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Article

Craig H. Russell

revised by Monica Hall

[Carles y Amat, Joan]

(b Monistrol de Montserrat, c1572; d Monistrol de Montserrat, Feb 10, 1642). Catalan theorist, guitarist and physician. Biographical information about Amat is drawn mainly from research carried out in 1918 by José Vilar (Revista Ilustrada Jorba, 1925, and Pujol, 1950). Although baptismal records are missing, Vilar placed Amat’s birth at around 1572, and this date is confirmed by a letter included in some editions of Amat’s treatise, which states that Amat was 67 in 1639. Amat himself said that he was born in Monistrol, naming his parents as Joan Carles and Joanna Amat. Amat received the doctorate in medicine at the University of Valencia, probably in 1595, and may have spent some time in Lérida. In 1600 he married Mónica Ubach Casanovas; they had no children. He was made municipal physician at Monistrol in 1618, performed a similar function at the nearby monastery of Montserrat, and occupied several other municipal offices. At the time of his death he had just started a period as mayor....

Article

(b St Georg, Upper Austria, Feb 28, 1655; d Weissenfels, Aug 6, 1700). Austrian-German composer, singer, violinist, keyboard player, music theorist and novelist. At seven his father sent him to the Benedictine monastery at Lambach, a short distance north-east of St Georg, where he began his musical education. Beer pursued further general and music studies at Reichersberg, south of Passau, as well as in Passau itself. In 1670 his parents took him to Regensburg, where they had moved to preserve their Protestant faith. As a student at the Gymnasium Poeticum Beer became a friend of his fellow student Pachelbel. He continued to study music, including composition, and he wrote the score for a school play, Mauritius imperator. At the end of his studies at the gymnasium, the city of Regensburg awarded him a scholarship to enter the university at Leipzig in 1676 as a student of theology. He soon became acquainted with the musicians there, including the Thomas Kantor Sebastian Knüpfer, and Werner Fabricius, organist at the Nikolaikirche....

Article

Kerala J. Snyder

(b Kolberg, Pomerania [now Kołobrzeg, Poland], Jan 1, 1628; d Dresden, Nov 14, 1692). German music theorist, composer and singer. He is best known for his discussion of musical-rhetorical figures in Tractatus compositionis augmentatus.

The birthplace given above is documented in a funeral poem by Bernhard’s brother-in-law C.C. Dedekind and is confirmed by Walther; the birth date appears in Müller-Blattau (2/1963) without documentation. Mattheson states, no doubt erroneously, that Bernhard was born in Danzig in 1612. According to Dedekind, Bernhard studied in Danzig (probably with the elder Kaspar Förster and possibly Paul Siefert) and in Warsaw (very likely with Scacchi); Mattheson’s assertion that Bernhard studied in Danzig with Balthasar Erben must also be in error for Erben did not become Kapellmeister at the Marienkirche until 1658, well after Bernhard was established in Dresden. At some point Bernhard also studied law. He began singing as an alto at the electoral court in Dresden under Schütz probably in ...

Article

(b ?Paris, ?1676; d Paris, Aug 6, 1739). French dancer, choreographer, and academician. His dancing-master father, Antoine (d 20 July 1740), married Catherine Beauchamps, the sister of dancing-master Pierre Beauchamps, with whom Michel reputedly studied. Michel was also connected to [J.-B. Poquelin] Molière’s family through his wife, Marie-Nicole-Thérèse Dugast (married 7 May 1701). Michel danced at the Paris Opéra from 1690; from 1728 until his death he was a ‘compositeur des ballets’. On occasion, he choreographed or performed in ballets for the French court. Among other works, he choreographed a Ballet de la Paix (1713) for the Jesuit Collège Louis le Grand. His famous pupils included Marie-Anne Cupis de Camargo, Marie Sallé, and, allegedly, Franz Hilverding van Wewen. Noverre claims that Blondi did not teach his students to read dance notation, but as a member of the Académie Royale de Danse, Blondi signed a resolution condemning Pierre Rameau’s ...

Article

Biancamaria Brumana and Colin Timms

(b Perugia, Feb 21, 1625; d Brufa, nr Perugia, July 1, 1705). Italian composer, singer, librettist, historian, and architect. Born Angelini, he studied under Sozio Sozi, father superior of the Oratorio dei Filippini at Perugia, in 1635, continuing in Rome as a protégé of Cesare Bontempi, a nobleman whose name he adopted. There he studied singing under Virgilio Mazzocchi and won the patronage of Cardinal Francesco Barberini. From November 1640 to January 1641 he was a singer in S Lorenzo in Damaso. In 1641 he travelled to Florence, where he met Maximilian I of Bavaria, who brought him to Munich (he was in Maximilian’s service as a singer from July to December 1641, under the direction of Giovanni Giacomo Porro). From1643 to 1650 he was a singer at S Marco, Venice, under Monteverdi, Rovetta, and Cavalli, and in other churches. In 1651 he entered the service of the Prince Johann Georg II of Saxony in Dresden, where, after the death of Johann Georg I and the amalgamation of the two Kapellen in ...

Article

Barton Hudson

(b Bergamo, 1566; d Naples, 1625). Italian theorist, singer and priest. From his early years Cerone associated himself with the music of Spain and the Spanish-owned Kingdom of Naples. In 1592, after singing for a time at the cathedral at Oristano, Sardinia, he went to Spain, where he served Philip II and later Philip III in their chapel; Italian musicians were rare at that time in Madrid. While in Spain Cerone made detailed studies of Spanish music and theory that later played a large part in his own great treatise. He apparently left Spain in 1603 and became a priest and singer at the church of Ss Annunziata, Naples. In 1609 he also began to teach plainchant to the deacons of the church, for whom he probably wrote Le regole più necessarie per l'introduttione del canto fermo (Naples, 1609). From 1610 until his death he was a singer in the royal chapel....

Article

Argia Bertini

revised by Giulia Anna Romana Veneziano

(b Florence, July 8, 1638; d Florence, Jan 16, 1703). Italian composer, teacher, music editor, theorist, organist and singer. He spent his entire life as a priest in Florence. On 1 August 1663 he was appointed chaplain at the cathedral, S Maria del Fiore, where he was also active as an organist and singer. He was particularly admired as a teacher, and it was this above all that determined the nature of his publications; the numerous reprints particularly of Il cantore addottrinato and Scolare addottrinato bear witness to the popularity of his methods. In these two manuals he sought to establish rules for the effective composition and performance of church music, contributing, according to his contemporaries, to the codification of the ‘true rule of ecclesiastical singing’. However, he is better remembered for his Corona di sacre canzoni and Colletta di laude spirituali, which have great importance for the final phase in the history of the ...

Article

Gary R. Boye

(fl 1629–47). Italian composer, guitarist, lutenist, and theorist. He was one of the most important 17th-century guitar composers and served as a professional guitarist and lutenist in Brussels, Rome, Paris, and Venice. A member of the Accademia dei Caliginosi at Ancona, he used the society’s name together with his own academic name, ‘Il furioso’, as a pseudonym in his earliest publications. His first book for guitar is no longer extant but its contents, and those of the second book, were reprinted in part in his later collections. Il primo, secondo e terzo libro was the earliest engraved Italian guitar tablature; it contains selections from Foscarini’s first two books in the battute style, and an additional third book, which introduces the pizzicato technique. Foscarini’s fourth and fifth books were published together with the earlier material, using the original plates but with some changes to the dedications. Il primo, secondo e terzo libro...

Article

[Bartolomeo]

(b Rome, c1600; d Madrid, July 22, 1668). Italian harpist and theorist. After having studied mathematics, music and law at Rome, he decided in 1626 to seek his fortune at the Spanish court, but was prevented from emigrating until 1632, in which year he reached Barcelona. On 1 January 1633 he was appointed harpist in the Spanish royal chapel and on 11 November Philip IV issued an order to the Viceroy of Catalonia guaranteeing free entry of the instruments which Jovernardi had invented in Rome, including a cross-strung chromatic harp and a harpsichord of four octaves' compass (C to c‴), capable of crescendo and with provision in all but the bottom octave for both D♯ and E♭, G♯ and A♭.

Jovernardi succeeded Lope Machado as musician of the Cámara Real on 18 April 1642; his salary in that year amounted to 8050 reales of paper and 6815 of silver. During his long stay in Madrid, he often had difficulty collecting his salary, perhaps in part because of the envy of courtiers who resented his mixing in the affairs of state. In ...

Article

George J. Buelow

(b Geising, Erzgebirge, April 6, 1660; d Leipzig, June 5, 1722). German composer, keyboard player and music theorist. He was Bach's immediate predecessor as Kantor at the Thomasschule, Leipzig, and a major figure in German music of the late Baroque.

Kuhnau's family had originated in Bohemia, whence they fled during the Counter-Reformation because of their Protestant faith. Their name was Kuhn. Johann seems to have adopted the form ‘Kuhnau’ only after arriving in Leipzig, and it was assumed too by his brothers Andreas and Gottfried, who were also musicians (Johann also briefly used the form ‘Cuno’ when first applying for the post of organist at the Thomaskirche, Leipzig); the other members of the family, however, retained the name Kuhn (see Münnich for the family history). According to his autobiography published in Mattheson, Kuhnau gave early evidence of his scholarly potential and also had a fine voice. About 1670...

Article

(b c1656; d Versailles, April 1708). French composer, theorist and singer. On 24 March 1679 he was appointed chantre clerc at the Ste Chapelle, Paris, where he may have studied with René Ouvrard. He joined the royal chapel at Versailles in 1683 and remained there until his death. He married Anne Typhaine in 1685. In 1696 he became an officer of the king’s music and bought a coat-of-arms.

L’Affilard was the first composer to supply metronomic indications for his own music, and he was scrupulous in editing it, indicating breathing places, ornaments and notes inégales. His surviving music amounts to about three dozen elegant airs de mouvement or dance-songs, which are found in manuscript (in F-V and CDN-Mn ), in Recueils published by Ballard (RISM 1695³ and 1697², and two others of 1701 and 1705) and especially in what might be termed his ‘complete works’: the ...

Article

Don Harrán

( b Venice, 1571; d Venice, 1648). Italian rabbi, cantor and scholar . He was a cantor in the Scuola italiana (Italian synagogue), Venice, from 1607 until his death. He appears to have introduced some form of polyphony, probably improvised, into the synagogue at Ferrara in 1604. Erudite in Jewish and humanist studies, Modena composed more than 40 writings, on subjects as diverse as Hebrew language and grammar, lexicography, Jewish rites and customs, Kabbalah, alchemy and gambling, as well as various plays, prefaces and rabbinical authorizations, translations, editions, almost 400 poems, and a highly personal autobiography. Music occupied a central place in his life and thought. Among his extended responses to questions put to him in his capacity as a religious authority, he wrote two essays on music, specifically polyphony: the first (1605) legitimizes its use in Jewish prayer services and celebrations, as well as for study; the second (from later years) addresses the issue of whether it is permitted to repeat the name of God (in a single voice or between voices)....

Article

Robert A. Green

(b Moulins, Oct 1, 1644; d Paris, June 1, 1699). French viol player, theorist and composer. He may have received his early musical instruction from Jacque Joly, maître de musique at Notre Dame in Moulins. In 1676 he moved to Paris, living at the house of the lute and viol maker Michel Collichon; there he met Dubuisson and Machy. He studied the viol for three years, culminating in a month's study with Sainte-Colombe. His singing treatise Méthode claire, certaine et facile, dedicated to Michel Lambert, provides valuable information on ornamentation and the relationship between metre and tempo; its system of natural and transposed modes was one of the first in France to distinguish between major and minor modes (see Tolkoff). The Méthode was also published in Amsterdam and references to it in Walther and Mattheson (Der vollkommene Capellmeister) attest to its influence outside France.

Rousseau dedicated his ...

Article

Christopher D.S. Field

(b ?Egton, N. Yorks., c1602–6; d ?Holborn, London, between 5 May and July 29, 1669). English theorist, composer and viol player. He was the eldest son of Christopher Simpson of Westonby and his wife Dorothie; they, like him, were Roman Catholics and known recusants, who in 1604 were ‘suspected to be secretly marryed’. His father, a cordwainer and leader of a company of actors based at Egton, acquired a smallholding (Hunt House) on the moors some 6 km south of Egton, which the younger Christopher inherited. Simpson has been tentatively identified with ‘Christopher Simpson alias Sampson’ from Upsall in Yorkshire, who studied at the Catholic college of Saint Omer in the early 1620s, was ordained in Rome on 26 August 1629, entered the Society of Jesus at Watten in 1634, returned to England by 1639 as a priest attached to the residence of St John, Durham, and rose to become superior of the Jesuit mission in Northumbria (Urquhart, ...

Article

Harold E. Samuel

[Gottlieb]

(b Kulmbach, bap. Nov 6, 1607; d Nuremberg, bur. July 30, 1655). German composer, instrumentalist, organist and theorist, son of Johann Staden. He was a leading musician in Nuremberg, and though a lesser composer than his father he is perhaps, as the composer of the first extant Singspiel, historically more important.

The German form, ‘Gottlieb’, of Staden’s middle name appears in part iv of the magazine Frauenzimmer Gesprächspiele (1644) edited by Georg Philipp Harsdörffer, who was a crusader for the purification of the German language; Staden himself used ‘Theophil’. His early musical studies with his father were so successful that in July 1620, some ten years after the family returned to Nuremberg from Kulmbach and Bayreuth, Johann Staden petitioned the city council for an expectant's salary for his 13-year-old son. This request was apparently denied, but in December 1620 the council granted the boy 150 gulden a year for board, room and lessons with Jakob Paumann in Augsburg. Johann Staden could teach his son composition, the organ and the violin, whereas Paumann, a well-known instrumental teacher, who from ...

Article

Karl-Ernst Bergunder

[Nikolaus]

(b Erfurt, Aug 31, 1609; d Erfurt, April 5, 1680). German writer on music and organist. He spent his whole life at Erfurt. He attended the St Michael Lateinschule until 1621, when he transferred to the Protestant Ratsgymnasium, which was at that time noted for its fostering of music. One of his teachers there was Liborius Capsius, director of the collegium musicum and an important Erfurt University professor. He matriculated at the university in 1626, took his bachelor’s degree in 1628 and became a Master of Philosophy in 1629. He then became organist at the Protestant Thomaskirche and at the Catholic church of the Neuwerk monastery. From 1632 to 1635 he was Kantor and teacher at the Protestant school of preaching and also studied theology. In 1635 he was ordained and became deacon (in 1638 pastor) of the Kaufmannskirche in succession to Joseph Bötticher, who had won a good reputation as a musician. In ...

Article

Jack Westrup

revised by Ian Spink

(b Harley, nr Much Wenlock, Shropshire, July 16, 1624; d Harwich, Nov 4, 1678). English antiquarian and amateur musician, brother of Sylvanus Taylor. He was educated at Shrewsbury and Westminster, and entered New Inn Hall, Oxford, in 1641. He left the university without taking a degree and joined the Parliamentary Army, where he rose to the rank of captain. During the Commonwealth period he was appointed sequestrator in Herefordshire and used the opportunity to appropriate manuscripts from Hereford and Worcester cathedrals. According to Anthony Wood he also took part in chamber music-making at Oxford during the last years of the Commonwealth (though the reference may have been to his brother Sylvanus). After the Restoration he was commissary for ammunition at Dunkirk until 1664 and keeper of naval stores at Harwich from 1665 to his death. Nevertheless he was often in London, where he was acquainted with Locke (with whom he had ‘a great friendship’), Playford, Henry Purcell (i) and Pepys....

Article

Jack Westrup

[self-styled Anthony à Wood ]

(b Oxford, Dec 17, 1632; d Oxford, Nov 29, 1695). English antiquary and amateur musician . He was the son of Thomas Wood, a landed proprietor, and was educated at New College School, Oxford, Lord William’s School, Thame, and Merton College, Oxford, where he graduated BA in 1652 and MA in 1655. Music was his delight from his earliest years. He began as a viol player but in 1651 taught himself to play the violin, which he tuned in 4ths until he had regular lessons from a teacher in 1653. From 1656 he took part regularly in the chamber music meetings held in Oxford and entertained visiting violinists, including Thomas Baltzar. After the Restoration the professional musicians returned to London and within two or three years the regular meetings for chamber music came to an end. From that time Wood seems to have abandoned music. He became a recluse and devoted himself to collecting materials for a history of Oxford. In ...