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(b Lisbon, 1437; d Venice, 1508). Philosopher and biblical exegete. His writing on music forms the introduction to his commentary on Exodus xv (the ‘Song of the Sea’, 1505; I-Rvat Rossiano 925, also printed in Venice in 1579). Relying on earlier sources including Ibn Rushd's commentary on Aristotle's ...

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William Y. Elias

(b Berlin, Jan 17, 1925). Israeli musicologist of German birth. He settled in Palestine in 1937, and studied music at the Paris Conservatoire (1949–53) and under Corbin at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes (diploma 1961). He then attended the musicology institute at the Sorbonne, where he studied with Chailley and in ...

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(b Frankfurt, Sept 11, 1903; d Brig, Switzerland, Aug 6, 1969). German writer on music and philosopher. The son of a businessman of Jewish extraction, Oscar Alexander Wiesengrund, and a professional singer of Catholic Corsican origin, Maria Calvelli-Adorno della Piana, he adopted his mother's name in the 1920s, initially as Weisengrund-Adorno, dispensing with the hyphen in ...

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(b c1435; d after 1504). Italian philosopher and biblical exegete. He wrote briefly on music in his Ḥesheq shelomoh (‘Solomon's desire’), a commentary on the Song of Solomon, written during the period 1488–92 at the request of Giovanni Pico della Mirandola. Music is discussed in relation to Hebrew poetics, then classified for its varieties and described for its powers. Under poetics, Alemanno notes that the word ...

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Don Harrán

(b Spain, c1420; d Naples, 1494). Rabbi and philosopher. Following the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492, he settled in Naples. He referred to music under the heading nigun ‘olam (‘cosmic music’) in chapter 12 of his ‘Aqedat Yits ḥaq...

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Jean Gribenski

(b Düsseldorf, Aug 16, 1930). Israeli and French ethnomusicologist . After studying the french horn with Jean Devémy at the Paris Conservatoire (1951–4), he was first horn in the Israel Broadcasting Authority SO in Jerusalem (1958–63). In 1963 he founded the Musée National Boganda at Bangui in the Central African Republic, and was its director until ...

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William Y. Elias

(b Danzig [now Gdánsk], May 25, 1908; d Magen, Sept 16, 1994). Israeli musicologist. He studied musicology, literature and art history at the universities of Leipzig, Munich, Frankfurt and Königsberg (Kaliningrad), where he took the doctorate under Wilhelm Warringer in 1931 with a dissertation on Minnesang. He was prevented from pursuing an academic career in Germany, and turned to publishing Jewish art in Berlin (...

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Ronit Seter

(b Wiesbaden, July 20, 1923). Israeli critic, composer and musicologist. He moved to Mandatory Palestine in 1936. After studying composition with Paul Ben-Haim, his most influential teacher, Bar-Am attended the Ecole Normale de Paris (1949–51). He studied musicology at Tel-Aviv University (BA ...

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G.V. Kopïtova

(b Termakhovka, Kiev Province, Dec 28, 1892; d Kiev, Aug 12, 1961). Ukrainian ethnomusicologist. From 1915 to 1920 he studied composition at the Kiev Conservatory with Yavorsky; he also led choirs and taught music in Jewish schools. He continued his composition studies at the Petrograd Conservatory with Steinberg (...

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Martin Stokes

(b Boscobel, WI, Aug 8, 1952). American ethnomusicologist. He received the BM in piano at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1975, and the MM in 1980 and the PhD in 1984 in musicology and ethnomusicology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign with Bruno Nettl and Alexander Ringer; he also studied for two years at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem with Amnon Shiloah, ...

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(b Riga, Aug 11, 1929). Israeli musicologist of Latvian origin. He was banished to Siberia with his family (1941–6), which influenced his career in the former USSR. He was educated at the State Conservatory, Latvia (1948–52, MA), studying the violin with Karl Brueckner and at the Tchaikovsky Moscow Conservatory (...

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Paula Morgan and Adena Portowitz

(b New York, Oct 9, 1928). American and Israeli musicologist. She graduated in 1950 from Hunter College, CUNY, where Louise Talma was among her teachers. During the summers of 1950 and 1951 she studied music theory with Nadia Boulanger at Fontainebleau. She received the MA from Radcliffe College in ...

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Don Harrán

(b Mantua, 1470; d Salonika [now Thessaloniki], 1526). Rabbi, philosopher. He was the son of the scholar Judah Messer Leon. David refers to music, briefly, in his treatise Sheva ḥ ha-nashim (‘Praise of women’), a commentary on Proverbs xxxi. Acknowledging the wonders of music in ancient Israel, he praises the skills of the Levites and the power of music to awaken prophecy. It is not enough to sing, rather the singer must be well trained and have a sweet voice. Song is intrinsic to life’s activities: King David is said to have sung to God at all times, in sickness and in health. The author explains the origins of the term ...

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(b La Côte-Saint-André, Aug 29, 1737; d Paris, July 24, 1794). French scholar. After his studies at the seminary in Vienne and his ordination, Du Contant settled in Paris, where he took his doctorate at the Sorbonne in 1765. He was vicar-general of Vienne in ...

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Don Harrán

(b Mallorca, 1361; d Algiers, 1444). Rabbi, kabbalist and philosopher. Music is discussed in three different passages in his Magen avot (‘The protection of the Fathers’) which survives in seven manuscript sources, not all of them complete. Three themes are emphasized: music in relation to speech; ...

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Edith Gerson-Kiwi and Bret Werb

(b Berdyansk, Crimea, 4/April 16, 1868; d Tel-Aviv, Feb 11, 1927). Russian composer, critic, lexicographer and folklorist. He studied law at Kharkov University but soon turned to music, studying theory and composition with Taneyev and Ippolitov-Ivanov at the Moscow Conservatory (...

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Jeffrey Dean

(b Berlin, April 5, 1909; d Campo di Trens, Jan 7, 1976). American musicologist of German descent, active in Italy. Through his father, the painter Lyonel Feininger, he grew up in Germany in an artistic environment and had close contacts among the Bauhaus school. He studied composition and the organ; 11 preludes and fugues for keyboard, composed in ...

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Jehoash Hirshberg

(b Haifa, 1946). Israeli composer and musicologist. She studied at the Music Teachers’ Training College (Tel-Aviv), the Rubin Academy (Jerusalem), New York University (MA 1975) and Bar-Ilan University (PhD in musicology 1995). She also studied Arabic language, culture and history, and Hebrew linguistics at Tel-Aviv University (BA ...

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Israel J. Katz

(b Berlin, May 13, 1908; d Jerusalem, July 16, 1992). Israeli musicologist and ethnomusicologist of German origin. She studied at the Stern Conservatory (1918–25) and in 1930 she obtained a diploma in piano from the Leipzig Musikhochchule, working principally under Ramin. In ...

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Alfons Ott and Inge Kovács

(b Berlin, March 1, 1920). American composer and musicologist of German birth. He received his first music lessons from his father, the music critic Oskar Guttmann. He entered the Stern Conservatory in Berlin in 1938 but was forced to leave after six months because of his Jewish background. In ...