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Article

Robin Bowman

(fl 1697–1706). Italian composer, violinist and organist, active in northern Europe. At one time he was in the service of the Prince of Carignan (a small town in the French Ardennes) and in this capacity appeared as a violinist before Louis XIV in 1697. About 1703 he was organist of the monastery at Kranenburg, on the present Dutch–German border. He published XII suonate a tre, duoi violini e violone col basso per l’organo op.1 (Amsterdam, 1703). One of the two surviving copies ( US-CHua ) bears the date 1706 on one partbook and the signature ‘Alberti’ on all four; a copy in Sweden ( S-L ) is also signed. The contents are all church sonatas, and each contains between six and eight movements, all in the same key. They are stolid, old-fashioned, rather uninspired works, competently written for the most part but using only the simplest imitative techniques and frequently becoming homophonic. The part for violone, which for Alberti meant ‘cello’, is sometimes quite elaborate, creating a genuine four-part texture....

Article

Alexander Lingas

[Bereketēs, Petros; Byzantios, ho Melōdos, Glykys, Tzelepēs, Kouspazoglou]

(b Constantinople, ?1665; d ?1725). Romaic (Greek) composer and cantor. Though undoubtedly influenced by the works of Panagiotes, Germanos and Balasios, he appears never to have been directly associated with the patriarchal court that nurtured his older colleagues. His own substantial contributions to their continuing renewal of Byzantine chanting were made instead from the Constantinopolitan parish church of St Constantine (in the district of Hypsomatheia), where Bereketes held successively the offices of reader, domestikos, and prōtopsaltēs.

Among the traditional repertories, Bereketes virtually ignored the stichērarion and heirmologion recently ‘beautified’ by Panagiotes, Germanos, and Balasios in order to focus his compositional skills on the more structurally malleable chants of the Papadikē. He also brought the newer paraliturgical genre of the kalophonic heirmos to its highest point with the composition of 45 heirmoi for use in monastic refectories or during the distribution of antidoron (blessed bread) at the conclusion of the Divine Liturgy. Cultivating what Chatzigiakoumis and Stathis have described as a comparatively popular style of liturgical music, he occasionally composed works incorporating elements of the Arabo-Persian tradition of Ottoman secular music. Among his chants for Orthros are settings of the first and second ...

Article

George J. Buelow

[Frischmuth, Marcus Hilarius]

(b Templin, Uckermark, bap. Dec 29, 1669; d Berlin, bur. June 25, 1745). German organist, Kantor and writer. References in his own writings to hearing church music performed in Kyritz (in the Prignitz) and Penzlau suggest that he may have been a student in those towns. Later he studied with Buxtehude’s pupil F.G. Klingenberg (from Stettin), organist at the Nikolaikirche in Berlin. Fuhrmann said that in 1690 he took some of his own compositions for examination by his music teacher, M.P. Henningsen, Kantor at the Marienkirche, Berlin. No music by Fuhrmann, however, seems to survive. Later, probably about 1692, he studied in Halle, where he was deeply influenced by the organ virtuosity of F.W. Zachow (Handel’s teacher), whom he ‘listened to each Sunday with a real hunger and thirst’ (Satans-Capelle, p.55). Fuhrmann visited Leipzig at about this time, working briefly with Schelle on contrapuntal exercises. He stated (ibid., p.52) that in ...

Article

Robert Thompson

(bap. Oxford, May 24, 1688; bur. Oxford, Jan 7, 1741). English organist and music copyist, son of Richard Goodson. He was baptized at the church of St Cross. He succeeded his father as professor of music at Oxford and as organist of Christ Church. Goodson was listed as choirboy at Christ Church from 1699 to 1707 and as singing-man from 1712 to 1718; Thomas Ford ( GB-Ob MS Mus.e.17) stated that he was appointed organist of Newbury on 24 August 1709. He matriculated on 3 March 1714 and graduated BMus on 1 March 1717. A number of manuscripts in Christ Church and the Bodleian Library, Oxford, contain music copied by him, but he does not appear to have been a composer, unless two anonymous works in his hand – an act song, Festo quid potius die ( Ob MS Mus.Sch.C.143, Och Mus 37, 1142b), and an incomplete Ode for St Cecilia's Day, ...

Article

Watkins Shaw

revised by Robert Ford

(b Canterbury, bap. Jan 30, 1696; d Canterbury, March 9, 1777). English cathedral singer and antiquarian, son of John Gostling. He was educated at King’s School, Canterbury, and St John’s College, Cambridge (MA, 1719). He was a minor canon of Canterbury, 1727–77, and held livings in Kent at Brook (1722–33), Littlebourne (1733–53) and Stone-in-Oxney (1753–77). He and the Canterbury organist William Raylton were principal organizers of the Canterbury Concerts, and in this connection he was associated with William, 3rd Lord Cowper, with whom he corresponded. Gostling had strong antiquarian interests, and his well-known A Walk in and around the City of Canterbury, first issued in 1774, went through five subsequent editions. He acquired, partly from his father, a fine collection of manuscript and printed music consisting of some 1500 items; it includes a first edition of Parthenia; the contratenor and tenor parts of John Day’s ...

Article

( b Schwäbisch Hall, Oct 16, 1689; d Schwäbisch Hall, May 22, 1768). German organist and writer on music . He began organ lessons at the age of nine with Baur, organist of St Katharina; after completing the curriculum of the local Gymnasium, he was a municipal clerk in neighbouring towns, returning later to his native city first as district clerk and then as city clerk, also becoming in 1724 Kantor and organist of St Katharina. Majer wrote two musical instruction manuals, Hodegus musicus (Schwäbisch Hall, 1718; lost) and the important Museum musicum theoretico practicum (Schwäbisch Hall, 1732/R, 2/1741; Majer’s annotated copy is in D-Sl ). It is the latter which establishes him among the significant writers on music in the late Baroque. The Museum musicum aims to give students self-instruction in the elementary concepts of musical notation (musica signatoria) and in the techniques of playing most instruments, including the recorder, chalumeau, flute, oboe, bassoon, cornett, flageolet, clarinet, clarino, horn, trombone, various keyboard instruments, lute, harp, timpani, violin and the viols. His explicit fingering and position charts for each of these instruments provides an unusually clear picture of German Baroque instrumental practice. A succinct introduction to the thoroughbass practice is also informative. Very little of Majer’s short work seems to be original. He said the thoroughbass material was taken from an anonymous work of ...

Article

Watkins Shaw

revised by Donald Burrows

( bc 1715; d Westminster, April 4, 1737). English organist . He was a chorister in the Chapel Royal under Croft, after whose death he had lessons from Thomas Roseingrave. He had benefit concerts in May 1735 and April 1736: in the second, at Stationers’ Hall, he played an organ solo. On ...

Article

Cecil Adkins

(b Goslar, 1666; d after 1726). German organist and theoretician . He was educated at the monastery at Hamersleben, where he was later organist. In 1727 he is known to have been the organist at the church of St Wiperti in Quedlinburg.

Meckenheuser’s one known work, Die sogenannte: Allerneueste, musicalische Temperatur (Quedlinburg, 1727), expounds a temperament based on an arithmetical division of the ditonic (Pythagorean) comma. Although seven of the 12 notes of the octave are slightly sharp, the division produces an adequate equal temperament. Meckenheuser, however, encountered difficulties in the practical application of his temperament. Adlung recounted a disastrous episode experienced by Meckenheuser when he tried to tune the organ at Goslar to his monochord: a fault not of the temperament, but of technique. The treatise was directed with considerable bitterness at Mattheson, who Meckenheuser claimed knew nothing of calculation and even less of musical temperament.

J. Adlung...

Article

Kenneth Elliott

( fl 1624–43). Scottish musician . He graduated MA from Edinburgh University in 1624 and probably subsequently taught music in Edinburgh. His manuscript collection of psalm settings dated 1626 was known and described by Cowan, but has since disappeared. After Charles I’s Scottish coronation at Holyrood in 1633, regular choral services were re-established at the Scottish Chapel Royal; Millar was appointed Master of the Choristers in 1634 and in 1635 his fine edition of psalm settings was printed in Edinburgh. In this collection the 104 anonymous settings of the Proper Tunes are by Scottish composers of the late 16th century. Millar wrote in his preface: ‘I acknowledge sinceerely the whole compositions of the parts to belong to the primest Musicians that ever this kingdome had, as Deane John Angus, Blackhall Smith, Peebles, Sharp, Black, Buchan and others famous for their skill in this kind’. Some of these settings can be identified from other sources as wholly the work of Peebles, Buchan and Kemp. In many cases, however, Millar seems to have made ‘composite’ pieces by taking phrases from different settings and fitting them together (sometimes even transposing the parts) to form a more or less pleasing whole. This perhaps helps to explain Millar’s further comment in the preface: ‘collecting all the sets I could find on the Psalmes, after painfull tryall thereof, I selected the best for this work, according to my simple judgement’. In other sections of the book, certain settings of Common Tunes and psalms ‘in reports’, new to the ...

Article

Olive Baldwin and Thelma Wilson

(b London, Feb 11, 1741; d Somers Town, London, Sept 28, 1815). English bass and organist, son of Henry Theodore Reinhold. He was a boy chorister at St Paul’s under William Savage, and as ‘Master Reinhold’ he sang on stage from 1752, creating Oberon in J.C. Smith’s The Fairies in February 1755. He was a bass in the chorus for the Foundling Hospital Messiah in 1758 and that summer scored a success at Marylebone Gardens in an English version of Pergolesi’s La serva padrona, also playing an organ concerto at his benefit. For two years he had small roles at Drury Lane and returned to Marylebone in the summer to sing in burletta operas. He went with the Gardens burletta company to Norwich in autumn 1760, and that November became organist of St Peter's Church, Colchester, advertising himself as a teacher of harpsichord, guitar, violin and singing. He performed in the summer season at the Haymarket Theatre, London, in ...

Article

Walter Emery

revised by Gregory Butler

(b Herzberg, c1676; d Zeitz, March 5, 1762). German musician. After singing in the court Kapelle at Dresden, he studied at the Thomasschule, Leipzig (1695–1700). He was employed as Kantor at Treuenbrietzen from 1707 and as court Kantor at Zeitz from 30 January 1727 until 1758, when he was succeeded by his son Christian Friedrich (1713–61). His only known publication, the Musicalisches Gesangbuch (Leipzig, 1736), dogmatically represents a compromise between Orthodox Lutheran and Pietist hymnbooks. It contains the texts of 954 hymns and includes engraved plates giving melody, figured bass and first verse or text incipit for 69 of these (ed. F. Rempp: J.S. Bach: Neue Ausgabe sämtlicher Werke, III/ii.1 (Kassel and Basle, 1991), 319–41). The volume was printed and published in Leipzig by B.C. Breitkopf but was unsuccessful; by 1760 copies were being sold off at 12 groschen. Three of the melodies have been attributed to Bach: ...