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(b Paris, Nov 30, 1813; d Paris, March 29, 1888). French pianist and composer. His real name was Morhange. He was one of the leading piano virtuosos of the 19th century and one of its most unusual composers, remarkable in both technique and imagination, yet largely ignored by his own and succeeding generations.

Of Jewish parentage, Alkan was the eldest of five brothers, all of whom, with an elder sister as well, became musicians under the assumed name Alkan; Napoléon Alkan, the third brother (1826–1910), taught solfège at the Paris Conservatoire for over 50 years. Valentin Alkan’s career at the Conservatoire started brilliantly with a premier prix for solfège at the age of seven. When Alkan was nine Cherubini observed that he was ‘astonishing for his age’ and described his ability on the piano as ‘extraordinary’. He won a premier prix for piano in 1824, for harmony in ...

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Jeremy Drake

(d 1944/5). French music publisher. By acquiring the catalogues of Hachette and especially Benoît, he became the publisher of operas by Auber and Meyerbeer. These, and exclusive rights to Plaisir d’amour, enabled Deiss to publish much modern music including works by Aubert, Harsányi, Koechlin, Schmitt and, in the 1930s and 40s, Rieti, Mihalovici and Milhaud. Though opera, song and piano works formed the bulk of his catalogue, Deiss also published some symphonic and instrumental music, dance music, and music for the cinema and the music hall. Information on his life is lacking, as are precise details of his publishing house, but it is known that he was arrested by the Vichy authorities in France on account of his Jewish ancestry and sent to a German concentration camp where he was executed in ...

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Frank Dobbins

(fl Paris, 1690–1719/20). French music dealer and publisher. It is not known whether he was related to earlier publishers with the same family name, none of whom was apparently involved in music printing. Like other 18th-century music dealers, Henri Foucault was associated with the corporation of haberdashers and jewellers rather than that of the booksellers. He was originally a paper seller, with a shop ‘A la règle d’or’, rue St Honoré, but seems to have branched out from this trade by 28 June 1690, when a condemnation issued by the Conseil d’Etat accused him – in association with the engraver Henri de Baussen – of contravening Christophe Ballard’s royal privilege by publishing ‘divers airs de musique’. Two years later Foucault’s name appears on the title-page of Marais’s Pièces en trio pour les flûtes, violons et dessus de viole, in association with Hurel, Bonneüil and the composer, but he is still designated simply as ‘marchand papetier’. However by ...

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An organization of amateur bands, choirs, and orchestras for adults with and without music experience. The first New Horizons band was established by Roy Ernst in Rochester, New York, in 1991. It spawned a movement that exceeded 200 groups internationally by the 2010s.

New Horizons International Music Association, (<http://www.newhorizonsmusic.org...

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Israeli institution dedicated to the research and propagation of liturgical and para-liturgical Jewish music. It was founded in Jerusalem in 1957 as the Israel Institute for Sacred Music by Avigdor Herzog, a former student of Kodály and Szabolcsi, to study and preserve the musical traditions of the Jewish communities that converged on Israel during the mass immigrations of the 1950s. Herzog, the centre's first director, wanted to preserve these disparate traditions before they were diluted in the melting-pot of modern Israel and so developed the institute on ethnomusicological and educational lines. He recorded the sacred songs of various communities and, under the title Renanot, periodically published leaflets of selected transcriptions, based on Bartók's methods. Working alongside Herzog were Yehoshua Leib Neeman, who published books and records on biblical cantillation and liturgical chants according to eastern European tradition, Meir Shimíon Geshuri, who investigated Hasidic music and Uri Sharvit, who researched Yemenite chants. The institute organized an annual musicological conference and, from ...

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Aaron S. Allen and Laurence Libin

Term encompassing issues of respectful management of natural resources and corresponding ecologies so that they endure. Unsustainable depletion of resources through excessive use or misuse, habitat destruction, climate change, and associated cultural and ecological pressures increasingly concerns instrument makers, consumers, and preservationists, leading them to realign values and practices. Sustainability has become an existential problem for societies that rely on vanishing resources, and for plants and animals that interact in ecosystems, which in turn encompass humans. While cultural aspects of sustainability have been considered in many ethnographic and organological studies, ecological implications require further attention.

Many kinds of instruments have traditionally incorporated materials from now-endangered or threatened species. These animal and plant materials have been exploited for their tonal properties, durability, or other physical characteristics, and for decorative, symbolic, or economic reasons. The efficacy of instruments played in religious or magical rituals, displayed as regalia, or worshipped in their own right can depend on the use of these rare substances, and the value of collectible instruments is enhanced by their presence....

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J. Richard Haefer

Collective name for the duct flute and drum used by the Yoeme Yaqui Indians of Arizona and northern Mexico. It is played when both the maso (deer dancer) and pahko’ola (pascola) dancers are dancing at the same time. The flute, called kusia or cuzia, has two fingerholes and a thumbhole. It is made from cane that grows in the Yaqui river basin. Two sections of cane, each 20 to 25 cm long, are joined at a node by carving one end so it can slide inside the other tube; the V-shaped toneholes are in the lower section. A mouthpiece is formed by undercutting the proximal end of the cane and inserting a smaller piece of cane beneath, held in place by a peg to make an internal duct to direct the airflow against a V-shaped lip cut in the upper surface of the top section.

The drum, called ...

Article

William Y. Elias

Israeli string quartet. It was founded in 1959 and the original members were Chaim Taub (b Tel-Aviv, 1 Aug 1925), Uri Pianka, Daniel Benyamini (b Tel-Aviv, 17 April 1925) and Uzi Wiesel (b Tel-Aviv, 8 Jan 1927). Pianka was replaced in 1963 by Menahem Breuer, who was in turn succeeded by Yefim Boyko (1971–83) and Lazar Schuster (from 1983). Taub was educated in Israel, studying the violin with Oedoen Partos, then at the Juilliard School of Music, New York, with Galamian (1947–51). After an engagement with the Pittsburgh SO he joined the Israel PO in 1959, and soon became its leader. He teaches at the Rubin Academy of Music, Tel-Aviv. Benyamini studied at the Shulamit Conservatory, Tel-Aviv, and then at the Jerusalem Academy. He joined the Israel PO in 1950 and became its principal viola in 1960. Wiesel studied at the Tel-Aviv Academy, in New York, and with Casals in Prades (...