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Article

[Caspar Bartholin Secundus ]

(b Copenhagen, Sept 10, 1655; d ?Copenhagen, June 11, 1738). Danish anatomist, doctor of medicine, and polymath. Scion of a famous family of doctors and natural philosophers, he began medical studies with his father in 1671 and three years later was appointed professor of philosophy by King Christian IV. He then travelled for several years, and working in Paris with the anatomist Joseph Guichard Duverney, he first described ‘Bartholin’s glands’ in a cow. Returning to Copenhagen, he took up medical practice and taught medicine and anatomy. In 1678 his father conferred on him the doctorate in medicine. Among his writings on various scientific subjects, in De tibiis veterum, et earum antiquo usu libri tres (Amsterdam, 1677, 1679) he discussed the wind instruments of antiquity. Like many of his publications this one was based mostly on previous authors’ work rather than first-hand research, but it was influential, for example being cited uncritically by Filippo Bonanni (...

Article

Jamie C. Kassler

(b Rothbury, Northumberland, Nov 5, 1715; d Newcastle upon Tyne, Sept 23, 1766). English clergyman, writer and amateur musician. He was educated at Cambridge University and held several positions in the Church of England. His contribution to music historiography is contained in his Dissertation on the Rise, Union, and Power, the Progressions, Separations, and Corruptions, of Poetry and Music (London, 1763; Ger. trans. by J.J. Eschenburg, Leipzig, 1769; It. trans. by Oresbio Agieo, academic name of Francesco Corsetti, Florence, 1772). Proceeding on the assumption that music arose from the passions and principles of the human mind, Brown isolated 36 stages of musical history, from the early unity of gesture, voice and speech and its perfection as dance, melody and song in Greek society to the separation and degeneration of those arts in the 18th century. Thus, like Isaac Vossius (whom he cited with approval), he believed that music reached its perfection among the ancients and declined with the moderns....

Article

Albert Cohen

revised by Philippe Vendrix

(b Montpellier, Nov 5, 1688; d Paris, Jan 19, 1757). French mathematician, physicist, journalist and theorist. According to Schier his birthdate was not 11 November as stated in the Journal de Trévoux. He joined the Jesuit order on 16 October 1703 at Toulouse, where he first undertook humanistic studies and later concentrated on mathematics and philosophy. After assuming teaching responsibilities for the order in Toulouse (1707), Clermont (1711), Aubelas (1714), Pamiers (1716) and Cahors (1719), he was sent in 1720 to the Jesuit school in Paris, where he taught physics, mathematics, mechanics, architecture and military science. He held this post for the rest of his life. From the time of his arrival in Paris he contributed articles and criticisms to the Mercure de France and the Journal de Trévoux on a wide variety of subjects, including music, where his criticisms of the theories and works of Rameau are of note....

Article

George J. Buelow

(b Juditten, nr Königsberg [now Kaliningrad], Feb 2, 1700; d Leipzig, Dec 12, 1766). German dramatist, poet, literary critic and philosopher. He was a leading figure in the literary reform movement of the German Enlightenment before the mid-18th century. He received his early education from his father, a Protestant minister. On 19 March 1714, before he was 15, he entered Königsberg University to study theology and subsequently philosophy, mathematics and the natural sciences. After earning a master's degree in 1723 he fled his native land under threat of induction into the Prussian army, moving to Leipzig. Two years later he began his university career as a lecturer. In 1727 he headed the local Deutschübenden-poetischen Gesellschaft, which he reorganized as a national society, the Deutsche Gesellschaft. He hoped to model it on the Académie Française and to create a decisive influence for the reform of German as a single national language, but he did not succeed. At this time he founded two weekly journals, ...

Article

George J. Buelow

(b Hamburg, Sept 28, 1681; d Hamburg, April 17, 1764). German composer, critic, music journalist, lexicographer and theorist.

Mattheson was the third and only surviving son of Johann Mattheson, a Hamburg tax collector, and Margaretha Höling of Rendsburg (Holstein). Details of Mattheson’s life come largely from his autobiography published in the Grundlage einer Ehren-Pforte. His education was exceptionally broad, perhaps because his parents hoped he would gain a position in Hamburg society. At the Johanneum he received a substantial background in the liberal arts, including musical instruction from Kantor Joachim Gerstenbüttel. He also had private instruction in dancing, drawing, arithmetic, riding, fencing, and English, French and Italian. At six he began private music lessons, studying the keyboard and composition for four years with J.N. Hanff (later organist at Schleswig Cathedral), taking singing lessons from a local musician named Woldag and instruction on the gamba, violin, flute, oboe and lute. At nine Mattheson was a child prodigy, performing on the organ and singing in Hamburg churches. His voice was of such quality that Gerhard Schott, manager of the Hamburg opera, invited him to join the company, and he sang in J.W. Franck’s opera ...

Article

(b Heidenheim, Franconia, July 25, 1711; d Warsaw, March 1778). German writer on music, physician and mathematician. He was the son of Johann Georg Mizler, court clerk to the Margrave of Ansbach at Heidenheim, and Barbara Stumpf of St Gallen. Most of his early life is chronicled in his autobiography (see MatthesonGEP). According to this, he first studied in Heidenheim with N. Müller, minister from Obersulzbach. At 13 he entered the Ansbach Gymnasium where for six years his teachers were Rector Oeder and Johann Matthias Gesner, subsequently director of the Leipzig Thomasschule, 1731–4. Gesner’s move to Leipzig may have led Mizler to enter Leipzig University on 30 April 1731, where he studied theology. In Ansbach he had had music lessons with the music director Ehrmann and learnt the violin and the flute. Mizler stated that he had studied composition by reading the best books on the subject, hearing performances by good musicians, looking at the scores of the best masters, and through his association with J.S. Bach, whom he said he had the honour to call ‘his good friend and patron’. The nature and duration of Mizler’s association with Bach remains unknown. At Leipzig his teachers included such distinguished German intellectuals as Gesner, J.C. Gottsched and Christian Wolff. After an illness which required convalescence in Altdorf, Mizler returned to Leipzig to complete a bachelor’s degree in ...

Article

(b Nieuwe Niedorp, North Holland, c1610; d Nieuwe Niedorp, 1682). Dutch amateur scientist. His manuscript notes (dated 1642–4) in a copy of Jacob Vredeman's Isagoge musice (1618; copy now in NL-LE ) suggest that this book played an important part in his music education. It is said that he also benefited from talking to Descartes when the latter was at Egmond, near Alkmaar, around 1645–8. Van Nierop wrote many popular scientific books and booklets in Dutch, disseminating among laymen recent discoveries in, for example, astronomy, physics, mathematics and navigation. His brief music treatise Wis-konstige musyka (‘Mathematical music’; Amsterdam, 1659) is of the same nature. In four sections, it includes the fundamentals of acoustics and musical proportions, instructions on the tuning of the cittern and harpsichord, and something about Greek music theory. Further musical material may be found in his Tweede deel op de wiskonstige rekening...

Article

Alina Nowak-Romanowicz

(b nr Warsaw, 1685; d Toruń, April 15, 1735). Polish theologian and musician of German origin . He was the son of a Protestant pastor, Marcin Olof (1658–1715), who was active mainly in Warsaw and Toruń, and was the compiler of a Polish religious folksong collection, Zbiór kantycznek (‘Collection of Psalm-Books’, Toruń, 1672). Efraim Olof was educated in Toruń and Leipzig and was active as a Protestant preacher in Elblag and Toruń. His work of historical value is Polnische Lieder Geschichte von polnischen Kirchen Gesängen (Danzig [now Gdańsk], 1744), which is in three parts: a list of the names of authors of songs, with information about their lives; a survey of the history of Polish ecclesiastical song; and a list of songs. Among his other works is Pieśni niektóre z niemieckiego na polski język przetłumaczone (‘Some Songs Translated from the German to Polish’, Toruń, 1727...

Article

(b Rio de Janeiro, Feb 4, 1696; d Salvaterra, Portugal, Jan 31, 1759). Portuguese writer on music. Before becoming a calced Carmelite his name was José Pereira de Sá Bacon. He studied at Olinda (Brazil) and at Coimbra, there obtaining the doctorate in theology on 17 May 1725...

Article

George J. Buelow

(b Breslau, 1696; d Breslau, 1759). German theologian. According to Eitner, he studied theology in Leipzig and became a teacher at the Elisabeth-Gymnasium, Breslau, in 1736. He had previously lived in Oels (now Oleśnica), Silesia, where he wrote his most important music treatise, Zufällige Gedancken von der Kirchenmusic (1721). This significant book presents a clear statement on the value of music in the Protestant church service at that time, particularly its role in moving the emotions of the congregation in harmony with the word of God. Scheibel defended the place of music in the church against the attacks of those he called ‘Zwingelianer’. He was one of the first to suggest that women deserved admission to church choirs, and that the ever-growing scarcity of good boy sopranos made the need for women critical. He also supported the parody practice, giving examples showing the substitution of sacred texts for secular ones used in opera arias by G.P. Telemann. He urged that the theatrical style be used to enliven church music, adding: ‘I do not understand why the opera alone should have the privilege to move us to tears, and why this is also not appropriate to the church’. Scheibel's work was warmly praised by Mattheson in ...

Article

Julie Anne Sadie

(b Paris, Jan 16, 1677; d Paris, Nov 26, 1762). French man of letters . He made his way at court as the mâitre d'hôtel to the Duchess of Burgundy. After her death in 1712 he sought the favour of Louis XIV and then Louis XV by drawing up plans for a monument in Paris: an 18-metre ‘Parnasse François’, surmounted by a statue of Apollo and surrounded by statues and medallions of the most distinguished poets and musicians of the Louis XIV era with the names of still others inscribed on scrolls. He devoted much of his time to the promotion of this grand projet, commissioning in 1708 a scale model in bronze sculpted by Louis Garnier, painted and engraved interpretations and medallions together with a series of supporting literature that he wrote himself. The first volume to appear was the Description du Parnasse François (1727), which included seven biographical entries on musicians that he rewrote for the greatly augmented ...