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Founded in 1935, the British Council promotes cultural co-operation between Britain and other countries with support from the Foreign and Commonwealth Office; it is represented in over 100 countries with offices in over 200 cities. It assists over 1500 arts events each year selected for their potential to reach key groups in individual countries, including the younger generation, and to gain recognition for British artistic achievement. In music (including jazz, traditional and rock music as well as British classical, early and contemporary music), tours are usually organized by overseas promoters. The Council has sponsored recordings and provides information and advice on British music and music education, as well as scores, to professional users overseas, including through the quarterly magazine ...

Article

The music department is a part of the Research Institute of the Arts, which also includes Fine Art Studies, Theatre Studies, Screen Arts Studies (after 1988), and Architectural Studies (since 2010). The music department existed independently until 1988 as an Institute of Music. The Institute of Music was established in 1948 as the Research Institute of Music with the Museum at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with two staff members: Petko Staynov (director) and Andrey Stoyanov. The task of the Institute of Music is to collect, preserve, and publish the Bulgarian folksong heritage. Subsequently the collectors and researchers of folk songs and traditions Ivan Kachulev, Andrey Andreev (1950), Rayna Katsarova, and Elena Stoin (1951) were appointed at the Institute. A separate section for folk music was established at the Institute, led by Rayna Katsarova (1952–67) and, since 1967, Prof. Kaufmann. In 1952 the first volume of the first research journal of the Institute, ...

Article

Peter Dickinson

A program for study, research, and performance of American music, based at Keele University, Staffordshire, England. It was founded in 1974 by Peter Dickinson, the first professor of music at the university’s newly established department of music. The center, which housed an excellent collection of American music materials, sponsored the Ives centenary concerts (1974) and three international conferences (1975, 1978, and 1983, the last in collaboration with the Society for American Music, then called the Sonneck Society); in 1975 it introduced an MA in American music. Dickinson departed in 1984 and David Nicholls taught at Keele from 1987 to 2000. The center is no longer active as a result of university restructuring.

P. Dickinson: “Recent Research on Musical Traditions of the United States: a View from Britain,” IMSCR XII: Berkeley 1977, ed. D. Heartz and B. Wade (Kassel, 1981) P. Dickinson: “British-American Interactions: Composers and Students,” MT...

Article

Michael H.S. van Eekeren

A non-profit organization promoting the work of Dutch composers and musicians. Although there are other promoters of Dutch music in the Netherlands, CNM is unique in the range of its support. It concerns itself with contemporary and older music, with improvised and amateur music; it produces CDs and books, organizes concerts in the Netherlands, stimulates educational projects and collaborates extensively with Dutch public radio stations.

CNM started its activities in the mid-1970s as Bumafonds (BFO), a subsidiary of the Dutch composers' rights organization BUMA. During a major reorganization in 1991 it acquired its present name. Since then its activities have become both more intense and more diverse. 1992 saw the introduction of the record label NM Classics, in close cooperation with Radio Netherlands, to release recordings of Dutch music of all periods, played mainly by Dutch musicians. In the same year the Bibliotheek Nederlandse Muziek (Netherlands Music Archives) was initiated. This series of books includes monographs on Ton de Leeuw and Unico Wilhelm van Wassenaer, and the correspondence (...

Article

Alan L. Spurgeon

Professional organization for Dalcroze teachers. The organization promotes the artistic and pedagogical principles of Emile Jacques-Dalcroze (1865–1950), a Swiss composer and teacher whose approach to music education consists of three components: eurythmics, which teaches concepts of rhythm, structure, and musical expression through movement; solfége, which develops an understanding of pitch, scale, and tonality through activities emphasizing aural comprehension and vocal improvisation; and improvisation, which develops an understanding of form and meaning through spontaneous musical creation using movement, voice, and instruments. Dalcroze intended that the three subjects be intertwined so that the development of the inner ear, an internal muscular sense, and creative expression might work together to form the core of basic musicianship. The Dalcroze Society of America began to take shape in 1969 with informal gatherings in New Jersey and New York City, and was incorporated in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in 1978. It is affiliated with the Féderation Internationale des Enseignants de Rhythmique, headquartered at the Institut Jaques-Dalcroze in Geneva, Switzerland. The American society publishes the ...

Article

Denise M.M. Dalphond

Form of electronic music that originated in Detroit among African American youth in the early 1980s. Local black radio, house and block parties, DJ crews, and such musical influences as German electronic rock, Italo disco, electro funk, and electronic art music formed the foundation of what eventually became a globally recognized form of electronic dance music. Detroit techno is characterized by repeating, syncopated rhythms typically in common time (4/4) with tempos ranging from 120 to 150 beats per minute. The sounds produced by early analog synthesizers as well as the Roland TR-909 drum machine are also distinguishing features.

Juan Atkins, Derrick May, Kevin Saunderson, and Eddie Fowlkes, known as the Belleville Four, are considered the founders of Detroit techno. All four met in Belleville, Michigan, in the late 1970s as high school students and later moved to Detroit. They were strongly influenced by the Electrifying Mojo, a Detroit radio DJ known for his innovative, theatrical, and eclectic approach to radio and musical selection. In the early 1980s they began DJing and producing electronic music, collaborating with one another to create a network of musical creativity, production, distribution, and promotion, including the following influential record labels: Metroplex, founded by Atkins in ...

Article

Josef Häusler

Town in Germany. It was noted in the 20th century for its festival of contemporary music. It was the home of the Fürstenbergs from 1488; they maintained a court chapel and opera which achieved particularly high standards during the late 18th and early 19th centuries, and employed musicians such as J.W. Kalliwoda, J.A. Sixt, Joseph Fiala and Conradin Kreutzer. The works of Mozart, Dittersdorf, Umlauf and J.A. Hiller were particularly popular there and Italian works by Cimarosa, Gazzaniga, Piccinni, Sarti, Salieri and Paisiello were frequently heard. It became an internationally known centre for contemporary music between 1921 and 1926, and since 1950 has re-established its reputation.

The Donaueschingen Festival was the first to devote itself exclusively to contemporary music; it is organized by the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde Donaueschingen, in collaboration from 1950 with the Südwestfunk (SWF), Baden-Baden (which was renamed Südwestrundfunk in 1998 following its merger with the Süddeutsche Rundfunk in Stuttgart). The programmes between ...

Article

Johan Kolsteeg

Dutch organization based in Amsterdam. It was set up in 1947 with assistance from the Stichting Nederlandse Muziekbelangen (Foundation for Netherlands Musical Interests) and central government, with the aim of documenting and publishing modern Dutch music. This move was prompted by the loss of a number of scores, including some by Willem Pijper, in the bombing of Rotterdam in May 1940. The microfilm archives of Dutch works created at that time formed the basis of the Donemus collection after the war. The founders of Donemus (whose name is an abbreviation of ‘Documentatie in Nederland voor Muziek’) included C. Wiessing, H.E. Reeser and H. Reinink. The foundation grew under the directorship of André Jurres (1952–74), who in his various international posts did much to promote Dutch music. Around 10,000 works by some 550 Dutch composers are now available through Donemus, as well as biographical information on the composers, press releases and programme notes. Performance material of all the documented works is available on request, and scores of a limited number of works are issued. Donemus has published the journals ...

Article

Romanian orchestra founded in 1868 in Bucharest. Previously known as the Romanian Philharmonic Society Orchestra, since 1955 it has borne the name of Romania’s most prominent composer, George Enescu. It is the oldest orchestra in Eastern Europe and its headquarters is the Palace of the Romanian Athenaeum, a concert hall with a capacity of 800, and a symbol of Bucharest’s cultural richness.

The Romanian Philharmonic Society was founded on 7 May 1868, under the leadership of Eduard Wachmann, who conducted the first concert of the orchestra, on 15 December of the same year. The role of the orchestra was to educate the taste of the increasingly growing Bucharest audience for classical music; this is why Wachmann wanted to form a stable orchestra. On 5 March 1889, the orchestra gave the first concert in the freshly-built Atheneum (1888), which became the new home of the institution. Constructing such a concert hall for the Philharmonic Society was only possible with the support of cultural figures of the time, who understood the necessity of an adequate headquarters for an institution that promotes art, culture, and science. A public subscription was organized and together with other donations, sufficient funds were raised to build the Atheneum quite quickly, in two years....

Article

Romanian conservatory founded in 1919 in Cluj-Napoca in central Transylvania. It comprises today three main faculties: musical performance, music theory, and musical theatre. Since 1998, a fourth branch has been founded in the city of Piatra Neamţ, situated in a different region in northeast Romania. Initially founded as the Conservatory for Music and Dramatic Arts, the institution was also named the Academy of Music and Dramatic Arts (from 1931) and the Gheorghe Dima Music Conservatory (from 1950); since 1990 it has regained its title of academy in its current form—the Gheorghe Dima Music Academy. The institution has borne for 60 years the name of its first rector, the composer Gheorghe Dima, who is praised for his role in the founding of musical higher-education in Transylvania.

The history of the institution begins in an effervescent social and cultural period, shortly after the Union of Transylvania with Romania (1918...

Article

Friedrich W. Riedel

Benedictine abbey near Krems, Lower Austria. It was founded in 1083 by Bishop Altmann of Passau as a monastery for prebendaries. In 1094 it was taken over by Benedictines from St Blasien in the Black Forest, and rapidly became an important centre of religious and intellectual life. After a period of decline during the Reformation, Göttweig flourished in the Baroque era, particularly under the abbot Gottfried Bessel (1714–49), who, after a fire in 1718, instigated the rebuilding of the monastery in Baroque style. Despite the misfortunes which befell the monastery during the Enlightenment and the Napoleonic Wars, and the disruption caused by World War II, Göttweig remained an important religious and cultural centre. It has a long musical tradition; choral singing was fostered from the abbey’s foundation, and its choir school dates from the Middle Ages. By the 15th century an organist had been appointed, and polyphony was sung in the 16th century. An inventory of ...

Article

Carlos de Pontes Leça

(Port. Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian)

Portuguese organization for supporting the arts, charity, education and sciences. It was founded on 18 July 1956, in accordance with the will of Calouste Sarkis Gulbenkian (b Istanbul, 29 March 1869; d Lisbon, 20 July 1955), a pioneer of the Middle Eastern oil industry, an enlightened amateur of the arts and philanthropist. The foundation's headquarters are in Lisbon, but its activities, though centred in Portugal, extend to many other countries.

The foundation supports music chiefly by granting subsidies or financing projects of its own to promote four main concerns: the musical education and professional improvement of musicians, the encouragement of contemporary music and musicians, the study and performance of lesser-known works including important musicological projects, and the growth of public interest in music and the creation of new audiences through its own resident groups: an orchestra, a choir and a dance company. Scholarships are granted for training professional musicians; conservatories and academies of music, concert societies, choral groups and other organizations have been subsidized....

Article

Danica Petrović

Serbian musicology institute founded by composer Petar Konjović in Belgrade within the SASA in 1948. As the first director, Konjović proposed three main fields of research: a) the history of Serbian music from the Middle Ages to the end of the 19th century; b) contemporary Serbian music and current musicological questions; and c) Serbian folk music. The first members of the Institute were well known Belgrade musicians. The first Belgrade musicologists and ethnomusicologists were only beginning their education at that time. The work of the institute was done by a small number of researchers during the first six decades of its existence. These researchers wrote the first history of Serbian music and the first monographs of Serbian composers; initiated the studies of the aesthetics of music in Serbia; established the Byzantine roots of the Serbian Chant and the continuity of its development over the previous two centuries; and worked on the dynamic developments in Serbian music in the 20th century. The ethnomusicological research focused on Serbian vocal, instrumental, and dance traditions....

Article

International organization. It was initiated in Belgium in 1940 by Marcel Cuvelier to propagate live music and related arts in schools, universities and among working youth, regardless of political or doctrinaire considerations. It has established an effective international network of artistic exchanges, bringing many young performers before the public through concert tours and competitions; it also encourages performance by young people by establishing music camps and forming international orchestras directed by outstanding conductors. In keeping with its broad humanitarian aims it was a founder-member of the International Music Council in 1949. The first Jeunesses Musicales concert was in the Palais des Beaux-Arts, Brussels, on 17 October 1940. The movement spread to France in the following year through the efforts of René Nicoly, and in 1945 the Fédération Internationale des Jeunesses Musicales (FIJM) was founded; its first international congress was in 1946. The founders included Gilles Lefèbvre, Alicia de Larrocha, Robert Mayer (who later founded Youth and Music in London on the model of the Jeunesses Musicales), Joan Miró, Pierre A. Pillet, Henryk Szeryng and Nicanor Zabaleta, in addition to the Jeunesses Musicales of France, Belgium and Canada. The movement grew rapidly; its first music camp was at Orford in Canada in ...

Article

Lambach  

David Wyn Jones

Benedictine abbey in Upper Austria. It was founded in 1056 on the site of a fortress protecting the confluence of the rivers Traun and Ager, and was sanctioned by Emperor Heinrich IV in 1061. The first monks came from the monastery of Münsterschwarzach near Würzburg, and in 1089 the church was consecrated.

Situated on the main west-east trade route, the abbey's wealth grew steadily in the Middle Ages, largely based on the salt trade, but its location also made it vulnerable to attack and occupation by conquering forces from the 13th century to Napoleonic times. Abbot Pabo founded an abbey school towards the end of the 12th century by which time a musical scriptorium was already thriving. Illuminated manuscripts in the hands of two monks, Haimo and Gotschalk, are notable, including a fragment of music in neumatic notation for the Dreikönigsspiel frequently performed at the abbey. Other important medieval manuscripts are two examples of the Lambach Ritual (from the beginning and end of the 12th century), a 14th-century collection of songs (both in monody and in parts) copied by Hermann (now in ...

Article

Wouter Paap

revised by Johan Kolsteeg

(Association for the Promotion of the Art of Music). Dutch musical organization. The oldest association of its kind in the country, it was established in 1829 and laid the foundations of music education by setting up music schools and after 1881 by instituting examinations for professional musicians. After World War II, when music schools and conservatories in the Netherlands became government institutions, the association was no longer deeply concerned with music education, although it continued to provide grants for gifted music students. Much work is done in forming choirs and in renewing the choral repertory; a federation of youth choirs is attached to the association, and the performance of Dutch choral works is encouraged. In 1982 the society helped to organize the Stichting Nederlandse Korenorganisaties. The association has built up an important library, which since 1955 has been an independent organization; it consists of a loan department for choral and orchestral material and a research department containing valuable historical material (e.g. manuscripts and early music prints). The 1990s saw closer links with the ...

Article

Melk  

Robert N. Freeman

Town in Lower Austria. The strategic location of the fortress Medelica (Melk) on a slope overlooking the Danube led the Babenbergs, Austria's medieval rulers, to establish their court there in 976. Monks from the Benedictine abbey of Lambach were invited to join the court in 1089; shortly after 1110, when the Babenbergs moved to Klosterneuburg, the Benedictines became the owners of Melk and a large area of land. This link with the Austrian monarchal line made the wealthy abbey one of the Empire's most powerful institutions.

Soon after their arrival the Benedictines founded a boys' choir; pueri are mentioned as early as 1140 and a cloister school, training boys for singing in processions and daily church services, is described in a manuscript dating from 1160. The scriptorium was most productive in the first half of the 13th century. A great fire (1297) destroyed most of the manuscripts recording this formative musical period. 133 codices survived intact, about half of which originated at Melk, including the ...

Article

British organization based in London. It was formed in 1935 by George Dyson and the Carnegie United Kingdom Trust from previously established voluntary regional groupings. Its founding was in part motivated by the plight of professional musicians, whose earnings from work with amateur choral and orchestral societies had reduced sharply during the Depression. The federation’s aim is to maintain, improve and advance education by promoting the art and practice and the public performance of music throughout the United Kingdom. Membership is open to all amateur performing and promoting music societies, though the main body of its membership is formed by over 300 orchestras, 300 concert promoters and 1000 amateur choirs. In the 1990s the federation’s members were promoting about 7000 concerts every year, with about half of their annual spending of £13 million going to engage professional musicians. The federation also helps its members with financial services such as insurance and with legal advice, and produces information sheets on subjects ranging from appointing a new musical director to the national lottery. It has a programme of training in performance techniques, both choral and orchestral, and in arts marketing. It lobbies government bodies in cooperation with the Voluntary Arts Network and the National Music Council of Great Britain. It encourages high standards and adventurous programming, in part through its on-line Repertoire Sevice and ...

Article

[OAKE]

Professional organization for Kodály teachers. The organization’s goal is to enrich the quality of life in the United States through music education following the principles set forth by Hungarian composer and educator Zoltán Kodály (1882–1967). Kodály devoted a significant portion of his creative endeavors to the musical education of the Hungarian nation, and the approach bearing his name is based on his work and that of his students. He believed that the acquisition of basic musical skills is the right of every individual. In the Kodály approach comprehensive musicianship is nurtured through the teaching of musical literacy. The approach is vocally based, with folk songs of the culture as the repertoire and solfège as the basic teaching methodology. Only music of the highest quality is used in teaching and the approach is highly sequential in presenting musical concepts. Established in 1975, OAKE is affiliated with the International Kodály Society. The organization holds annual national conferences, has local chapters that sponsor workshops for teachers, reviews teaching standards for Kodály training programs, and supports the ...

Article

Pamela M. Potter

German musical organization. Established in November 1933, the Reichsmusikkammer (Reich Music Chamber) was one of the seven sub-chambers of the Reichskulturkammer (Reich Chamber of Culture), founded and operated by Joseph Goebbels. Like the other sub-chambers for theatre, visual arts, film, literature, journalism and radio, the Reichsmusikkammer was the official organization of the Third Reich coordinating all facets of the music industry, with departments for composition, soloists, orchestras, entertainment music, music education, choral music, church music, concert agencies, copyright issues, music and instrument vendors, and financial and legal matters. It set wages for professional musicians, regulated professional certification, introduced exams and training courses for private music instructors and provided a pension plan for artists. Membership was required of all music professionals, who had to furnish proof of ‘Aryan’ lineage to join; thus the Reichsmusikkammer served as an effective mechanism to exclude Jews from German musical life. Richard Strauss served as the first president of the Reichsmusikkammer but was compelled to resign with the discovery of his defiance to the regime in insisting on working with the Jewish librettist Stefan Zweig. The first vice-president, the conductor Wilhelm Furtwängler, stepped down following his controversial defence of Hindemith. Strauss was succeeded by the conductor and musicologist Peter Raabe, and Furtwängler was succeeded by the composer Paul Graener....