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Laura Otilia Vasiliu

(b Reuseni, Suceava county, Romania, May 2, 1944). Romanian composer, musicologist, and teacher . Rooted in the folklore of Bukovina and in Byzantine liturgical music, furthering the musical environment of his predecessors Ciprian Porumbescu and George Enescu, his works stand at the crossroads of tradition and modernity, having become established through their authentic expression and mastery of form. His personality has been influential in the musical life of Iaşi and the George Enescu University of Arts, which he served as a professor, dean, and rector.

He studied at the George Enescu Conservatory in Iaşi. He graduated in pedagogy and composition under Vasile Spătărelu. He attended composition classes led by Ştefan Niculescu, Aurel Stroe, and Anatol Vieru at the Vacanţele muzicale de la Piatra Neamt (‘Musical Holidays of Piatra Neamţ’, 1972–80), and then he studied with Roman Vlad at the Santa Cecilia Academy in Rome (1980). Up until ...

Article

Katy Romanou

(b Constantinople, 1862; d Athens, Greece, Aug 18, 1938). Greek musicologist, and pioneer historian of Greek Orthodox music. He graduated from the prestigious Megalē tou Genous Scholē in Constantinople in 1881, and was employed thereafter as a legal employee of the Patriarchate, reaching the highest rank (Megas prōtekdikos) in 1903.

In 1890 he published his Symbolai eis tēn historian tēs par’ hēmin ekklēsiastikēs mousikēs (‘Contributions to the History of our Church Music’), and in 1904 the Historikē episkopēsis tēs byzantinēs ekklēsiastikēs mousikēs (‘Historical Survey of Byzantine Ecclesiastical Music’). These are the first studies on Greek music history, after Chrysanthos of Madytos’s essay in his 1832 edition Theoretikon Mega tēs Mousikēs. Papadopoulos begins his Symbolai with ancient Greek music, while his Historical survey concentrates on more recent times, giving much information on contemporary persons and institutions. Both books are essentially a series of biographies grouped in periods defined by chapters on notation, theory, forms, music education, and the practice of chanting. They were based on a rich multilingual bibliography and many forgotten manuscripts that Papadopoulos studied during an eight-month research trip in libraries of Constantinople, Chios, Samos, Smyrna, Mutilene, and Cydonia, and in monasteries of Mounts Athos, Patmos, and Lesvos....

Article

Margaret Cayward

[Miguel José ]

(b Petra, Majorca, Spain, Nov 24, 1713; d Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Alta California [now in Carmel, CA], Aug 28, 1784). Spanish Franciscan friar and founder of the Alta California missions. Baptized Miguel José, upon joining the Franciscan order at age 17 he took the name of Junípero, after a companion of St. Francis. In 1742 Serra obtained a doctorate in theology at the Lullian University in Palma de Mallorca, where he was a professor of theology. Known as a forceful and zealous preacher with a resonant voice, in 1749 Serra sailed for New Spain to become a missionary. He served in the missions in the Sierra Gorda from 1750 to 1758, and the missions he administered there prospered. In order to better serve the indigenous population he served there, he learned the Otomí language. In 1758 Serra was recalled to the San Fernando College in Mexico City, where he remained until ...

Article

(b Memphis, TN, Sept 10, 1949). American musicologist of Greek descent, specializing in Greek, mainly Byzantine, music. She studied at the University of Memphis (BM, 1971), and the Ohio State University (MA, 1975; PhD in musicology, 1979). She taught at Texas Christian University, the Ohio State University, and the University of Missouri in Saint Louis, where she has been full professor (since 1989), director of the Center for the Humanities (since 1997), and Curator’s Professor (since 2007).

She is fluent in Greek and proficient in both Byzantine and Western music and history. Her research on Greek music extends beyond Greek sources, resulting in conclusions that challenge entrenched views, as is the case with her article ‘The Application of “Chant sur le Livre” to Byzantine Chant’ (2003).

She has done pioneering work on medieval women’s creativity and especially the 9th-century poet-composer Kassia, the work and life of whom she has been studying for 20 years; forthcoming are an anthology of Kassia’s complete works, and a monograph, ...

Article

Esther R. Crookshank

(b Southampton, England, July 17, 1674; Stoke Newington, London, Nov 25, 1748). English hymn writer, clergyman, scholar, and author. Watts wrote hymns from age 20 for his Southampton congregation and from 1702 served as pastor in London. After giving up public ministry for health reasons in 1712, he exerted great influence on Puritan leaders in the American colonies through extensive correspondence and his published collections, which contained nearly 700 hymns and psalm paraphrases.

With The Psalms of David Imitated in the Language of the New Testament (1719) he undertook large-scale reform of Dissenting (non-Anglican) worship by writing new “Christianized” versifications of the Psalms; he believed the Psalter required revision to fit it for New Testament worship. His reform succeeded far beyond his expectations for many reasons, including the strong appeal of his vigorous, singable lyrics to Puritan ministers and worshippers in colonial New England, where they took deep root. Called the “liberator of English hymnody,” Watts produced psalm paraphrases and hymns that broke the grip of strict metrical psalmody in use for over a century in Protestant Britain and North America. Dozens of American compilers produced ...