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Article

[Caspar Bartholin Secundus ]

(b Copenhagen, Sept 10, 1655; d ?Copenhagen, June 11, 1738). Danish anatomist, doctor of medicine, and polymath. Scion of a famous family of doctors and natural philosophers, he began medical studies with his father in 1671 and three years later was appointed professor of philosophy by King Christian IV. He then travelled for several years, and working in Paris with the anatomist Joseph Guichard Duverney, he first described ‘Bartholin’s glands’ in a cow. Returning to Copenhagen, he took up medical practice and taught medicine and anatomy. In 1678 his father conferred on him the doctorate in medicine. Among his writings on various scientific subjects, in De tibiis veterum, et earum antiquo usu libri tres (Amsterdam, 1677, 1679) he discussed the wind instruments of antiquity. Like many of his publications this one was based mostly on previous authors’ work rather than first-hand research, but it was influential, for example being cited uncritically by Filippo Bonanni (...

Article

(b Venice, Aug 7, 1673; d Venice, Jan 20, 1731). Italian amateur musician and writer. He published anonymously at Venice in 1730 a detailed catalogue of the operas performed in the city to that time: Le glorie della poesia e della musica contenute nell’estatta notizia de' Teatri della città di Venezia, e nel catalogo purgatissimo dei drammi quivi sin’hora rappresentati, con gl'auttori della poesia e della musica e con le annotazioni ai suoi luoghi propri. Drawing on earlier works by Leone Allacci and Cristoforo Ivanovich, Bonlini provided valuable information about the history of Venetian opera, and particularly about the works of Monteverdi and Cavalli. His work was continued by the Venetian Antonio Groppo, who published in 1745 a Catalogo di tutti drammi per musica recitati ne' teatri di Venezia dall'anno 1637 … fin all'anno presente 1745.

DBI (G. Piscitelli Gonnelli) MGG1 (F. Fano) M.A. Rossi...

Article

Jamie C. Kassler

(b Rothbury, Northumberland, Nov 5, 1715; d Newcastle upon Tyne, Sept 23, 1766). English clergyman, writer and amateur musician. He was educated at Cambridge University and held several positions in the Church of England. His contribution to music historiography is contained in his Dissertation on the Rise, Union, and Power, the Progressions, Separations, and Corruptions, of Poetry and Music (London, 1763; Ger. trans. by J.J. Eschenburg, Leipzig, 1769; It. trans. by Oresbio Agieo, academic name of Francesco Corsetti, Florence, 1772). Proceeding on the assumption that music arose from the passions and principles of the human mind, Brown isolated 36 stages of musical history, from the early unity of gesture, voice and speech and its perfection as dance, melody and song in Greek society to the separation and degeneration of those arts in the 18th century. Thus, like Isaac Vossius (whom he cited with approval), he believed that music reached its perfection among the ancients and declined with the moderns....

Article

Olive Baldwin and Thelma Wilson

(b London, Feb 4, 1723; d London, Aug 4, 1792). English dramatist . ‘Gentleman Johnny’ Burgoyne, the English general forced to surrender to the Americans at Saratoga (1777), was the librettist of William Jackson’s only successful opera, The Lord of the Manor (1780), in the preface to which he advocated English ‘musical comedy’. Garrick’s staging of his first dramatic piece, ...

Article

Albert Cohen

revised by Philippe Vendrix

(b Montpellier, Nov 5, 1688; d Paris, Jan 19, 1757). French mathematician, physicist, journalist and theorist. According to Schier his birthdate was not 11 November as stated in the Journal de Trévoux. He joined the Jesuit order on 16 October 1703 at Toulouse, where he first undertook humanistic studies and later concentrated on mathematics and philosophy. After assuming teaching responsibilities for the order in Toulouse (1707), Clermont (1711), Aubelas (1714), Pamiers (1716) and Cahors (1719), he was sent in 1720 to the Jesuit school in Paris, where he taught physics, mathematics, mechanics, architecture and military science. He held this post for the rest of his life. From the time of his arrival in Paris he contributed articles and criticisms to the Mercure de France and the Journal de Trévoux on a wide variety of subjects, including music, where his criticisms of the theories and works of Rameau are of note....

Article

Craig H. Russell

(c fl 1700–10). Spanish playwright. He was the most important Spanish dramatist of the early 18th century to work in the musical theatre, and may have collaborated on several productions with the composer Santiago de Murcia. It is uncertain whether he was the actor Francisco de Castro who was a member of Isabel Gertrudis’s theatre troupe in Mexico City in 1673. Many of Castro’s works were published in the collection Alegría cómica (Zaragoza, 1702) and in the Libro nuevo de entremeses intitulado ‘Cómico festejo’ (Madrid, 1742).

E.Cotarelo y Mori: Colección de entremeses, loas, bailes, jácaras y mojigangas (Madrid, 1911)C.H. Russell: Santiago de Murcia: Spanish Theorist and Guitarist of the Early Eighteenth Century (diss., U. of North Carolina, 1980), 1, 208–10M. Esses: Dance and Instrumental ‘Diferencias’ in Spain During the 17th and Early 18th Centuries, i: History and Background, Music and Dance (Stuyvesant, NY, 1992)...

Article

Richard Taruskin

[née Sophie Auguste Fredericke von Anhalt-Zerbst]

(b Stettin [now Szczecin], 21 April/May 2, 1729; d Tsarskoye Selo, 6/Nov 17, 1796). Empress of Russia. She acceded in 1762 following a palace coup against her husband Peter III, and became known as ‘Catherine the Great’. Continuing the policy of her predecessors, the empresses Anna (reigned 1730–40) and Elizabeth (1741–61), she maintained a court opera theatre staffed by Italians, personally patronizing Cimarosa, Paisiello, Galuppi and Sarti, as well as her special favourite, the italianized Spaniard Martín y Soler. She also patronized comic opera in the vernacular and encouraged native talent to apply itself to this genre. Among the talents she nurtured was her own very modest one as a dramatist, which she exercised, as she put it to a friend, for the sake of relaxation and distraction from affairs of state. With the assistance of two literary secretaries, Ivan Yelagin and Alexander Khrapovitsky, she wrote three volumes of Russian plays and a fourth in French....

Article

Elisabeth Cook

( b Dijon, Oct 7, 1719; d Paris, Sept 25, 1792). French writer . Educated at the Jesuit college of Dijon, he entered the marine ministry, serving as contrôleur to the West Indies from 1747 to 1759. He retired at an early age, due to ill health and on his return to France he adopted literature as his profession. The themes of his fashionable fairy stories, contes and romances inspired contemporary opera: Dalayrac's Agnès et Olivier (1791) was based on the romance Olivier, which had secured Cazotte's literary reputation, and his masterpiece, the conte Le diable amoureux, served as the model for Paisiello's L'infante de Zamore (1781). His one libretto, to Duni's opéra comique Les sabots (1768), was unsuccessful: Duni sought the assistance of Sedaine, who refashioned the text substantially but retained Cazotte's name on the title-page.

Cazotte also contributed two pamphlets to the Querelle des Bouffons while on leave in Paris in ...

Article

Alison Stonehouse

(b Dijon, Jan 13, 1674; d Paris, June 17, 1762). French dramatist. He studied law at Dijon and by 1703 was living in Paris. He became a member of the Académie Française in 1731 and was appointed theatre censor in 1735. His nine tragedies, based on subjects from classical antiquity, are melodramatic and exploit violence and romantic entanglements; they were highly regarded during his lifetime. Idoménée (1705), his first work, was a source for Campra and Danchet’s Idoménée, which in turn served for Mozart and Varesco’s Idomeneo. His masterpiece, Rhadamiste et Zénobie, was first performed in 1711; there are notable similarities between it and Metastasio’s Zenobia, as also between Crébillon’s Xerces (1714) and Metastasio’s Artaserse. Other plays by Crébillon on which operas were based were Semiramis and Pyrrhus. Crébillon’s son Claude-Prosper (1707–77) was also a playwright; he was theatre censor from 1774 to 1777...

Article

George J. Buelow

(b Juditten, nr Königsberg [now Kaliningrad], Feb 2, 1700; d Leipzig, Dec 12, 1766). German dramatist, poet, literary critic and philosopher. He was a leading figure in the literary reform movement of the German Enlightenment before the mid-18th century. He received his early education from his father, a Protestant minister. On 19 March 1714, before he was 15, he entered Königsberg University to study theology and subsequently philosophy, mathematics and the natural sciences. After earning a master's degree in 1723 he fled his native land under threat of induction into the Prussian army, moving to Leipzig. Two years later he began his university career as a lecturer. In 1727 he headed the local Deutschübenden-poetischen Gesellschaft, which he reorganized as a national society, the Deutsche Gesellschaft. He hoped to model it on the Académie Française and to create a decisive influence for the reform of German as a single national language, but he did not succeed. At this time he founded two weekly journals, ...

Article

Thomas Bauman

(b Vienna, Sept 27, 1735; d Vienna, July 30, 1764). German playwright. He served as a secretary in the Viennese municipal court during his short life, and wrote a series of successful plays that developed a distinctively Viennese brand of written comedy out of local improvisatory traditions. His lone musical text, the three-act Zauberlustspiel ...

Article

Clive T. Probyn

(b Salisbury, July 20, 1709; d Salisbury, Dec 22, 1780). English writer and musical amateur. He was the eldest son of James Harris by his second wife, Lady Elizabeth Ashley Cooper, sister of the 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury. He studied at Oxford and at Lincoln’s Inn, and was MP for Christchurch from 1761, holding various government offices. He wrote on many subjects, including music. He patronized Salisbury musicians and brought London performers to Salisbury through his association with the Salisbury Subscription Concerts (also known as the Society of Lovers of Musick), and from the mid-1740s was consultant and occasional manager of the Annual Musical Festival, for which he directed from the harpsichord and supplied music, some of it of his own composition. His library contained much music, including Italian and Elizabethan works. Handel and Sacchini (his daughter Louisa’s teacher) visited him, and he may also have known Pepusch. His ...

Article

Jamie C. Kassler

(d Glasgow, c1771). ?Scottish writer on the theory of music. From 1765 to 1770 he was associated with the University of Glasgow, for the chapel of which he compiled A Collection of Church-Music (Glasgow, 1766). In the same year he published by subscription the first part of a two-part treatise, the two parts together appearing as An Essay Towards a Rational System of Music (Glasgow, 1770, 2/1807). Although Holden summarised current knowledge about sound, including harmonic theory, sound perception, the co-vibration of partials and difference tones, he derived his principles for the practice of music from the ‘natural’ propensities of the human mind, consciousness and common sense. His Essay is thus the first systematic treatise on music founded upon Scottish commonsense philosophy.

J.C. Kassler: British Writings on Music, 1760–1830, 1 (diss., Columbia U., 1971), 107–89 J.C. Kassler: The Science of Music in Britain 1714–1830...

Article

Dorothea Schröder

(b London, Oct 20, 1684; d London, June 1743). English stage designer and writer. In spite of his training as an architect, Lediard was occupied very early on with diplomatic matters. For several years he served the Duke of Marlborough and around 1720 established himself as secretary to the British embassy in Hamburg. Sir Cyril Wich, then British envoy to the Hanseatic towns, acted as tenant of the Gänsemarkt opera house and soon engaged Lediard to design the scenery for festive prologues, serenades and operas which were sponsored by the resident diplomats and which were performed in honour of their respective royal families. Lediard developed a unique style which relied on conventional 17th-century Italian and German models but which was highlighted by the (sometimes superabundant) use of allegorical devices and emblems as well as ingenious lighting and the employment of transparent scenery. Back in London he presented an allegorical opera, ...

Article

( b 1695; d 1758). French courtier and diarist . His memoirs, like those of his grandfather, the marquis de Dangeau, are among the most illuminating of musical life at the French court. Given that his wife was a lady-in-waiting to the queen, Maria Leczynska, Luynes had unrivalled access to the intimacies of court life. Covering the years 1735–58, his diary records the emergence of Rameau as an operatic composer and a courtier and the passion for music of Louis XV's queen and of his mistress, Mme de Pompadour. The musical tastes of the dauphin, for whom Royer composed, and of the second dauphine, Marie-Josèphe de Saxe, are observed. Luynes detailed the increasing significance of dance music and the divertissement as entertainments, recording the names both of librettists and composers. He also reported details of the chapel music, episodes of the long-running battle between the sous-maîtres de la chapelle and the ...

Article

( b Schwäbisch Hall, Oct 16, 1689; d Schwäbisch Hall, May 22, 1768). German organist and writer on music . He began organ lessons at the age of nine with Baur, organist of St Katharina; after completing the curriculum of the local Gymnasium, he was a municipal clerk in neighbouring towns, returning later to his native city first as district clerk and then as city clerk, also becoming in 1724 Kantor and organist of St Katharina. Majer wrote two musical instruction manuals, Hodegus musicus (Schwäbisch Hall, 1718; lost) and the important Museum musicum theoretico practicum (Schwäbisch Hall, 1732/R, 2/1741; Majer’s annotated copy is in D-Sl ). It is the latter which establishes him among the significant writers on music in the late Baroque. The Museum musicum aims to give students self-instruction in the elementary concepts of musical notation (musica signatoria) and in the techniques of playing most instruments, including the recorder, chalumeau, flute, oboe, bassoon, cornett, flageolet, clarinet, clarino, horn, trombone, various keyboard instruments, lute, harp, timpani, violin and the viols. His explicit fingering and position charts for each of these instruments provides an unusually clear picture of German Baroque instrumental practice. A succinct introduction to the thoroughbass practice is also informative. Very little of Majer’s short work seems to be original. He said the thoroughbass material was taken from an anonymous work of ...

Article

George J. Buelow

(b Hamburg, Sept 28, 1681; d Hamburg, April 17, 1764). German composer, critic, music journalist, lexicographer and theorist.

Mattheson was the third and only surviving son of Johann Mattheson, a Hamburg tax collector, and Margaretha Höling of Rendsburg (Holstein). Details of Mattheson’s life come largely from his autobiography published in the Grundlage einer Ehren-Pforte. His education was exceptionally broad, perhaps because his parents hoped he would gain a position in Hamburg society. At the Johanneum he received a substantial background in the liberal arts, including musical instruction from Kantor Joachim Gerstenbüttel. He also had private instruction in dancing, drawing, arithmetic, riding, fencing, and English, French and Italian. At six he began private music lessons, studying the keyboard and composition for four years with J.N. Hanff (later organist at Schleswig Cathedral), taking singing lessons from a local musician named Woldag and instruction on the gamba, violin, flute, oboe and lute. At nine Mattheson was a child prodigy, performing on the organ and singing in Hamburg churches. His voice was of such quality that Gerhard Schott, manager of the Hamburg opera, invited him to join the company, and he sang in J.W. Franck’s opera ...

Article

(b Heidenheim, Franconia, July 25, 1711; d Warsaw, March 1778). German writer on music, physician and mathematician. He was the son of Johann Georg Mizler, court clerk to the Margrave of Ansbach at Heidenheim, and Barbara Stumpf of St Gallen. Most of his early life is chronicled in his autobiography (see MatthesonGEP). According to this, he first studied in Heidenheim with N. Müller, minister from Obersulzbach. At 13 he entered the Ansbach Gymnasium where for six years his teachers were Rector Oeder and Johann Matthias Gesner, subsequently director of the Leipzig Thomasschule, 1731–4. Gesner’s move to Leipzig may have led Mizler to enter Leipzig University on 30 April 1731, where he studied theology. In Ansbach he had had music lessons with the music director Ehrmann and learnt the violin and the flute. Mizler stated that he had studied composition by reading the best books on the subject, hearing performances by good musicians, looking at the scores of the best masters, and through his association with J.S. Bach, whom he said he had the honour to call ‘his good friend and patron’. The nature and duration of Mizler’s association with Bach remains unknown. At Leipzig his teachers included such distinguished German intellectuals as Gesner, J.C. Gottsched and Christian Wolff. After an illness which required convalescence in Altdorf, Mizler returned to Leipzig to complete a bachelor’s degree in ...

Article

(b Nieuwe Niedorp, North Holland, c1610; d Nieuwe Niedorp, 1682). Dutch amateur scientist. His manuscript notes (dated 1642–4) in a copy of Jacob Vredeman's Isagoge musice (1618; copy now in NL-LE ) suggest that this book played an important part in his music education. It is said that he also benefited from talking to Descartes when the latter was at Egmond, near Alkmaar, around 1645–8. Van Nierop wrote many popular scientific books and booklets in Dutch, disseminating among laymen recent discoveries in, for example, astronomy, physics, mathematics and navigation. His brief music treatise Wis-konstige musyka (‘Mathematical music’; Amsterdam, 1659) is of the same nature. In four sections, it includes the fundamentals of acoustics and musical proportions, instructions on the tuning of the cittern and harpsichord, and something about Greek music theory. Further musical material may be found in his Tweede deel op de wiskonstige rekening...

Article

Alina Nowak-Romanowicz

(b nr Warsaw, 1685; d Toruń, April 15, 1735). Polish theologian and musician of German origin . He was the son of a Protestant pastor, Marcin Olof (1658–1715), who was active mainly in Warsaw and Toruń, and was the compiler of a Polish religious folksong collection, Zbiór kantycznek (‘Collection of Psalm-Books’, Toruń, 1672). Efraim Olof was educated in Toruń and Leipzig and was active as a Protestant preacher in Elblag and Toruń. His work of historical value is Polnische Lieder Geschichte von polnischen Kirchen Gesängen (Danzig [now Gdańsk], 1744), which is in three parts: a list of the names of authors of songs, with information about their lives; a survey of the history of Polish ecclesiastical song; and a list of songs. Among his other works is Pieśni niektóre z niemieckiego na polski język przetłumaczone (‘Some Songs Translated from the German to Polish’, Toruń, 1727...