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Article

William Y. Elias

(b Berlin, Jan 17, 1925). Israeli musicologist of German birth. He settled in Palestine in 1937, and studied music at the Paris Conservatoire (1949–53) and under Corbin at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes (diploma 1961). He then attended the musicology institute at the Sorbonne, where he studied with Chailley and in 1963 took a doctorat de 3ème cycle with a dissertation on learned musical practice in several Jewish communities in 17th- and 18th-century Europe. Concurrently, he was head of the Hebraica-Judaica section at the Bibliothèque Nationale (1950–63). He returned to Israel to become the director of the music department and national sound archives at the Jewish National and Hebrew University library in Jerusalem (1963–9), and was subsequently director of the library (1969–71). In 1964 he founded the Jewish music research centre at the Hebrew University and was its director (...

Article

(b Frankfurt, Sept 11, 1903; d Brig, Switzerland, Aug 6, 1969). German writer on music and philosopher. The son of a businessman of Jewish extraction, Oscar Alexander Wiesengrund, and a professional singer of Catholic Corsican origin, Maria Calvelli-Adorno della Piana, he adopted his mother's name in the 1920s, initially as Weisengrund-Adorno, dispensing with the hyphen in 1938. In 1937–8 he also wrote briefly under the pseudonym Hektor ‘Rottweiler’.

Strongly influenced by Ernst Bloch's Vom Geist der Utopie and Georg Lukács's Theorie des Romans while still at school, and having had a musical upbringing, with piano, violin and composition lessons from an early age, in 1921 he went on to study philosophy (with Hans Cornelius) at the University of Frankfurt with musicology, sociology and psychology as subsidiary subjects, continuing composition studies with Bernhard Sekles and piano with Eduard Jung. During his student years he became friendly with the philosopher Max Horkheimer and the literary critic Walter Benjamin, who both had considerable influence on his development. Three years after starting university he took the doctorate with a dissertation on Husserl (...

Article

Jean Gribenski

(b Düsseldorf, Aug 16, 1930). Israeli and French ethnomusicologist . After studying the french horn with Jean Devémy at the Paris Conservatoire (1951–4), he was first horn in the Israel Broadcasting Authority SO in Jerusalem (1958–63). In 1963 he founded the Musée National Boganda at Bangui in the Central African Republic, and was its director until 1967, and on returning to Paris he undertook musicological studies with Chailley at the Sorbonne (1968–73). He entered the CNRS in 1968 and his subsequent career has been with that institution. In 1993 he was appointed lecturer at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris. He was an associate professor at Tel-Aviv University (1979–83) and music director of the Israel Broadcasting Authority (1980–82). He has been awarded the Grand Prix International du Disque de l’Académie Charles Cros (1971, 1978 and ...

Article

William Y. Elias

[Loewenstein, Herbert]

(b Danzig [now Gdánsk], May 25, 1908; d Magen, Sept 16, 1994). Israeli musicologist. He studied musicology, literature and art history at the universities of Leipzig, Munich, Frankfurt and Königsberg (Kaliningrad), where he took the doctorate under Wilhelm Warringer in 1931 with a dissertation on Minnesang. He was prevented from pursuing an academic career in Germany, and turned to publishing Jewish art in Berlin (1932–6). In 1936 he settled as a publisher in Palestine, where research in musicology had barely begun, and he had to carry on his musicological work independently, publishing articles mostly in foreign periodicals. Urged to adapt himself to the demands of a country under war conditions, he developed a chemical production process and worked as a technical manager in industry (1941–8) before joining the Israel Air Force research department. He left the service with the rank of major to take up a research fellowship in musicology at the Hebrew University, Jerusalem (...

Article

Ronit Seter

[Berman, Bernhardt]

(b Wiesbaden, July 20, 1923). Israeli critic, composer and musicologist. He moved to Mandatory Palestine in 1936. After studying composition with Paul Ben-Haim, his most influential teacher, Bar-Am attended the Ecole Normale de Paris (1949–51). He studied musicology at Tel-Aviv University (BA 1977), where he became the principal lecturer for courses on Jewish music and Israeli contemporary music (1973–96) and the first director of the Archive of Israeli Music. The secretary general of the Israeli League of Composers (1960–76, 1976–8), he became chair of the organizing committee of the ISCM in Israel in 1980. Though most influential as the music critic of the Jerusalem Post between 1958 and 1995, Bar-Am also wrote many essays on Israeli music in Hebrew, English and German, notably ‘A Musical Gateway between East and West’ (Jerusalem Post, 20 April 1988). He ceased composing in the early 1970s but resumed in ...

Article

G.V. Kopïtova

(Yakovlevich) [Aron-Moysha]

(b Termakhovka, Kiev Province, Dec 28, 1892; d Kiev, Aug 12, 1961). Ukrainian ethnomusicologist. From 1915 to 1920 he studied composition at the Kiev Conservatory with Yavorsky; he also led choirs and taught music in Jewish schools. He continued his composition studies at the Petrograd Conservatory with Steinberg (1922–4) and from 1927 he concentrated on the methodology of folklore studies with Kvitka at the musical ethnography department of the Ukrainian SSR Academy of Sciences in Kiev. From 1929 to 1949 he headed the department for musical folklore at the Institute of Jewish Proletarian Culture of the academy (in 1936 the Institute was reduced to the Cabinet of the study of the Jewish language, literature and folklore; in 1949 it was liquidated). He undertook numerous expeditions to transcribe Jewish musical folklore (1200 recorded cylinders, 4000 transcriptions), and he collected and transcribed Ukrainian, and later Bashkir folklore material. He also taught at the Kiev Conservatory (...

Article

Martin Stokes

(b Boscobel, WI, Aug 8, 1952). American ethnomusicologist. He received the BM in piano at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1975, and the MM in 1980 and the PhD in 1984 in musicology and ethnomusicology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign with Bruno Nettl and Alexander Ringer; he also studied for two years at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem with Amnon Shiloah, 1980–82. He was assistant professor at MacMurray College (1982–4) and the University of Illinois at Chicago (1985–7) before joining the faculty at the University of Chicago, where he was appointed professor in 1999. He was visiting professor at the University of Vienna, 1995–6. In 1997 he was awarded the Dent medal.

Bohlman's work may be characterized as a sustained critique of modernity, canon-formation and the monumentalization of 19th-century Austro-German musical practice through an ethnographic engagement with the ‘others’ of Europe, whether on, or within its margins. His earlier work investigated music-making among immigrant Jews in early 20th-century Palestine; his later work brings ethnographic critique back to the centre, exploring popular religious, street and folk musics in Vienna and elsewhere in Central Europe. Other areas of research include immigrant and ‘ethnic’ folk musics in America, and the intellectual history of ethnomusicology. In addition to extensive publications in these areas, Bohlman is editor of the series Recent Researches in the Oral Traditions of Music and co-editor (with Bruno Nettl) of ‘Chicago Studies in Ethnomusicology’....

Article

(b Riga, Aug 11, 1929). Israeli musicologist of Latvian origin. He was banished to Siberia with his family (1941–6), which influenced his career in the former USSR. He was educated at the State Conservatory, Latvia (1948–52, MA), studying the violin with Karl Brueckner and at the Tchaikovsky Moscow Conservatory (1958–64), where he gained the doctorate with a dissertation on violin art development (1964), studying with Lev Ginzburg (history of musical instruments and performing practices) and Dmitry Tsiganov (violin). His career began as a violinist with the Latvian Broadcasting SO (1952–60) and he taught the violin at E. Darzina Music School, Riga (1958–60). He was active as a music critic in the periodical press and professional journals (1960–70), but when he applied for emigration to Israel (1970) he was forbidden to publish. After emigrating in ...

Article

Paula Morgan

revised by Adena Portowitz

(Dina)

(b New York, Oct 9, 1928). American and Israeli musicologist. She graduated in 1950 from Hunter College, CUNY, where Louise Talma was among her teachers. During the summers of 1950 and 1951 she studied music theory with Nadia Boulanger at Fontainebleau. She received the MA from Radcliffe College in 1952 and the PhD from Harvard University in 1963; at Harvard she studied theory with Piston and music history with Gombosi. Jan LaRue was her unofficial dissertation advisor together with Pirrotta. She taught at Vassar College from 1952–57, 1959–71 where she was promoted from instructor to professor. She was also visiting professor in eight music departments and music schools: the Harvard Summer School (1963), Northwestern University Summer School (1976), Rubin Academy of Music, Jerusalem (Summer 1977), Tel-Aviv University (1972), the Hebrew University, Jerusalem (1973), the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (...

Article

Edith Gerson-Kiwi

revised by Bret Werb

[Yuly Dmitrevich]

(b Berdyansk, Crimea, 4/April 16, 1868; d Tel-Aviv, Feb 11, 1927). Russian composer, critic, lexicographer and folklorist. He studied law at Kharkov University but soon turned to music, studying theory and composition with Taneyev and Ippolitov-Ivanov at the Moscow Conservatory (1893–7). From 1897 to 1919 he worked as a music critic for the newspaper Russkiye vedomosti. In 1901 his translation of Riemann’s Lexikon into Russian with newly written sections on Russian music was published in Moscow. Although an early opera, Esther, was performed in 1894, his work as a critic overshadowed that as a composer. Under the influence of the Russian nationalist music critic Vladimir Stasov, however, he turned his attention to Jewish folklore, collecting, arranging, performing and publishing the songs of eastern European Jews. In 1909 his first album of ten Jewish folksongs appeared in Moscow; a second volume followed later in the same year. Engel continued to promote his new interest with public lectures and a series of articles in ...

Article

Jeffrey Dean

[Laurentius, Lorenzo] (Karl Johann)

(b Berlin, April 5, 1909; d Campo di Trens, Jan 7, 1976). American musicologist of German descent, active in Italy. Through his father, the painter Lyonel Feininger, he grew up in Germany in an artistic environment and had close contacts among the Bauhaus school. He studied composition and the organ; 11 preludes and fugues for keyboard, composed in 1933–4, were published in 1972. At the University of Heidelberg he studied philosophy with Jaspers and musicology with Besseler, taking the doctorate in 1935 with a dissertation on the early history of the canon. His Jewish family fled Nazi harassment for the USA in 1937, and Feininger (who had been baptized in 1934) moved to Italy, settling in Trent in 1938 and devoting himself to the study of early sources of Catholic church music, especially the 15th-century Trent Codices. He was interned as an enemy alien in 1943–4; after the war he pursued theological studies in Trent and Rome and was ordained priest in ...

Article

Jehoash Hirshberg

(b Haifa, 1946). Israeli composer and musicologist. She studied at the Music Teachers’ Training College (Tel-Aviv), the Rubin Academy (Jerusalem), New York University (MA 1975) and Bar-Ilan University (PhD in musicology 1995). She also studied Arabic language, culture and history, and Hebrew linguistics at Tel-Aviv University (BA 1969–72). In 1996 she was appointed to a post at the Music Teachers’ Training College. Her honours include the Prize of Excellence in Israeli Music (1992), the ACUM (Israeli performing rights society) Prize (1994), the Composer's Residency Award of Villa Montalvo and the Prime Minister's Composition Prize (1998).

The ideology of East-West synthesis, characteristic of much Israeli music, has been deeply ingrained in Fleischer’s personality. Her admiration for the qualities of Arabic poetry has found its expression in a series of settings that smoothly alternate between Western and Arabic idioms, as in the ...

Article

Israel J. Katz

(b Berlin, May 13, 1908; d Jerusalem, July 16, 1992). Israeli musicologist and ethnomusicologist of German origin. She studied at the Stern Conservatory (1918–25) and in 1930 she obtained a diploma in piano from the Leipzig Musikhochchule, working principally under Ramin. In 1931 she studied the harpsichord with Wanda Landowska at the Ecole de Musique Ancienne; she then returned to Germany to study musicology with Gurlitt at the University of Freiburg and Kroyer at the University of Leipzig; she completed the doctorate in 1933 under Besseler at the University of Heidelberg with a dissertation on the 16th-century Italian canzonetta. In 1934 she taught at the Liceo Musicale, Bologna, while studying palaeography and earning a diploma in library studies at Bologna University (1934).

The nascent Nazi regime prompted her and her parents to emigrate in 1935 to Palestine where they settled in Jerusalem. From 1937...

Article

Alfons Ott

revised by Inge Kovács

(Alexander) [Alfred Grant]

(b Berlin, March 1, 1920). American composer and musicologist of German birth. He received his first music lessons from his father, the music critic Oskar Guttmann. He entered the Stern Conservatory in Berlin in 1938 but was forced to leave after six months because of his Jewish background. In 1939 he emigrated to London and in 1940 to New York, where he arranged music for dance bands and for the popular theatre. During the period 1947–52 he studied composition with Luening and Cowell and musicology with Hertzmann at Columbia University. After receiving the MA he worked as an assistant to his teacher Rudolph Thomas at the same university, and as a lecturer at the Henry Street Settlement; he was also music critic for the newspaper Aufbau. Upon taking American citizenship he changed his name to Goodman. In 1960 he moved to Munich, and began working for Bavarian radio as a composer, broadcaster and (from ...

Article

Edith Gerson-Kiwi

(Emanuel)

(b Berlin, Jan 24, 1910; d Tel Aviv, July 27, 2001). Israeli musicologist of German birth. He studied in Freiburg with Wilibald Gurlitt and Berlin with Arnold Schering and Curt Sachs and (from 1934) at the German University of Prague, where he specialized in musicology under Gustav Becking and took his doctorate in 1936 with a dissertation on Stamitz. He was also a composition pupil of Julius Weismann in Freiburg and Josef Rufer in Berlin. He became a freelance lecturer and critic and edited a broadcast series, but soon after the establishment of the Nazi regime he was exiled, settling first in London, where he took courses in piano technology and instrument building at the Northern Polytechnic. In 1936 he went to Israel and as a publisher contributed to the development of modern and avant-garde art music by Israeli composers. With the establishment of a musicology department at the Tel-Aviv University in ...

Article

Pamela Jones

[Wilhelm]

(b Vienna, Sept 5, 1914; d Buenos Aires, Jan 22, 1993). Austrian composer, musicologist and teacher, later an Argentine citizen. He studied composition with Pisk and Hindemith. In 1939 he emigrated to Argentina, where he lived for the remainder of his life. His early compositions are strongly influenced by Hindemith, but from the 1950s his style evolved beyond that of his mentor into realms of polytonality, atonality and serialism. His music displays a refined sense of orchestral texture and colour. He delved deeply into his Jewish roots (Canciones hebreas, 1940) and also into the indigenous culture of his adopted Latin America (La creación según el ‘Pop wuj maya’, 1989).

As a musicologist Graetzer edited both scholarly and practical editions of early music and directed the Collegium Musicum of Buenos Aires, which he founded in 1946. His philosophy was grounded in a humanist belief in the essential role of music in the development of a fully integrated human personality. He taught advanced students at the Universidad Nacional de La Plata, and undertook important work in music education for the young. His achievements in this area include an adaptation of Orff’s ...

Article

Eliyahu Schleifer

(b Budapest, March 5, 1932). Israeli composer, pianist and ethnomusicologist. As a young boy, he survived the Nazi invasion and miraculously escaped deportation. In 1949 he entered the composition department of the Franz Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest, where he studied the piano with György Kósa and Erno Szégedi, composition with Endre Szervánszky and Ferenc Szabó, and ethnomusicology with Zoltán Kodály. As a Kodály disciple, he spent two years among the Hungarian gypsies, collecting songs and stories. This resulted in his Gypsy Cantata on poems of Miklos Randoti, which won first prize at the Warsaw International Youth Festival (1955).

Following the failure of the Hungarian uprising, Hajdu escaped to France, where he studied with Milhaud and Messiaen at the Paris Conservatoire. At the same time he wrote music for films and conducted youth choirs. From 1959 to 1961 he taught the piano and composition at the Tunis Conservatory and was active in ethnomusicological research there. This period is represented in his ...

Article

William Y. Elias

[Hersh, Donald Lee ]

(b Cambridge, MA, April 22, 1936). Israeli musicologist of American birth. At Yale University he studied French literature (1953–7); he then studied musicology at the University of California, Berkeley (1957–62, MA 1959), where he took the doctorate under Kerman in 1963 with a dissertation on Verdelot and the early madrigal. In 1963 he settled in Israel, where he lectured at the Rubin Academy of Music, Jerusalem (1963–6), before being appointed to the musicology department of the Hebrew University (1966); he has also been a regular guest lecturer at the Bar-Ilan University (from 1970) and worked as corresponding reporter in Israel for Current Musicology of Columbia University (from 1968). He has received research grants from the Edmond de Rothschild Foundation for work on mannerism in Renaissance music (1964), from the Hebrew University for work on madrigali cromatici...

Article

Susan Parisi

revised by Paula Matthews and Jon Stroop

(b Düsseldorf, Sept 24, 1911; d Louisville, KY, Sept 4, 2000). American musicologist of German birth. He studied at the universities of Freiburg (under Wilibald Gurlitt) and Berlin (under Curt Sachs and Friedrich Blume), and received the doctorate in 1934 from the University of Zürich, to which he had transferred because of the political climate in Germany, with a dissertation on J.S. Bach. From 1934 to 1936 he worked as a freelance music critic in Düsseldorf, where he reviewed concerts in the city’s synagogue, and in Florence, where he covered the Maggio Musicale of 1935 for the newspaper Jüdische Rundschau in Berlin and the Frankfurter Zeitung. Aided by recommendations from Albert Schweitzer, he emigrated to the USA in December 1936, and in 1938 became the first instructor of musicology at the University of Louisville. He was chairman of the university’s music history department (1956–78), and held visiting appointments at Indiana University (...

Article

Edith Gerson-Kiwi

revised by Israel J. Katz

(b Filzburg, nr Libau [now Liepāja, Latvia], June 11, 1882; d Johannesburg, Aug 15, 1938). Jewish cantor and musicologist of Russian birth. Raised in a traditional German Jewish environment, he trained as a cantor in Libau; he also studied briefly at Königsberg (now Kaliningrad) where he met Eduard Birnbaum. Later he studied at the Stern Conservatory in Berlin and at the conservatory and university in Leipzig; his claim to have studied at both institutions with Kretzschmar (history), Zöllner (composition) and Jadassohn (harmony) remains unsubstantiated. He served as cantor at the Adat Jeshurun congregation, Leipzig (1902). From 1903 to 1905 he was a cantor at Regensburg and then after a year in Johannesburg he was persuaded by the president of the Zionist movement, David Wolffsohn, to emigrate to Jerusalem, where he lived from 1906 to 1921. These were decisive years for Idelsohn's research into the diverse musical traditions of the Sephardi and ‘Oriental’ Jewish communities and Muslim and Christian sects. Although his plans in ...