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Cloch  

Peter Crossley-Holland

Clapper-bell of ancient and medieval Wales. Several types were known, all with suspension loops. They include one quadrangular and one circular bell of Romano-British (La Tène) type, found in the Vale of Neath, and Celtic ‘saints’ bells’, including a long quadrangular bell now in the National Museum of Wales. Historical references to the cloch date from the 12th century, but the traditional performing practice has not survived....

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Alastair Dick

Medieval double-headed cylindrical drum of India. In the 13th-century Sa ṅgītaratnākara it is described as about 48 cm long and 25 cm in diameter. The heads are stretched on creeper hoops which have seven holes for tension cords. The drum is carried on a shoulder strap and played on the left side with the hand and on the right with a crook-stick. As the description is very similar to that of the medieval Arab ...

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Djnar  

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Hana Vlhová-Wörner

[Domazlaus Predicator]

(b Bohemia, c. 1300; d c. 1350). Dominican friar and a leading author of liturgical poetry during the period of rising patriotic feelings in Bohemia. Several sequences to Bohemian patron saints appearing after 1300 are attributed to his authorship, among them De superna hierarchia to Corpus Christi (with acrostic ...

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Alastair Dick

(from Sanskrit gharsa: ‘rubbing’). Medieval barrel drum of India, played partly by friction. It is described as similar to the hu ḍukkā. It was played with much ‘booming’ (go ṃkāra): the thumb and middle fingertips of the right hand, smeared with beeswax, rubbed the skin; the left-hand fingers struck the skin and the thumb pressed it. The modern ...

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Ghanon  

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Ernest H. Sanders, Leeman L. Perkins, Patrick Macey, Christoph Wolff, Jerome Roche, Graham Dixon, James R. Anthony and Malcolm Boyd

In 

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Harold S. Powers

revised by Frans Wiering

In 

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Harold S. Powers

revised by Frans Wiering

In 

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Leeman L. Perkins and Patrick Macey

In 

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Ernest H. Sanders, Leeman L. Perkins, Patrick Macey, Christoph Wolff, Jerome Roche, Graham Dixon, James R. Anthony and Malcolm Boyd

In 

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Harold S. Powers

revised by Frans Wiering

In 

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Malcolm Boyd

In 

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Harold S. Powers, Frans Wiering, James Porter, James Cowdery, Richard Widdess, Ruth Davis, Marc Perlman, Stephen Jones and Allan Marett

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Hana Vlhová-Wörner

(b Prague, 1348; d Rome, 17 June 1400). Bohemian archbishop (1378–96) and composer of liturgical poetry. The list of his liturgical chants (alleluias, sequences, hymns, and two full sets of office chants for Marian feasts) and spiritual prayers (cantilenae and orationes) includes about 40 items, which makes him one of the most prolific late-medieval authors. The most important part of his compositions was intended for the feast of the Visitation of the BVM that was introduced on his initiative to the Roman calendar in 1389. While his texts were influenced by Classical poetry and therefore criticized for their unorthodox vocabulary, his melodies, composed mostly in the late-medieval chant style, enjoyed great popularity.

CSHSG.M. Dreves: Die Hymnen Johann von Jensteins (Prague, 1886)G.M. Dreves and C. Blume: AH, vol.48 (1905), 421–51V. Plocek: ‘Eine neu aufgefundene Sequenz von der heiligen Dorothea und ihre Beziehung zu Jenštejns “Decet huius”’, ...

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Kamrā  

Alastair Dick

[kamrikā]

Paired wooden or bamboo clappers described in Sanskrit texts of medieval India. They are of acacia wood or thick bamboo, about 24 cm long and 4 cm wide, and taper slightly at the end. They are played either with a pair in each hand, held loosely by the root of the thumb and middle finger and clapped by shaking the wrists, or with one pair held between the thumb and ring finger of the right hand and struck against the left thumb and fist. The diminutive ...

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Alastair Dick

Medieval double-headed drum of India, probably cylindrical. It is described as having been about 42 to 48 cm long, 24 to 28 cm in diameter, and 5 mm thick in the shell, which was made of citrus wood. The close-fitting heads were attached with thread and skin to iron hoops which had 14 holes; the threads passed through every second hole to form a net lacing (...