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Example 1. Thomas Fabri, refrain of the ballade Ach Vlaendere vrie


Example 2. Josquin Baston, opening of Lyden en verdraghen in Susato’s Het tweetste musyck boexken (155119)


Polyphonic setting of secular or devotional poems in Middle Dutch (14th–15th centuries) or early standard Dutch (16th century). The genre is sometimes referred to with the less precise term ‘liedeken’ (little song), which is found in 16th-century printed collections of both monophonic and polyphonic songs. The earliest Dutch polyphonic songs date from the late 13th century, are for two or three voices, and are often cast in a forme fixe. In the later 16th century in which the genre flourished, through-composed, often imitative settings up to eight voices are found. The complete corpus of songs, which is described in Bonda (1996) and included in the online catalogue of Dutch songs (www.liederenbank.nl), consists of almost 500 settings representing more than 330 song families. This also includes compositions with mere textual incipits in Dutch and settings with mingled texts including Dutch. Unity within this repertory depends on the musical environment in which the songs were created, the textual relationship with genres of Dutch poetry, and the musical correlation with monophonic songs in Dutch....