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(b Frankfurt, Sept 11, 1903; d Brig, Switzerland, Aug 6, 1969). German writer on music and philosopher. The son of a businessman of Jewish extraction, Oscar Alexander Wiesengrund, and a professional singer of Catholic Corsican origin, Maria Calvelli-Adorno della Piana, he adopted his mother's name in the 1920s, initially as Weisengrund-Adorno, dispensing with the hyphen in 1938. In 1937–8 he also wrote briefly under the pseudonym Hektor ‘Rottweiler’.

Strongly influenced by Ernst Bloch's Vom Geist der Utopie and Georg Lukács's Theorie des Romans while still at school, and having had a musical upbringing, with piano, violin and composition lessons from an early age, in 1921 he went on to study philosophy (with Hans Cornelius) at the University of Frankfurt with musicology, sociology and psychology as subsidiary subjects, continuing composition studies with Bernhard Sekles and piano with Eduard Jung. During his student years he became friendly with the philosopher Max Horkheimer and the literary critic Walter Benjamin, who both had considerable influence on his development. Three years after starting university he took the doctorate with a dissertation on Husserl (...

Article

Edith Gerson-Kiwi

revised by Bret Werb

[Yuly Dmitrevich]

(b Berdyansk, Crimea, 4/April 16, 1868; d Tel-Aviv, Feb 11, 1927). Russian composer, critic, lexicographer and folklorist. He studied law at Kharkov University but soon turned to music, studying theory and composition with Taneyev and Ippolitov-Ivanov at the Moscow Conservatory (1893–7). From 1897 to 1919 he worked as a music critic for the newspaper Russkiye vedomosti. In 1901 his translation of Riemann’s Lexikon into Russian with newly written sections on Russian music was published in Moscow. Although an early opera, Esther, was performed in 1894, his work as a critic overshadowed that as a composer. Under the influence of the Russian nationalist music critic Vladimir Stasov, however, he turned his attention to Jewish folklore, collecting, arranging, performing and publishing the songs of eastern European Jews. In 1909 his first album of ten Jewish folksongs appeared in Moscow; a second volume followed later in the same year. Engel continued to promote his new interest with public lectures and a series of articles in ...

Article

Alfons Ott

revised by Inge Kovács

(Alexander) [Alfred Grant]

(b Berlin, March 1, 1920). American composer and musicologist of German birth. He received his first music lessons from his father, the music critic Oskar Guttmann. He entered the Stern Conservatory in Berlin in 1938 but was forced to leave after six months because of his Jewish background. In 1939 he emigrated to London and in 1940 to New York, where he arranged music for dance bands and for the popular theatre. During the period 1947–52 he studied composition with Luening and Cowell and musicology with Hertzmann at Columbia University. After receiving the MA he worked as an assistant to his teacher Rudolph Thomas at the same university, and as a lecturer at the Henry Street Settlement; he was also music critic for the newspaper Aufbau. Upon taking American citizenship he changed his name to Goodman. In 1960 he moved to Munich, and began working for Bavarian radio as a composer, broadcaster and (from ...

Article

Pamela Jones

[Wilhelm]

(b Vienna, Sept 5, 1914; d Buenos Aires, Jan 22, 1993). Austrian composer, musicologist and teacher, later an Argentine citizen. He studied composition with Pisk and Hindemith. In 1939 he emigrated to Argentina, where he lived for the remainder of his life. His early compositions are strongly influenced by Hindemith, but from the 1950s his style evolved beyond that of his mentor into realms of polytonality, atonality and serialism. His music displays a refined sense of orchestral texture and colour. He delved deeply into his Jewish roots (Canciones hebreas, 1940) and also into the indigenous culture of his adopted Latin America (La creación según el ‘Pop wuj maya’, 1989).

As a musicologist Graetzer edited both scholarly and practical editions of early music and directed the Collegium Musicum of Buenos Aires, which he founded in 1946. His philosophy was grounded in a humanist belief in the essential role of music in the development of a fully integrated human personality. He taught advanced students at the Universidad Nacional de La Plata, and undertook important work in music education for the young. His achievements in this area include an adaptation of Orff’s ...

Article

Janna Saslaw

(b Breslau [now Wrocław], Aug 13, 1831; d Leipzig, Feb 1, 1902). German composer, theorist, teacher and conductor. He studied first in Breslau and later at the Leipzig Conservatory. He left Leipzig to study the piano with Liszt in Weimar (1849–52); there he heard Wagner's Lohengrin, which greatly impressed him. After returning to Leipzig, he studied with E.F. Richter and privately with Moritz Hauptmann. Jadassohn taught the piano in Leipzig, then conducted the synagogue choir (1865), the Psalterion choral society (1866) and the Musikverein Euterpe concerts (1867–9). In 1871 he was appointed teacher of harmony, counterpoint, composition and piano at the conservatory, and in 1893 named royal professor. His students included Busoni, George Chadwick, Delius, Grieg, Karg-Elert and Felix Weingartner.

Although successful as a performer, theorist and teacher, Jadassohn considered himself primarily a composer. He wrote works for piano, chamber ensemble, orchestra, chorus and solo voices, comprising over 140 opus numbers, but was perhaps best known for his canonic compositions: the Serenade for Orchestra op.35, two serenades for piano opp.8 and 125, the ballet music op.58 and the vocal duets opp.9, 36, 38 and 43. He also edited and arranged works by Bach, Brahms, Chopin, Mendelssohn, Schubert, Schumann, Wagner and others....

Article

Octavian Cosma

(b Timişoara, May 28, 1931). Romanian composer and musicologist. After attending the Arts Lyceum in Cluj, in 1948 he began to study conducting and the piano at the Hungarian Arts Institute then at the Academy in Cluj. Junger became a teacher (1954), lecturer (1957) and reader (1970–79) at the Cluj Academy, also working as a researcher at the Institute of Art History in Cluj (1955–7). In 1969 he attended classes in Darmstadt; he studied for the doctorate in musicology with Toduţa. In 1976 he settled in Israel and became a teacher at the Rubin Academy in Tel-Aviv. He has published many articles and in 1960 co-designed a harmony course for students. Well-versed in tradition, Junger writes music that is rich in chromaticism, thematically diverse and robustly expressive.

(selective list)

Article

Lada Brashovanova

(b Ruse, Sept 23, 1925). Bulgarian folklorist and composer. He graduated in 1952 in both theory and performance at the State Academy of Music in Sofia and worked at the Music Institute of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, as junior research fellow (1953–66) and senior research fellow (1966–89). He received the doctorate at the institute in 1973 with a dissertation on Bulgarian polyphonic folksong; in 1979 he was appointed professor of ethnomusicology at the State Academy of Music and in 1989, senior research fellow at the Institute for Folklore of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. His areas of research include various aspects of Bulgarian and Jewish folk music and he has been a member of the Union of Bulgarian Composers' executive committee since 1965. Much of his work in the 1960s on the folksong from particular regions in Bulgaria was published in Izvestiya na Instituta z muzika...

Article

Israel J. Katz

[Aladar]

(b Budapest, Feb 29, 1884; d Los Angeles, March 3, 1976). Hungarian-American opera conductor, composer and musicologist. He studied at the university and at the academy in Budapest (1901–5), his teachers including Driesch (philosophy) and Koessler (composition). Thereafter he worked as an opera conductor in Cologne (1905–7), Mülhausen (1907–9), Brno (1908–11), Philadelphia and Chicago (1911–12), Hamburg (1912–13), New York (Century Company, 1913–14), Berlin-Charlottenburg (1914–16), Vienna (Volksoper, 1916–18) and Leipzig (1918–24). He remained in Leipzig as conductor of the Leipzig SO (1924–32) and as a student of musicology at the university (1930–32), where he took the doctorate. In 1932 he was music director of central German radio, Berlin, and taught at the Klindworth-Scharwenka Conservatory. He began to collect materials for a history of Jewish music, but this work had to be continued in Paris, where he was a radio programme director (...

Article

Robyn Holmes, Peter Campbell and Judith Crispin

[Lazarus]

Robyn Holmes and Peter Campbell, revised by Judith Crispin

(b Tianjin, China, Sept 10, 1934). Australian composer, pianist, and musicologist. Born to Russian-Chinese parents, he emigrated to Australia with his family in 1951. He studied the piano at the NSW Conservatorium of Music, Sydney, where his teachers included Winifred Burston (1952–8), and in San Francisco with Egon Petri (1959–61). On his return to Australia, he taught at the Queensland Conservatorium (1961–5) and lectured on contemporary composition at the University of Queensland. In 1965 he assumed the position of Head of Keyboard at the newly founded Canberra School of Music (now part of the Australian National University), where he became Head of Composition and Head of Academic Studies in 1978, and Professor Emeritus and Distinguished Visiting Fellow in 2005.

Sitsky first came to prominence as a composer at the inaugural Australian Composers’ Seminar (Hobart, Tasmania, ...

Article

Jehoash Hirshberg

[Yehoyachin]

(b Romny, Ukraine, Feb 7, 1891; d Tel-Aviv, 1981). Israeli cellist, composer and scholar. His father was a klezmer musician. Stutschewsky studied the cello at the Leipzig Conservatory (1909–12). After returning to Russia, he was soon smuggled to the border to avoid forced conscription. A difficult period as an impoverished cellist in Paris and Jena followed. In 1914 he moved to Zürich where he met Joel Engel and became active performing Jewish music. He settled in 1924 in Vienna, where he became for a time the cellist in the celebrated Kolisch Quartet, which gave first performances of works by Schoenberg, Berg and Webern. He published articles in Jewish periodicals, mostly Die Stimme, corresponded with colleagues in Jerusalem and was involved with the founding of the World Centre for Jewish Music in 1937. A dedicated pedagogue, he also wrote a treatise on cello playing.

In 1938, immediately after the Nazi Anschluss, Stutschewsky and his wife Julia, a soprano, emigrated to Palestine. He was appointed inspector for Jewish music by the general council that ran the Jewish autonomy under British mandate. Despite the dismal economic situation, he organized concerts of Jewish folk and art music in Tel-Aviv, which he funded himself. He also presented lecture-recitals throughout the country, using his travels to collect and transcribe Hassidic tunes. He founded a string quartet with Kaminsky, leader of the Palestine Orchestra, and performed piano trios with Taube....

Article

Christian Poché

(b Nazareth, Dec 12, 1934; d Berlin, Aug 10, 1998). German ethnomusicologist and composer of Palestinian birth. He studied piano and theory at the Haifa Conservatory and composition at the Israel Academy of Music, Tel-Aviv, with Alexander Boscovich. In 1964 he received a scholarship from the Deutscher akademischer Ausauschdienst which brought him to Berlin, where he studied ethnomusicology at the Free University with Kurt Reinhard and obtained the doctorate with a dissertation on Arab music theory. From 1969 until its closure in 1997, Tūma worked for the Institute for Traditional Music, which published many of his short articles, reviews and interviews in its journal World of Music. He was also able to pursue private academic projects and study trips in south Turkey, Iraq and Bahrain. He initially analysed the maqām technique of improvisation, developing a theory of the non-temporal ‘tonal spatial component’ in its organization; later in life, he studied the contemporary role of the Arabic musician as well as the Moroccan ...