank Laffitte, the harpsichord with Celia Bizony, and the organ with Harold Dexter. After some years as a music teacher, during which he also undertook some restorations of early keyboard instruments, he became curator of the Colt Clavier Collection, Bethersden, Kent (1963–73). While continuing to teach and perform, Adlam studied the craft of instrument building at the Feldberg workshop in Sevenoaks. After further years of restoration experience he began producing new instruments in 1971, and in November of that year formed a partnership with the pianist and collector Richard Burnett. The Adlam–Burnett restoration and production workshops were in the grounds of Finchcocks, a large 18th-century house in Goudhurst, Kent (GB.GO.f), which now contains an extensive collection of antique keyboard instruments. Adlam–Burnett’s production was modelled closely on historical prototypes. While it included reproductions of Flemish and French harpsichords, emphasis was placed on the 18th-century piano and clavichord, instruments that had not enjoyed so extensive a revival as the harpsichord. Adlam has contributed on the subject of harpsichord restoration to ...

Article

Hermann Fischer

(b Göttingen, April 28, 1930). German organ builder. Ahrend studied in Göttingen with Paul Ott from 1946 until 1954, before opening a workshop in Leer, East Friesland, with his partner Gerhard Brunzema. After intensive study of surviving historical organs, Ahrend and Brunzema developed a special interest in the north German mechanical-action tradition and adopted its methods. From the beginning they divided their activities between the careful restoration of historical instruments and the construction of exemplary new organs. They often collaborated with leading performers of early music, and their groundbreaking work gained an international reputation. 67 organs were built and restored between 1954 and 1971, largely in northern Europe. In 1962 both partners received the State Prize for craftsmanship in Lower Saxony. In January 1972 Brunzema left the firm to pursue his own career in Canada; Ahrend continued his work in Germany.

Important restorations include instruments at Rysum (...

Article

José López-Calo

(b Gauteriz de Arteaga, Vizcaya, Sept 25, 1869; d Barcelona, March 19, 1948). Spanish organ builder. He began his career as an apprentice in the workshops of Aquilino Amezúa in Barcelona in 1885 and was active for more than 50 years. In 1895, on the retirement of Amezúa, Alberdi became director of the firm, and in 1896 the owner. His sons, Antonio and Luis Alberdi Aguirrezábal, assisted him in the workshop, which was the most productive in Spain, building nearly 200 organs (in particular those at the monastery of Montserrat, the Jesuit church in Madrid, and the cathedrals of Gerona and Santiago). Alberdi’s construction methods were extremely advanced: he incorporated many of the best techniques of the time and invented others. He always used mixed mechanical systems and was especially noted for systems without sliding valves; later he abandoned troublesome pneumatic machinery and utilized the possibilities of electricity. He always used the best available methods and systems. Organs from his workshop were exported to South America and the Philippines....

Article

Hans Klotz

(b Stuttgart, May 12, 1938; d 1984). German organ builder. Born into a family of organ builders once active in the vicinity of Waldhut, he was trained by the firm of Walcker, followed by Rieger in Schwarzach (Vorarlberg), for whom he didSeit 1960 war er bei Montage- und Intonationsarbeiten für Rieger ua in den USA, Kanada und Haiti tätig. installation and voicing. From 1962 to 1964 he worked for Verschueren Orgelbouw in Heythueysen, Netherlands, then again at Rieger, where he worked on organs for the Freiburg cathedral and the Jakobskirche in Rothenburg ob der Tauber. 1966 folgte die Meisterprüfung und 1969 schließlich die Gründung der eigenen Werkstatt in Lindau/Bodensee. He then studied at the Meisterschule in Ludwigsburg, where he passed his examinations in 1966. After working in Austria, Switzerland, Holland, and the USA, in 1969 he founded his own business in Lindau (Lake Constance) under the name of Albiez-Orgelbau. He built organs exclusively with slider chests and tracker action, using solid wood, never plastic. The firm built more than 60 new organs, including those at the Catholic church, Bischofszell, Switzerland (...

Article

William Waterhouse

( b 1872; d Switzerland, Jan 1938). Italian flute maker, flautist and composer . He was a flautist at La Scala, Milan, from 1897. In 1910 he invented his ‘Albisiphon’, a vertically-held, Boehm-system bass flute in C, with a T-shaped head, which he described in his Albisiphon: flauto ottava bassa (Milan, 1910). It was used by, among others, Mascagni in Parisina (1913), and Zandonai in Melenis (1912) and Francesca da Rimini (1914). The Dayton Miller Collection (Library of Congress, Washington, DC) possesses two models of an ‘albisiphon baritono’ in C and a tenor in F. There is also an example of another invention which Miller termed ‘half flute in C’ (that part of a regular flute played by the left hand, with a wooden handle for right hand) for which Albisi composed a concerto. He also made flutes in collaboration with the Milanese maker Luigi Vanotti in about ...

Article

Robert E. Eliason

(b Holland, MA, Sept 24, 1815; dc1905). American brass instrument maker. About 1853 he designed a very efficient rotary valve, featuring flattened windways, string linkage, and enclosed stops. This valve was very successful in the USA during the second half of the 19th century. Other makers who adopted the Allen valve included B.F. Richardson, D.C. Hall, and B.F. Quinby, all of whom had at one time worked with Allen; Henry Lehnert, who worked in Boston for a time before moving to Philadelphia; and E. Glier of Cochecton, New York.

Allen began making brass instruments about 1838 in Sturbridge, Massachusetts, a short distance from his birthplace. He moved to Boston in 1842 and is known to have worked in Norwich, Connecticut, from 1846 to 1849; in 1852 he returned to Boston. He is known to have made at least one keyed bugle early in his career, and a number of instruments with double-piston Vienna valves. During the late 1850s in Boston his flat-windway valve won respect among leading musicians and his instruments received favourable comment at mechanics exhibitions. From ...

Article

Charles Beare

(b Cornwall, England, 1848; dc1905). English bow maker. He worked for W.E. Hill & Sons from about 1880 until 1891. During this time he made many bows marked with the brand of his employers, some of them with exquisitely decorative mountings. He also repaired and modernized old sticks. On leaving Hill’s he continued to make bows, branding them ‘S. ALLEN’; he made at least one double bass as well. Some players complain that his violin bows are too ‘whippy’, but strong sticks were apparently not highly regarded by players at that time. He earned his reputation mainly through his cello bows: patterned in most respects after Tourte, they are medium to heavy in weight, of the strongest pernambuco wood, and in every way ideal for the modern cellist. His sticks are almost always octagonal....

Article

Hugh Davies

[pseud. of André Vernier]

(b Joeuf, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Feb 27, 1915; d Nov 10, 1992). French poet, painter, instrument maker, and inventor of board games. In 1948 he created a brand of poetry, métapoésie, developed from the lettrisme of Isidore Isou (introduced in 1946), which concentrates on sound without semantic content. In 1963 at Trésauvaux, Meuse, he began the construction of 15 koto-like musical instruments in three families, all of which are struck with small sticks: the pantophones have one or two convex bridges and about 12 strings which, in addition to being struck, can be plucked, or bowed with one or two bows; the métaphones have up to four flat bridges and use about 18 large rubber bands as ‘strings’; and the plectrophones have two flat bridges and about 20 strings. Not tuned to equal temperament, these instruments were used for improvisation, often to accompany performances of métapoésie. Vernier claimed that the ...

Article

Jaak Liivoja-Lorius

(b Hanwell, Middlesex, UK, Sept 16, 1949). English bow maker. He served his apprenticeship with W.E. Hill & Sons (1966–71) and remained with the firm until 1978. His post-Hill bows retain many elements of the Hill style although the heads tend to be slightly smaller. He uses a gold laurel-wreath inlay for his gold and tortoise-shell mounted bows....

Article

Ole Olesen

( b Varde, Dec 17, 1904; d Copenhagen, June 5, 1980). Danish organ builder . He was apprenticed in 1926 to Marcussen & Søn in Åbenrå, and only five years later was appointed managing director of the firm’s Copenhagen division. In 1963 he founded his own workshop in Copenhagen, and under his own name built many distinguished and characteristic instruments based on the ideals he had developed during the preceding decades. He was one of the pioneers and theoreticians of the Danish Organ Reform Movement; he took a special interest in organ architecture, and always preferred to design his own instruments in order to create what he described as ‘an intimate coherence between aural and visual architecture’. Examples of his work are the organs at the church of Our Saviour, Copenhagen (rebuild, 1965); the church of Gustavus Adolfus, Helsingborg, Sweden (1968); St Olai’s Cathedral, Helsingør (1969...

Article

Astor  

Niall O’Loughlin

English and American firm of instrument makers, publishers and dealers. The two founders were the sons of Jacob Astor, a merchant of Mannheim. George [Georg] (Peter) Astor (b Waldorf [now Walldorf], nr Heidelberg, April 28, 1752; d London, Dec 1813), after an initial visit to London, decided to establish a business there with his brother John [Johann] Jacob Astor (b Waldorf, July 17, 1763; d New York, 29/March 30, 1848). This operated as George & John Astor at 26 Wych Street c 1778–83. In 1783 John left for the USA to sell flutes. He rapidly also became involved in the fur trade and built up a highly profitable business exporting furs to England and importing musical instruments for sale in the USA. In 1809 he established a fur trading company; this and the purchase of land in the Bowery laid the foundations of the Astor wealth....

Article

Jaak Liivoja-Lorius

(b Mirecourt, France, Dec 12, 1842; d Paris, France, 1920). French violin maker. He was the son and pupil of Leopold Audinot (1811–91) and surpassed all the other members of this Mirecourt family of violin makers. From 1863 to 1868 he worked for Sebastien Vuillaume in Paris and in 1875 succeeded to his business in the boulevard Bonne-Nouvelle. In 1908 he retired and transferred the business to Eugene Corvisier, one of his workers. Audinot worked mostly after the Stradivari and Guarneri models, the work being typically French in its fastidiousness. The varnish varies from yellow-brown to red-brown and is normally of good consistency. His violins were previously regarded as good orchestral instruments but are now beginning to show signs of mellowing in tone. He used a variety of printed labels, all showing his name in oversized type. Some labels are addressed, dated, and numbered in ink....

Article

Edward H. Tarr

[Schrottenbach, Vinzenz]

(b Baden, nr Vienna, March 24, 1890; d New York, Jan 8, 1976). American brass instrument maker of Austrian birth. He played the violin as a child and studied the trumpet (cornet) with Josef Weiss and Georg Stellwagen. In 1910 he earned a degree in mechanical engineering at the Maschinenbauschule in Wiener Neustadt. After a year as an Austrian navy bandsman, he studied the solo cornet repertory with Fritz Werner in Wiesbaden (1911–12), then toured as a cornet virtuoso in Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Russia, Poland and England, arriving in New York in September 1914. While continuing his solo career in the USA, he played a season as assistant first trumpet with the Boston SO (1914–15) and a season as first trumpet with Dyaghilev’s ballet orchestra at the Metropolitan Opera House (1915–16). In 1916–18 he was bandmaster of the 306th Field Artillery Regiment. He became an American citizen in ...

Article

Peter Andreas Kjeldsberg

(b Kranz, Russia, July 7, 1896; d Trondheim, Norway, Nov 19, 1963). Norwegian collector of musical instruments and founder and director of the Ringve Museum in Trondheim. An amateur singer, she had no formal musical training, but three siblings became professional musicians. In 1920 Victoria (née Rostin) married Christian Anker Bachke (1873–1946), the last private owner of Ringve manor outside Trondheim. Together they made plans for two museums: one for the history of the manor and its inhabitants, another for musical instruments, which they had begun to collect. Upon Christian’s death, his will established a foundation encompassing the land and buildings, and Mrs Bachke began serious collecting to prepare the museum, which opened in 1952 in the manor’s main building, a well-kept example of historicist architecture and interior decoration from the second half of the 19th century. Her main gifts for this task were enthusiasm and useful contacts, notably in France and Italy. One of her advisors was the Danish musicologist and organologist Godtfred Skjerne. Before she died, Mrs Bachke had collected about 1000 instruments of European and non-Western classical and folk traditions. She desired that the instruments be playable. Today the Ringve Museum has a national responsibility for collections of musical instruments in Norway, with educational and scientific staff and a conservation workshop. It remains a foundation under the administration of Museene i Sør-Trøndelag AS....

Article

Jaak Liivoja-Lorius

revised by Philip J. Kass

(b Mirecourt, France, April 13, 1844; d Paris, Nov 20, 1907). French violin maker. He served his apprenticeship in Mirecourt with Jules Gaillard and Prosper Gérard, then worked for Nicolas Vuillaume in Mirecourt. In 1864 he went to Paris to join J.-B. Vuillaume’s workshop, remaining there until 1868; all his labels thereafter are marked ‘Elève de J.-B. Vuillaume’. He worked in Mirecourt (1868–9), Douai (1869–71), Mirecourt a second time, Paris, Brussels, London (1890–2), New York (1892–3), and Leeds (for Harry Dykes), finally settling permanently in Paris in 1898. He won a bronze medal at the Paris Exposition of 1878 and many others at expositions in Sydney, Melbourne, and other international fairs. He was succeeded by his daughter Jenny, who continued the workshop in Paris until 1935. Bailly was a prolific maker with an estimated output of more than 3000 instruments, mostly violins; his cellos are rare and his violas more so. The work is invariably clean and is usually patterned on either the Stradivari or Guarneri ‘del Gesù’ model. He made a few Maggini copies, these being of oversized body length and often fitted with an unusual, enclosed mechanical pegbox. The varnish on his average-quality instruments tends to be rather thin and is usually a dull chestnut-brown; on his better instruments it has a much livelier texture and can be a lustrous orange-red. He used a variety of printed labels, most of which are signed and list his medals won at various competitions. They are often numbered and signed inside the back adjacent to the soundpost position....

Article

Jeremy Montagu

(b Croydon, South London, UK, April 11, 1863; d Oxford, Feb 9, 1939). English ethnographer, museum curator, and collector. He was appointed first curator of the Pitt Rivers Museum, Oxford (GB.O.prm), in 1893, having worked there as assistant from its foundation in 1884, and continued as curator until his death. He enriched the collection enormously by contacting every anthropologist he knew, through the Royal Anthropological Institute of which he became President, and government officers and administrators in districts all over the British possessions, asking them to acquire objects of ethnographic interest with as much documentation as possible. He travelled widely and acquired many objects himself, all of which, more than 15,000 items including hundreds of musical instruments, he bequeathed to the museum. Consequently the Pitt Rivers became one of the world’s great ethnographic museums, particularly rich in folk and non-Western musical instruments, most of them well documented with photographs and often with field recordings. Balfour published ...

Article

Guy Bourligueux

Spanish family of organ builders. José Ballesteros y Latuente (bc1710; d ?Valladolid, after 1763) established himself at Valladolid and restored the organs at Mucientes (1730), Villaverde de Medina (1755) and S María de Torrelobatón (1762–3); he also offered his services for instruments at Villabáñez (1733) and Castromocho. He was asked to inspect the organ built by Manuel González Galindo at Becerril de Campos. Valentín (b ?1740–50; d ?Valladolid, after 1782) was possibly his son; he worked at Tordehumos (1772–9), probably at the church of S Miguel, and repaired organs at Torremormojón (1777) and La Pedraja de Portillo (1778). In 1779 he set himself up in Valladolid and built the organ at S Pedro de Alcazarén (1781–2). Angel Ballesteros might have been Valentín’s son or grandson; he also worked at Valladolid and repaired the organ at Cogeces de Iscar (...

Article

James B. Kopp

(b London, UK, July 17, 1946). Conservator of musical instruments and maker of brasses, based in Ottawa, Canada. After studying fine arts and English at the University of Toronto, he joined the Canadian Conservation Institute, Ottawa, in 1975 as a conservator of furniture and wooden objects. He was trained in instrument conservation at the Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg, and received a PhD from the Open University in 1999. He has undertaken wide-ranging projects in the conservation, display, and use of historical instruments in European and North American museums. He has received awards from the American Musical Instrument Society, the Galpin Society, and the Historic Brass Society for his numerous writings. He was named senior conservator at the Canadian Conservation Institute in 1991 and retired in 2007.

Barclay began in 1976 to make reproduction trumpets after models by Johann Carl Kodisch, Johann Leonhard Ehe (iii), and Hanns Hainlein. His book ...

Article

G. Grant O’Brien

revised by Darryl Martin

(Robert)

(b Windsor, Oct 11, 1928; d Edinburgh, March 9, 1998). English organologist, instrument maker and restorer. He studied physics at the University of London and began his career with an English firm making sound-recording tape. In 1962 he began to make and restore early keyboard instruments as a full time occupation. His early work included restorations for the Victoria and Albert Museum and the museum of the Royal College of Music, London, as well as building new historically-based instruments. In 1968 he became curator of the Russell Collection of Early Keyboard Instruments at the University of Edinburgh, a position he held until his retirement in 1983. Through his early work he formulated a number of theories about the stringing and pitch of Italian keyboard instruments; he also wrote an important article about the alterations found in some Italian harpsichords and several important articles about instrument restoration. His restorations were carried out with high technical skill, a solid scientific approach and a respect for the original instruments, resulting in working methods which have set the standard for later restorers. Although his output of instruments was limited, he influenced many modern makers through his work at the Russell Collection, the publication of drawings and a book on traditional spinet construction, and by his association in the mid-1970s with the US firm of instrument kit manufacturers Zuckermann, and with the Early Music Shop, Bradford, in the 1990s. After his retirement from the Russell Collection he continued to build and restore instruments, and to publish research on early keyboard instruments and clavichords in particular. His small collection of instruments includes a number of important harpsichords, a spinet and a clavichord as well as pianos of the English, French and Viennese schools....

Article

Baschet  

Hugh Davies

revised by Laura Maes

French sound sculptors and instrument inventors. Bernard (b Paris, France, 24 Aug 1917) and his brother François (b Paris, France, 30 March 1920) developed a variety of sound sculptures and new instruments under the generic name Structures sonores. Bernard Baschet trained and originally worked as an engineer, and then (1962–5) directed a research team at the Groupe de Recherches Musicales of French Radio (ORTF), whose work resulted in Pierre Schaeffer’s Traité des objets musicaux (1966). François Baschet studied sculpture and worked as a furniture designer.

François Baschet began to concentrate on sound in 1952, when transportation problems urged him to rethink the concept of a guitar and to create an inflatable guitar using a plastic balloon as a sound box. (The first patent concerning string instruments that utilize as a resonance chamber a balloon, a bladder, or the like, inflated with air or any inert gas, was filed in France on ...